Black Wall Street 1921

By Nia Clark

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Description

A podcast chronicling significant and related events before, during and after "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history." The Tulsa Race Massacre

Episode Date
Episode 12: "Tulsa's Terrible Secret" and the Erasure of Black History
3932

Up until the later part of the 20th century, there were sustained and concerted efforts to suppress the full truth of the Tulsa Race Riot, which is now acknowledged as the Tulsa Race Massacre. In the decades that followed, the attack was treated as taboo by both whites and blacks, by residents of Tulsa and government officials, by survivors of the massacre and their descendants. If it was addressed, often times the facts and circumstances surrounding the massacre were misconstrued and in many cases fabricated. Some descendants of survivors have said it was a matter of protecting future generations from enduring a similar tragedy. Others have said it was considered a black mark of shame for Tulsa and few perpetrators wanted to actually accept responsibility for such an event.  Dr. Scott Ellsworth - professor of Afroamerican and African Studies at the University of Michigan and author of Death in a Promised Land, said quote, “The people who brought it up were threatened with their jobs; they were threatened with their lives.” The suppression of the Tulsa Race Massacre is emblematic of the frequency with which the erasure of black life and anything associated with it took place in the early part of the 20th century.

Guests in this episode include, Texas journalist, writer and author of The Burning: Massacre, Destruction, and the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, Tim Madigan. Shomari Wills, journalist and author of Black Fortunes: The Story of the First Six African Americans Who Escaped Slavery and Became Millionaires. Listeners will also hear an audio recording of one of Tulsa's most legendary musicians, Clarence Love.   


Musical Attribution:



1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994



2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563



3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819



4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon

Jul 01, 2020
Ep. 11: Black Wall Street Reborn
2362

While some African American survivors of the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre left Greenwood for good, surprisingly, many stayed even though most returned home to ashes. However, of the black Tulsans who decided to remain in their community and rebuild, most had virtually none of the advantages that they had when Black Wall Street was first developed. For example, after the Massacre, black Tulsans had very little to zero assets; little to no access to previously advantageous streams of income; their insular economy was ground to a halt because their community was destroyed, preventing them from immediately generating income. The larger economy of Tulsa in general was ground to a halt as well for several days following the massacre. Additionally, many black Tulsans had incurred more debt with fewer and less expeditious ways of paying it off. Many had also lost loved ones in the Massacre, which not only meant the loss of invaluable life but it also meant the loss of another contributor to household responsibilities or income. Finally, many black Tulsans had little to no ability to seek support from nearby relatives or friends as most of their neighbors were also experiencing similar hardships. Nevertheless, not only did black Tulsans reconstruct Black Wall Street, over time the second version became more prosperous than the first. This was a testament to the resilient, tenacious nature of the community. 



In this episode, Multimedia Journalist, Nia Clark, interviews attorney, author and consultant, Hannibal B. Johnson. Listeners will also hear from longtime Tulsa community leader, Jeanne B. Goodwin, who began living in Tulsa in the late 1920's at the beginning of its regeneration. Hannibal B. Johnson, attorney, author and consultant. 



Musical Attributions 

1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 



2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 



3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 



4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon

Jun 17, 2020
Ep. 10 Justice Delayed Is Justice Denied
3221

Despite potentially thousands of potential perpetrators of numerous crimes and potentially hundreds or thousands of witnesses to these crimes, law enforcement officials did not pursue any of them with any real vigor in search of the truth. As a result the victims of the Tulsa Race Massacre never got their justice. 


The life of one of the victims of the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921 is an example of the consequences of these actions - or lack thereof by law enforcement officials in Tulsa and Oklahoma. That man, born John the Baptist Stradford, was born a slave in Kentucky. Stradford was a graduate of Oberlin College and Indiana Law School. The J. B. Stradford family moved to Tulsa, OK, in 1899. J. B. became one of the richest African American's in Tulsa. Stradford became known as one of the pioneers of Tulsa. He owned the Stratford Hotel located at 301 North Greenwood. Following the Tulsa Race Massacre, Stradford was one of the few people charged in connection with the attack. He ultimately fled Tulsa and moved to Chicago where his son was living and working as an attorney. He lost just about everything he had in the Massacre. Although he owned several businesses in Chicago, he never amassed the amount of wealth he had in Tulsa. Additionally, the charge hung over him for the rest of his life. In 1996 Stradford was posthumously cleared of the charge of rioting thanks to years long efforts by his descendants. 


Featured guests in this episode listeners will hear from J.B. Stradford's great-great-granddaughter, Laurel Stradford as well as his great-great grandson, Nate Calloway. Listeners will also hear from Tulsa World Reporter and Author of Tulsa 1921: Reporting a Massacre, Randy Krehbiel. 


Musical Attributions 

1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 


2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 


3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 


4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon  

Jun 05, 2020
Ep. 9: Ashes And The Fight For Greenwood
2276

Over the last nearly 100 years, there has been speculation about whether or not the Tulsa Race Massacre was a planned attempt to launch an attack on Tulsa's Greenwood district. While there is no direct evidence of this, experts point to why this claim may or may not have any validity.

Additionally, following the Tulsa Race Massacre there were concerted efforts to push African American property owners off of the land that they owned, on which mostly ashes sat. On June 2, 1921 - a day after the attack on Greenwood ended, representatives from the local Real Estate Exchange in Tulsa (which later became today's Realtors' Association, made a proposal to the Public Welfare Board: relocate Greenwood's black residents and turned parts of the burned district of what some referred to as "Little Africa" into a "wholesale industrial site." On Tuesday June 7th, the Tulsa City Commission took steps to guarantee that Greenwood would not be rebuilt. At the directive of the Real Estate Exchange, the body voted 4-0 to extend the city's fire code to all of the burned district south of the Sunset Hill brick plant and Haskell Street, making it nearly rebuilding "The Negro Wall Street" impossibly expensive for blacks in Tulsa.  These efforts ultimately failed due - in part - to a group of African American attorney B.C. Franklin who went to the Oklahoma Supreme Court to argue against a law that would allow African Americans in Greenwood to be stripped of their land.

In this episode listeners will hear from Tulsa Race Massacre survivor Olivia J. Hooker, Reuben Gant, Executive Director of the John Hope Franklin Center for Reconciliation and Attorney and Hannibal B. Johnson, consultant and author of a number of books, including Black Wall Street.

Featured guest: Randy Krehbiel - Tulsa World Reporter and author of several books, including Tulsa 1921: Reporting A Massacre.

Musical Attribution: 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994

2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563

3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives

4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon


--- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app
May 27, 2020
Ep. 8: When the Smoke Cleared
3090

When the mayhem ceased, and the smoke cleared, Black Wall Street laid almost completely flattened. In less than 24 hours, according to a Red Cross estimate, more than 1,200 houses were burned; 215 others were looted but not torched. Two newspapers, a library, a school, stores, hotels, churches and many other black-owned businesses were among the buildings damaged or destroyed by fire. Historians now believe an estimated 300 people were killed, according to the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum - although the official number of fatalities is much lower. The vast majority of the city’s black residents were left homeless. In the days, weeks and months to come, Tulsa's African American population would endure more suffering and heartache in their attempts to recover and rebuild their lives.

In this episode listeners will hear an account of the Massacre and life after the Massacre from That was Tulsa Race Massacre survivor, Dr. Olivia J. Hooker. after surviving the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921, Hooker, went on to become the first black woman to enlist in the Coast Guard before becoming a distinguished psychologist and later a psychology professor at Fordham University.


Listeners will also hear part of the 2018 award winning documentary called Maurice Willows: Unsung Hero of the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot, which was created by Seaman High School student Natalie Ford with the assistance of teachers, Susan Sittenauer and Nate McAlister.  The documentary explores the story of Maurice Willows, Red Cross Director of Relief at the time of the Tulsa Race Massacre who worked tirelessly for months to provide aid to the victims of the attack. The film is part of the Lowell Milken Center for Unsung Heroes.


Featured guests in this episode include:

-Randy Krehbiel, Tulsa World Reporter and Author of Tulsa 1921: Reporting a Massacre, who gives a detailed account of the aftermath of the Tulsa Race Massacre.

Musical Attribution:
1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode
Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994


2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 

3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 

4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon

--- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app
May 06, 2020
Ep. 7: BONUS EPISODE: A Black Wall Street Legend - Peg Leg Taylor and the Legacy of Trauma
3314

According to A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, “Not all black Tulsans, however, countenanced surrender. In the final burst of fighting off of Standpipe Hill that morning, a deadly firefight erupted at the site of an old clay pit, where several African American defenders were said to have gone to their deaths fighting off the white invaders. Stories also have been passed down over the years regarding the exploits of Peg Leg Taylor, a legendary black defender who is said to have single-handedly fought off more than a dozen white rioters.” It goes on to say that rioters who were posted along the northern face of Sunset Hill are said to have found themselves under attack, at least for some time. Despite the efforts of some such as Taylor, Tulsa’s African American contingent was outgunned and outnumbered. Nevertheless, the story of Peg Leg Taylor has become the stuff of myth and legend. Various accounts about his efforts and what became of him have carried on through the years, including one account that posits that Taylor died defending Standpipe Hill. As it turns out, Peg Leg Taylor did not die in the Tulsa Race Massacre. He escaped and lived about 30 more years or so. He also had a daughter who escaped with him.

In this episode listeners will hear from two sisters, Kim Johnson and Alice Campbell, who live in Seattle, where Peg Leg Taylor’s daughter lived. They say they are direct descendants of Taylor and his daughter, Eloise. One sister has been trying to tell their story for years. Her journey started after receiving a phone call from Dr. Scott Ellsworth, a Tulsa Native, writer historian and University of Michigan Afroamerican and African Studies professor. Listeners will also hear from Ellsworth in this episode. Finally ,the episode also features recordings of the late Bishop Otis G. Clark, who was a Tulsa Race Massacre Survivor and Evangelist and is said to have known Taylor.

--- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app
Apr 22, 2020
Ep. 6: Black Wall Street Burning (Part 2) - A Descendants Story
1873

The episode is Part 2 of a deep dive into the Tulsa Race Massacre, which occurred between May 31st and June 1st of 1921. Hundreds of people are believed to have been killed. Thousands were left homeless. And the Greenwood district of Tulsa, Oklahoma - also known as Black Wall Street - was completely destroyed. Some witnesses and survivors reported seeing and hearing bombs dropped on the community of Greenwood or Black Wall Street. Some experts believe they were turpentine bombs. One of the most prominent people to be killed during the massacre was Dr. A.C. Jackson - a black surgeon who lived in Greenwood. He was called the most able Negro surgeon in America by the Mayo brothers (who founded the world renowned Mayo Clinic), and transcended the color line, servicing both white and “Colored” patients.

The Massacre of Black Wall Street did not just impact those who were victims. It also impacted their families as well as their descendants. Brenda Nails Alford shares her experience of learning about her own family's involvement later in life.

Multimedia Journalist and TV Reporter, Nia Clark, interviews: Dr. Scott Ellsworth, writer, historian and professor in the Department of Afroamerican and African Studies at the University of Michigan; Kim Johnson and Alice Campbell, descendants of Tulsa Race Massacre survivors Horace Greeley Beecher Taylor/ "Peg Leg Taylor" and his daughter Lena Eloise Taylor Butler.  Listeners will also hear an audio recordings of interview of Virginia Waters Poulton, who lived in Tulsa during the Tulsa Race Massacre and describes her parents attempts to save an African American domestic employee who worked for her family.  A special thanks to the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum for allowing the use of their archival audio recording in this episode.

--- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app
Apr 08, 2020
Black Wall Street 1921: Mid Series Recap
311

A recap of everything covered in episodes 1-6.

Between May 31st and June 1st of 1921, what the Oklahoma Historical Society calls quote, "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history," claimed the lives of potentially hundreds of people and left an entire community in Tulsa, Oklahoma completely decimated.  That community, known as Greenwood - an African American district in North Tulsa, suffered a brutal attack by a white mob, which resulted in a horrific scene of chaos, destruction and bloodshed. The area, with a population of about 10,000 at the time, according to the historical society, had been considered one of the most affluent African American communities in the United States for the early part of the 20th century. For that reason it earned the name Black Wall Street. When the mayhem ceased, and the smoke cleared, Black Wall Street laid almost completely flattened. In less than 24 hours, according to a Red Cross estimate, more than 1,200 houses were burned; 215 others were looted but not torched. Two newspapers, a library, a school, stores, hotels, churches and many other black-owned businesses were among the buildings damaged or destroyed by fire. Historians now believe an estimated 300 people were killed during the attack.

Apr 01, 2020
Ep. 6: Black Wall Street Burning
2872

Between May 31st and June 1st of 1921, what the Oklahoma Historical Society calls quote, "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history," claimed the lives of potentially hundreds of people and left an entire community in Tulsa, Oklahoma completely decimated. That community, known as Greenwood - an African American district in North Tulsa, suffered a brutal attack by a white mob, which resulted in a horrific scene of chaos, destruction and bloodshed. The area, with a population of about 10,000 at the time, according to the historical society, had been considered one of the most affluent African American communities in the United States for the early part of the 20th century. For that reason it earned the name Black Wall Street.

Although the attack was decades in the making, allegations of assault coupled with boiling racial tensions and inflammatory newspaper articles are widely believed to be the cataclysmic events that sparked the attack.   In this episode, listeners will hear audio recordings of interviews with two survivors of the Tulsa Race Massacre, including William Danforth Williams as well as Eunice Jackson.

Featured guests in this episode include:

Dr. Scott Ellsworth, writer, historian and professor in the Department of Afroamerican and African Studies at the University of Michigan.  

-Hannibal B. Johnson, attorney, consultant and author of Black Wall Street.

-Dr. Alicia Odewale, associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Tulsa.   A special thanks to the Oklahoma Historical Society and the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum for allowing the use of their archival audio recordings in this episode.

Musical Attribution:

1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 

Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994

2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563

Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563

3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) 

Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819

4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/

Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon

Mar 25, 2020
Ep. 5 Rumors of Lynching "Diamond Dick"
2058
On Monday May 30, 1921 an African American shoe shine boy named Dick Rowland boarded an elevator in the Drexel building in downtown Tulsa, OK and headed for the upper floor restroom as he had done in the past. On the elevator was a young Caucasian elevator operator named Sarah Page.  According to Rowland, who was known around town as "Diamond Dick," the elevator lurched, causing him to fall against Page, who then screamed. A nearby white store clerk store ran to her aid. Fearing for his safety, Rowland Fled. The store clerk  reported the incident as an attempted assault. After word of the alleged assault made its way around town, a mob  formed outside of the jail Rowland was being kept in that in all likely hood would have lynched him if they could. Ultimately Page refused to testify against Rowland and declined to prosecute the case. The damage, however, had already been done. In this episode, listeners will hear excerpts of the documentary, "The Origins of Lynching Culture in the United States." The documentary is produced by the organization, “Facing History and Ourselves.” Their mission is to use the lessons of history to challenge teachers and their students to stand up to bigotry and hate. To learn more visit, www.facinghistory.org. Featured guests in this episode include: -Hannibal B. Johnson, attorney, consultant and author of Black Wall Street. -Randy Krehbiel, Tulsa World Reporter and Author of Tulsa 1921: Reporting a Massacre. Musical Attribution: 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
Mar 19, 2020
Ep. 4 The Red Summer of 1919 (Part 2)
1638
The Red Summer of 1919 refers to the period between the spring and fall of that year (specifically, between April and November), during which time about 25 or so race riots, massacres and instances of mob-inspired violence exploded throughout the country. The most brutal and vicious occurred in Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Elaine Arkansas. Additionally,nearly 100 lynchings of African Americans were recorded in that year. With heightened racial tension across the nation, it was against this backdrop that the Tulsa Race Massacre occurred two years later. Part 2 of this two-part episode will feature parts of the documentary, "Knoxville's Red Summer," to do a deep dive into the Knoxville Race Riots of 1919 as an example of some of factors that precipitated riots and mob violence around the country. The documentary was produced by Black in Appalachia, which works to highlight the history of African Americans in the Appalachian Mountains as well as the visibility and contributions of black communities in the Mountain South. Listeners will hear from Cameron McWhirter, Wall Street Journal Reporter and author of Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America.
Mar 11, 2020
Ep. 5 The Red Summer of 1919 (Part 2)
1638

The Red Summer of 1919 refers to the period between the spring and fall of that year (specifically, between April and November), during which time about 25 or so race riots, massacres and instances of mob-inspired violence exploded throughout the country. The most brutal and vicious occurred in Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Elaine Arkansas. Additionally,nearly 100 lynchings of African Americans were recorded in that year. With heightened racial tension across the nation, it was against this backdrop that the Tulsa Race Massacre occurred two years later.

Part 2 of this two-part episode will feature parts of the documentary, "Knoxville's Red Summer," to do a deep dive into the Knoxville Race Riots of 1919 as an example of some of factors that precipitated riots and mob violence around the country. The documentary was produced by Black in Appalachia, which works to highlight the history of African Americans in the Appalachian Mountains as well as the visibility and contributions of black communities in the Mountain South.

Listeners will hear from Cameron McWhirter, Wall Street Journal Reporter and author of Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America.

Mar 11, 2020
The Red Summer of 1919 (Part 2)
1638

The Red Summer of 1919 refers to the period between the spring and fall of that year (specifically, between April and November), during which time about 25 or so race riots, massacres and instances of mob-inspired violence exploded throughout the country. The most brutal and vicious occurred in Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Elaine Arkansas. Additionally,nearly 100 lynchings of African Americans were recorded in that year. With heightened racial tension across the nation, it was against this backdrop that the Tulsa Race Massacre occurred two years later.

Part 2 of this two-part episode will feature parts of the documentary, "Knoxville's Red Summer," to do a deep dive into the Knoxville Race Riots of 1919 as an example of some of factors that precipitated riots and mob violence around the country. The documentary was produced by Black in Appalachia, which works to highlight the history of African Americans in the Appalachian Mountains as well as the visibility and contributions of black communities in the Mountain South.

Listeners will hear from Cameron McWhirter, Wall Street Journal Reporter and author of Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America.

Mar 11, 2020
Ep. 4: The Red Summer of 1919 (Part 1)
2506

The Red Summer of 1919 refers to the summer and fall of that year between April and November, during which time about 25 or so race riots, massacres and instances of mob-inspired violence exploded throughout the country. The most brutal and vicious occurred in Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Elaine Arkansas. Additionally,nearly 100 lynchings of African Americans were recorded in that year. 

With heightened racial tension across the nation, it was against this backdrop that the Tulsa Race Massacre occurred two years later.  The featured guest for this episode is Cameron McWhirter, Wall Street Journal Reporter and author of Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Listeners will also hear an interview with Juanita Mitchell who is survived the Chicago Race Riots of 1919. She was 107 years old when the interview was conducted by Chicago's Newberry Library.

Mar 04, 2020
Ep. 3: Black Wall Street is Born
2445

Oil and the prospect of opportunity attracted people of various ethnicities, backgrounds, cultures and traditions to Oklahoma from across the country and beyond, One of the most culturally influential elements taking shape in the early 20th century in places across Oklahoma, particularly in dozens of all-black communities and towns, was Jazz. According to the Oklahoma Historical Society’s Encyclopedia on Jazz, “To understand the history of jazz in Oklahoma, one must first consider the settlement patterns of the state, because they reflect its cultural diversity."


At the same time, the Greenwood neighborhood of Tulsa, Oklahoma was a thriving, prosperous, predominantly African American business district. The amount of wealth contained within the community earned it the nickname Black Wall Street.The racial politics of the day meant that African Americans could neither live among whites, and if they did attempt to shop alongside of them, they were often discriminated against. 


While many African Americans at the time worked as servants or in service positions in Tulsa, they developed their own insular society and economy out of necessity. They desired to live in a place where they could enjoy their constitutional rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness while living in a community that allowed them to enjoy the fruits of their labor without facing the constant ugliness of racism or having to fear for their safety and lives. 


Black Tulsans in Greenwood decided to spend their wages in their own community, spawning an insular economy that included mostly black-owned businesses such as grocery stores, barbershops, hair salons, doctors offices, attorneys offices, hotels, transportation companies, newspapers and schools.


Guests of Episode 3 include,  John Hope Franklin Center for Reconciliation Executive Director, Reuben Gant.


Historical artifacts include an audio recording of an interview between Tulsa historian and author, Eddie Faye Gates, and Tulsa Race Massacre survivor, Wilhelmina Guess Howell.



Mar 04, 2020
Ep. 2: Oklahoma: A Promised Land
1681

To understand the rise and eventual fall of Tulsa’s Black Wall Street, it’s important to understand the racial and economic conditions that contributed to it. These dynamics really started to take shape during Oklahoma's oil boom of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which attracted people of various ethnicities and income  levels to the region.  The discovery of oil in Indian Territory and later in what became the state of Oklahoma also spurred business and development in many parts of Oklahoma, including Tulsa. However, the opportunities a person had available to them in what we call the state of Oklahoma today, and how well they did under the changing economic circumstances, depended on a number of circumstances: namely ones race. Guests of Episode 2 include Michelle Place, the Executive Director the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, as well as Eugene Harrod, Adjunct Professor at The College of the Muscogee Nation. Historical artifacts include an audio recording of an interview between Tulsa historian and author, Eddie Faye Gates, and a man named Alfred Barnett, who lived and worked in Tulsa at the time of the oil boom

Feb 19, 2020
Ep. 1: The "Five Civilized Tribes" & The Complicated History of Blacks & Native Americans
2193

The racial tensions that led to the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921 did not begin in 1921. They began decades before the city of Tulsa and the state of Oklahoma were formed. Episode 1 will look back at the various ethnic groups that inhabited Indian Territory and later the state of Oklahoma in the 19th century, how they contributed to the foundation of the state, including Tulsa, and how the racial as well as socio-economic dynamics of the region at the time were related to the Tulsa Race Massacre. Guests include Dr. Bob Blackburn, who is the Executive Director of the Oklahoma Historical Society, as well as Eugene Harrod, who currently works as Adjunct Professor at The College of the Muscogee Nation. Historical artifacts include an audio recording of an interview between Tulsa author and historian, Eddie Faye Gates, and a woman named Thelma DeEtta Perryman Gray, who is a descendant of some of Tulsa's founders. Her great grandfather was Lewis Perryman, who is considered one of the founding fathers of what became known as "Tulsey Town."


Feb 19, 2020
Introduction: Black Wall Street 1921
599

An introduction to the premise of this podcast, which chronicles the history and related events of what has been called "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history."  Historical artifacts include an audio recording of an interview between Tulsa native and historian, Eddie Faye Gates and Tulsa Race Massacre Survivor, William Danforth Williams.

Between May 31st and June 1st of 1921, what the Oklahoma Historical Society calls quote, "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history," claimed the lives of potentially hundreds of people and left an entire community in Tulsa, Oklahoma completely decimated. That community, known as Greenwood - an African American district in North Tulsa, suffered a brutal attack by a white mob, which resulted in a horrific scene of chaos, destruction and bloodshed. The area, with a population of about 10,000 at the time, according to the historical society, had been considered one of the most affluent African American communities in the United States for the early part of the 20th century. For that reason it earned the name Black Wall Street. When the mayhem ceased, and the smoke cleared, Black Wall Street laid almost completely flattened. In less than 24 hours, according to a Red Cross estimate, more than 1,200 houses were burned; 215 others were looted but not torched. Two newspapers, a library, a school, stores, hotels, churches and many other black-owned businesses were among the buildings damaged or destroyed by fire. Historians now believe an estimated 300 people were killed during the attack. 

Musical Attribution

1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco

License, disclaimer and copyrite information.

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode

Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994

 

2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco

License, disclaimer and copywite information:

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563

Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563

 

3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco

License, disclaimer and copyright information:

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0)

Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819

 

4. African Moon by John Bartmann

Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information:

CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0)

Public Domain Dedication

https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/

Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon

Feb 18, 2020
Oklahoma, a Promised Land
27:48

The discovery of oil in Indian Territory and later in what became the state of Oklahoma forever changed the landscape of the region. It also spurred business and development in many parts of Oklahoma, including Tulsa. The opportunities one had and how well one did under the changing economic makeup of Oklahoma depended on a number of historical circumstances, including one's ethnicity. Guests include Tulsa Historical Society and Museum Executive Director, Michelle Place as well as Eugene Harrod, Adjunct Professor at the College of the Muscogee Nation. Historical artifacts include an interview between Tulsa native and historian, Eddie Faye Gates, and a man named Alfred Barnett, who lived and worked in Tulsa at the time of the oil boom.  

To understand the rise and eventual fall of Tulsa’s Black Wall Street, it’s important to understand the racial dynamics that contributed to the massacre in the first place. These dynamics really started to become pronounced when the discovery of oil began to attract various people of different ethnicities to Oklahoma from across the country. But there are other reasons Oklahoma is seen as a land of opportunity during the late 19th century and early 20th century.

Musical Attribution

1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco

License, disclaimer and copyrite information.

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode

Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994

 

2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco

License, disclaimer and copywite information:

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563

Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563

 

3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco

License, disclaimer and copyright information:

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0)

Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819

 

4. African Moon by John Bartmann

Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information:

CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0)

Public Domain Dedication

https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/

Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon

Feb 07, 2020
The "Five Civilized Tribes" And Manifest Destiny
36:04

A look back at the various ethnic groups that inhabited Indian Territory and later the state of Oklahoma, how they contributed to the foundation of the state, including Tulsa, and how the racial as well as socio-economic dynamics of the time related to the Tulsa Race Massacre. Guests include Oklahoma Historical Society Executive Director, Dr. Bob Blackburn as well as Eugene Harrod, Adjunct Professor at the College of the Muscogee Nation. Historical artifacts include an audio recording of an interview between Tulsa native and historian, Eddie Faye Gates and a woman named Thelma DeEtta Perryman Gray, who is a descendant of some of Tulsa's founders. Her great grandfather was Lewis Pettyman, who is considered one of the founding fathers of what became known as "Tulsey Town." 

The racial tensions that led to the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921 did not begin in 1921. They began decades before the city of Tulsa and the state of Oklahoma were formed. T hat history includes the so-called "Indian Removal" of Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River, including what was known then as the "Five Civilized Tribes." That term refers to five Native American nations, which included the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek (Muscogee), and Seminole. A significant number of Native people made this trek along the "Trail of Tears" and eventually settled in what was known as "Indian Territory," part of which resides in areas of present-day Oklahoma, including Tulsa. It is in this territory that forcibly relocated Native Americans were eventually allotted land to cultivate along with their former slaves.

Musical Attribution

1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco

License, disclaimer and copyrite information.

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode

Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994

 

2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco

License, disclaimer and copywite information:

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563

Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563

 

3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco

License, disclaimer and copyright information:

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0)

Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819

 

4. African Moon by John Bartmann

Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information:

CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0)

Public Domain Dedication

https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/

Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon

Feb 07, 2020
Episode 1: Tulsa Race Massacre
36:12

The racial tensions that led to the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921 did not begin in 1921. They began decades before the city of Tulsa and the state of Oklahoma were formed. That history includes the so-called "Indian Removal" of Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River, including what was known then as the "Five Civilized Tribes." That term refers to five Native American nations, which included the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek (Muscogee), and Seminole. A significant number of Native people made this trek along the "Trail of Tears" and eventually settled in what was known as "Indian Territory," part of which resides in areas of present-day Oklahoma, including Tulsa. It is in this territory that forcibly relocated Native Americans were eventually allotted land to cultivate along with their former slaves. Guests include Oklahoma Historical Society Executive Director, Dr. Bob Blackburn as well as Eugene Harrod, Adjunct Professor at the College of the Muscogee Nation.

Feb 04, 2020