The Field Guides

By The Field Guides

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Brodie
 Apr 8, 2019

Description

Nature nerds rejoice! The Field Guides is a monthly podcast that will bring you out on the trail, focusing on the science of our North American wildlife.

Episode Date
Ep. 49 - Whither the Snowy Owl? (Part 2)
00:47:01

This winter (2021) marked the first time a Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) was spotted in New York City’s Central Park in 130 years. Why was it there? Where did it come from? Since 99.9% of the population immediately just thinks of Harry Potter when Snowy Owls are mentioned, the guys wanted to cast the proverbial “Lumos!” and shed some light on the subject.

Join them and guest Daniel Mlodozeniec (photographer and naturalist) as they delve into the Snowy Owl’s ecology in part 1. Then, in part 2, come along as they look into the research behind what drives Snowy Owl irruptions, those irregular migrations that cause Snowies to end up in Central Park and even in places like Bermuda and Hawaii!

This episode was recorded on February 1, 2021 in Buffalo, NY at the Erie Basin Marina (part 1) and Tifft Nature Preserve (part 2).

Feb 21, 2021
Ep. 49 - Whither the Snowy Owl? (Part 1)
01:00:52

This winter (2021) marked the first time a Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) was spotted in New York City’s Central Park in 130 years. Why was it there? Where did it come from? Since 99.9% of the population immediately just thinks of Harry Potter when Snowy Owls are mentioned, the guys wanted to cast the proverbial “Lumos!” and shed some light on the subject.

Join them and guest Daniel Mlodozeniec (photographer and naturalist) as they delve into the Snowy Owl’s ecology in part 1. Then, in part 2, come along as they look into the research behind what drives Snowy Owl irruptions, those irregular migrations that cause Snowies to end up in Central Park and even in places like Bermuda and Hawaii!

This episode was recorded on February 1, 2021 in Buffalo, NY at the Erie Basin Marina (part 1) and Tifft Nature Preserve (part 2).

Feb 11, 2021
Ep. 48 - Eat Sh*t and Live, Bill (Part 2)
00:49:36

Now that Bill’s done droning on about animals, we can finally talk about PLANTS! and CARNIVOROUS plants at that. Steve reviews carnivorous plants in general and then breaks into examples of carnivorous plants that have evolved to eat poop: Roridula spp. in South Africa, Sarracenia purpurea in North America, & Nepenthes spp. in Southeast Asia.

00:00 - Intro
02:00 - Carnivorous plant review
14:20 - Roridula spp. & Pameridea spp.
23:10 - Sarracenia purpurea & its inquilines
26:00 - Gumleaf USA ad
28:35 - Nepenthes lowii, N. macrophylla, N. raja & mountain tree shrews
36:45 - Nepenthes hemsleyana & Hardwicke’s Woolly Bat
40:10 - Nepenthes bicalcarata & diving/swimming ants
45:05 - Concluding remarks
46:20 - Outro

Image credit:
"Nepenthes raja, eine freischfressende Kannenpflanze. Gesehen im Botanischen Garten beim Gunung Kinabalu Headquater, Sabah, Borneo" by anschieber

Useful Links:
True Facts: Carnivorous Plants

Gumleaf Boots, USA (free shipping and 10% off for patrons)

Support us on Patreon!

Work Cited:
Byng, J.W., Smets, E.F., van Vugt, R., Bidault, E., Davidson, C., Kenicer, G., Chase, M.W. and Christenhusz, M.J., 2018. The phylogeny of angiosperms poster: a visual summary of APG IV family relationships and floral diversity. The Global Flora, 1, pp.1-35.

Ellison, A.M. and Adamec, L. eds., 2018. Carnivorous Plants: physiology, ecology, and evolution. Oxford University Press, Ch. 1, 3, 13, 24, 26.

Groover, A.T., 2005. What genes make a tree a tree?. Trends in plant science, 10(5), pp.210-214.

McGhee, G.R., 2011. Convergent evolution: limited forms most beautiful. MIT Press.

Nov 15, 2020
Ep. 48 - Eat Sh*t and Live, Bill (Part 1)
00:45:52

With the high-end guests we’ve recently had on, we’re concerned that the podcast is getting a bit too classy. So, this month, we’re getting down and dirty, delving into the delightful topic of defecation. Specifically, animals that eat poop. We know, it seems gross. We thought so, too. But once we started exploring this surprisingly common behavior (called coprophagy), we were amazed at what we uncovered!

Links

Fecal sac video

More info about World War 2, the Germans, and Camel Poop

Check out The Stuff You Should Know episode about fecal transplants

Find out more about Michel Lotito, the man who could eat anything

More on Dung Beetles:

American Kennel Club article about dogs eating poop

Two excellent (and damn funny) videos from True Facts:

Dung beetles

Tree Shrews

Sponsorship of this episode provided by Gumleaf Boots, USA

Support The Field Guides through Patreon!

As always, check out Always Wandering Art (Website and Etsy Shop), who usually provides the artwork for our episodes!

Nov 15, 2020
Ep. 47 - Field Trip!: Exploring the Roger Tory Peterson Institute (Part 2)
01:02:42
Welcome to part 2 of our field trip to the Roger Tory Peterson Institute. In this segment, Bill and Steve take a hike with Twan Leenders, Senior Director of Science & Conservation at the Institute. Twan has had a career in conservation that deserves to be made into a movie. From researching wildlife in the treetops of Central American rainforests to corralling ornery spiny softshell turtles in post-industrial rivers, Twan’s stories, as well as his personal philosophy on science communication, make for a fascinating listen. Enjoy!
Sep 30, 2020
Ep. 47 - Field Trip!: Exploring the Roger Tory Peterson Institute (Part 1)
00:42:51

Visit the Roger Tory Peterson Institute’s website to find out more about the site, events/exhibitions, and the good work they are doing.

Steve and Arthur discussed the hellbender head-start program, and the question came up about whether it was connected with the Buffalo Zoo. Here’s what we found:

“The “hellbender head-start program” is a collaboration between the Bronx Zoo, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, and the Buffalo Zoo. The snot otters were hatched at the Buffalo Zoo in October 2009 and raised at the Bronx Zoo’s Amphibian Propagation Center.” You can find more info here.

Arthur mentioned the recent renaming of a bird. He was referring to the McCown’s Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii). It’s common name was recently changed to the Thick-billed Longspur.

Sep 30, 2020
Ep. 46 - The Piping Plovers of Sandy Island Beach
00:49:04

Links:
Sandy Beach Island State Park (Pulaski, New York)
Piping Plover running (video)
Piping Plover chick running (video)
Piping Plover chick hiding under their mom (video)
Rockaway Beach (Queens, New York)
An article about Claire and her team (Article)
New York State Parks Blog about the Piping Plovers (Article)
Report Banded Piping Plovers (or email plover@umn.edu)
Great Lakes Piping Plovers of New York (Facebook page)

Notes:
Coordinators on the project include US Fish and Wildlife, SUNY ESF, Onondaga Audubon, and the staff at NYS Parks

The project and Claire’s position are funded annually by the USFWS Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) grant funding from the Federal Government, DOI, with Regional efforts led by Robyn Niver.

Errata:
Claire mentioned that the Piping Plover weighs the same as a stick of butter. She informed us that she misspoke and meant to say that they weigh about the same as a half of a stick of butter. They’re also about the height of a stick of butter stood up on its end.

Picture credit:

"Piping Plovers" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Midwest Region

Works Cited:

Robinson, S., Fraser, J., Catlin, D., Karpanty, S., Altman, J., Boettcher, R., Holcomb, K., Huber, C., Hunt, K. and Wilke, A., 2019. Irruptions: evidence for breeding season habitat limitation in Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus).

Sep 02, 2020
Ep. 45 - In Search of A Nice Set of Pipes
01:10:14

During the editing process for this episode, Bill shared some posts about this species via social media. Several listeners commented that, in an effort to acknowledge problematic botanical names, many sources now refer to this plant as Ghost Pipe. So, although it was too late to re-record the episode, Bill altered these notes to reflect the name change.

Several times in the episode, Steve and Bill wondered if a stand of Monotropa uniflora was composed of separate plants growing closely together or if it was a single plant with multiple stalks rising from a common rootstalk. In doing follow-up research, Bill could not find a conclusive statement, but in going through pictures of herbarium specimens, drawings of harvested plants, and numerous descriptions, every instance showed each Ghost Pipe stalk having its own, single bundle of roots at its base. So, for now, Bill is going out on the proverbial limb and saying that each stalk is an individual plant.

The guys questioned whether Beechdrops (Epifagus virginiana) was in the Ericaceae family, along with Ghost Pipe, and Steve went on to say that he thought it might be in the Broomrape family – Orobanchaceae. He was correct!

Bill mentioned that Steve is now a published researcher. He was one of the authors on a paper looking into how plants evolve certain chemicals. Check out an article about the paper here, and here’s a link to the paper, itself.

Bill mentioned that, although Monotropa uniflora seems extraordinary because it lacks chlorophyll, “there are some 3000 species of non-photosynthetic vascular plants in the plant kingdom (about 1/2% of all vascular plants). Steve wondered aloud if this number was greater than all the gymnosperms out there (non-flowering plants, like pines). Steve was correct again! There are roughly 1000 extant species of gymnosperms.

Steve questioned what you call an animal that feeds on sap. According to Wikipedia, it’s a gummivore. Gummivores are a hybrid class of omnivores that defines a group of animals whose diet consists primarily of the gums and saps of trees (about 90%) and bugs for protein.

Steve mentioned that there are trees in the Gentian family, and then he went on to joke about whether or not there are any woody orchids. Well, Bill checked. There aren’t any.

Jul 26, 2020
Ep. 44 - Bryozoans & The Western New York Land Conservancy @ The College Lodge
01:12:11
This episode is all about those gross jelly blobs that you might see in marinas (AKA Bryozoans!). Bill and Steve are joined by Jajean Rose-Burney, Deputy Executive Director of the Western New York Land Conservancy. Jajean guides Bill and Steve around The College Lodge Forest in Chautauqua County, NY, a wildlife-rich property that the Land Conservancy is seeking to preserve.
Jul 05, 2020
Bonus 09 - Finding a Job in the Wild - An Interview with Matt Gaffney
00:46:58

Have you ever dreamed of ditching your day job and pursuing a career in the woods? Maybe working with wolves in the desert southwest or conducting plant surveys in the wilds of Alaska? Well, Matt Gaffney did it! Leaving behind a job in digital marketing, he went back to school to get his degree in environmental studies and went on to work a series of seasonal positions with the National Forest Service. Bill caught up with him in August of 2019 in the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia. Join them on a hike on Spruce Knob (the highest point in WV) as Matt shares his adventures and advice on pursuing a career in the wild!

Jun 02, 2020
Ep. 43 - The Coyest Dog Around (Part 2) - The Coywolf?
00:57:37

This month, Steve and Bill present part 2 of their episode on coyotes, focusing on the questions, “How big of a threat to livestock are coyotes?” and, “Is the coyote in the east a new species?”

May 15, 2020
Ep. 43 - The Coyest Dog Around (Part 1)
01:11:15

Awooooo! This month, Bill and Steve talk all about coyotes.

Apr 12, 2020
Ep. 42 - It's Worth the Wait: Reproductive Delays and the 'Merican Black Bear
01:11:01

During this episode, Bill breaks down the topic of reproductive delays, with a special focus on the American black bear (Ursus americanus). Come join the guys as they “peek inside the den”, and uncover this seldom-discussed aspect of the sex lives of some of our fascinating (and randy) mammals.

Feb 01, 2020
Ep. 41 - The Autumn Episode (Pumpkin Spice-flavored)
00:59:33

…And we’re back! After a lengthy hiatus, Bill and Steve return with an episode focused on the fall. Specifically, they look into why fall is the neglected season when it comes to climate change research. Is it a conspiracy? Is it a plot by the ‘deep state’ to play favorites with the seasons? Probably not, but the guys have some fun uncovering the possible reasons why the natural events that occur in the fall are more difficult for researchers to pin down and quantify.

Nov 24, 2019
Ep. 40 - Put a Ring On It (Part 2) - How Safe is Bird Banding?
00:41:43

Welcome to part 2 of our episode on bird banding! In this part, we look at what the research has to say about how birds fare during and after the banding process. All research that involves capturing and handling wildlife poses some level of risk for the target species. So, what about bird banding? Are injures rare? Do injured birds fare worse than birds that are banded without injury?

Join Steve and Bill for a deep dive into a question that many bird banders have wondered about over the years: how safe is bird banding?

Jul 31, 2019
Ep. 40 - Put a Ring On It (Part 1) - All About Bird Banding
00:54:30

A bird alights on a nearby branch, and, for a brief moment, a flash of silver on the bird’s leg catches your eye. If you’re fortunate enough to get a closer look, you might notice that the reflection comes from a tiny, silver bracelet wrapped around the bird’s leg – a bird band.

Bird banding (or bird ringing, for our European listeners) has been used for over a century to better understand the life histories of our avian neighbors. But that’s just one of many reasons why bird banding has been so valuable to researchers. In this episode, Bill and Steve delve into the details of what banding is all about. Part one covers the history and basics of how bird banding works, and part two provides an overview of research that looks into how harmful bird banding might be to the birds involved.

This episode was recorded on July 14, 2019 at the Reinstein Woods Nature Preserve in Cheektowaga, New York. Reinstein Woods is operated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

Jul 31, 2019
Ep. 39 - The Alliterative Purple Pitcher Plant (Carnivorous Series #1)
01:12:11

Carnivorous plants are the renegades of the plant world. About 800 known species have gone from primary producers to immobile predators. In this episode, Steve goes on and on and on about everything you want to know about carnivorous plants (and a few things you don’t want to know). You’ll learn what it means to be a carnivorous plant, what it means to be a pitcher plant, and a few interesting things about the Purple Pitcher Plant, Sarracenia purpurea. Enjoy!

Jul 01, 2019
Ep. 38 - Ants in Our Plants
00:53:29

Have you ever heard of myrmecochory? It may not pop up much in casual conversation, but this strange word is your doorway to a tiny, fascinating world of ant-plant interactions. Myrmecochory is seed dispersal by ants (don’t worry, we cover how to pronounce it in the episode), and while it may seem simple on the surface, it’s a beautifully complex spectrum of behaviors and benefits, , including some questionable ones.

Myrmecochory has long been considered a classic example of mutualism, in which two species benefit from a shared interaction, but recent research has called this idea into question. Are the ants really benefiting? Is it possible that plants are parasitizing the ants? Are the ants inadvertently ‘cleaning’ the seeds, inoculating them against harmful soil microbes? There is so much more to myrmecochory than Bill and Steve ever imagined! Join the guys as they hit the trail, exploring the seldom-seen world of ants and plants.

This episode was recorded at Nature View Park in Amherst, NY on April 24, 2019. Nature View is owned by the Western New York Land Conservancy.

May 15, 2019
Ep. 37 - Bill and Steve Go Timberdoodlin'
00:57:59

In spring, a naturalist’s fancy turns to thoughts of Timberdoodlin’, and that means heading out into the spring twilight, finding a brushy meadow, and listening for the buzzy “Peent!” of the American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) . AKA the Timberdoodle, this odd bird (it’s a shorebird that doesn’t live near the shore) performs a strange and stunning sky dance that is a must-see for any wildlife lover.

Join the guys as they focus on the fascinating natural history of this bird and head out on a cold March evening to see if they can witness the Woodcock in action.

Apr 04, 2019
Ep. 36 - Spring Science Geek Out!
00:41:10

Spring is here, and the guys hit the trail to discuss spring-related science, including how climate change is impacting global plant growth and how it’s changing bird migration. Plus, Bill gives a (sort of) rebuttal to Steve’s unprovoked and vicious attack on Charles Darwin from last episode. Happy Spring!

Mar 29, 2019
Ep. 35 - The Receding Hare Line (and More Snow-related Science)
00:49:40

It’s Snow-and-Tell time! We’re deep into winter right now, and spring seems snow far away. So, we decided to embrace the season and look into recent research around a topic that would be sure to provide plenty of puns for this write-up: SNOW! We delve into recent studies about how much snow actually falls on North America, if the indigenous peoples of the north really have 100 words for snow, how climate change is affecting snowfall levels, and how those changes impact Snowshoe Hare populations (Lepus americanus) . Plus, in honor of Darwin Day, Steve insults the father of natural selection. All this, plus, we follow up on last episode’s cliffhanger, filling you in on the results of Bill’s Lyme disease test. Enjoy!

Feb 19, 2019
Ep. 34 - The Downy-Hairy Game
01:05:20

Did you ever wonder why Downy and Hairy Woodpeckers look so much alike? No? Neither did we, but it was because we always assumed they were just closely related species. Maybe you did, too, but thanks to the wonders of DNA analysis, we now know that these two look-alikes are not even in the same genus. So, what gives?

Researchers recently looked into this stumper-of-a-problem, and, in this episode, Bill and Steve break down what might be the cause.

Oh, and Bill talks about how he might have Lyme disease.

Enjoy!

Jan 20, 2019
Ep. 33 - Hart's-Tongue Fern - Restoring an Endangered Species
01:05:06

“Richer than millionaires! Happier than Kings! Envied by multitudes! May be said of hobnobbers with Hart’s-tongues.”

So said one enthusiast of the Hart’s-tongue fern (Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum) long ago, and we think you’ll agree. This species is exceptional in many ways; its appearance (it doesn’t look like your typical fern), its uncommon habitat, and it’s rarity all add to the Hart’s-tongue fern’s mystique.

This month, the guys hit the road, traveling to central NY and hitting the trail with Mike Serviss, a conservation biologist working with New York State Parks. Among his many duties, Mike is researching the most successful ways to restore this picky plant to its habitat, and he’s also a fantastic science communicator.

Join us as Mike helps us peel back the mystery of what’s involved in restoring an endangered species.

Enjoy!

Dec 01, 2018
Ep. 32 - The Devil Crayfish (Feat. Dr. Wayne Gall)
01:02:42

Have you ever heard of a burrowing crayfish? We hadn’t, until our much-smarter-than-us friend, Dr. Wayne Gall, shared the story of how he discovered one particular species living in western NY 30 years ago - Cambarus diogenes - the Devil Crayfish.

Wayne invited us to join him on a hunt for this species, to see if it was still present at Tifft Nature Preserve, three decades later.

Now, we invite you to come along with us, braving deep mud, crayfish pincers, and audio challenges (Tifft is lousy with the sound of trains, barges, and jets overhead). Along the way, Wayne proves himself a consummate storyteller, spinning the yarn of amazing coincidences that led to his connection with this species and publishing research about its presence in New York. We also give some visitors to the preserve a good scare.

A big thank you to Wayne for his time, expertise, and persistence. This episode may be shorter than usual, but we want you to know that Wayne spent hours with us at Tifft, his arms buried in the mud up to his shoulder, searching for our target species.

This episode was recorded at Tifft Nature Preserve in Buffalo, NT on August 30, 2018.

Nov 04, 2018
Bonus 08 - The Field Guides Live! (at the Allegany Nature Pilgrimage)
00:51:52

Imagine a gathering of nature-lovers where, for three days, you could attend hikes, talks, and other programs on dozens of natural history topics. Such a gathering takes place each year in Allegany State Park in southwestern NY. For over sixty years, The Allegany Nature Pilgrimage has taken place the weekend after Memorial Day, bringing like-minded individuals from across the country to share their knowledge of and passion for all things nature-related. The guys were invited to lead a hike at this year's Pilgrimage, and, in this special bonus episode, you can listen in on what it sounds like when a big group of people join Steve and Bill for a hike in the woods.

Sep 10, 2018
Ep. 31 - Magic Cicadas
00:58:08

Nearly every year, somewhere in the eastern US, a brood of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) emerges for the first time in 13 or 17 years. Each brood contains millions of individuals and it's probably one of the most spectacular displays that you would be lucky enough to experience. Before the episode, Steve and Bill traveled to Syracuse to see the tail end of Brood VII at a property owned by the Griffin Hill Farm Brewery. They recount that experience, explore the biology of cicadas, discuss why periodical cicadas live underground for so many years, and talk about the history and current status of brood VII. Enjoy!

Aug 08, 2018
Bonus 07 - Wild Ideas...The Podcast (Feat. Gordon Maupin)
01:08:30

During this bonus episode, Bill interviews Gordon Maupin, former director of the Wilderness Center in northeastern Ohio and, along with Joann Ballbach and Gary Popotnik, the former host of "Wild Ideas...The Podcast".

"Wild Ideas" was (and is) an excellent resource for information on natural history and it was a strong influence on our decision to start our own podcast after it ended in November 2014- less than a year before we released the first episode of The Field Guides.

Enjoy the episode and "...as always, all you moms and dads, make sure your children get outside. Always great to let them go out there and roll over a log, turn over a rock. Make sure they get wet, muddy, and dirty, Just make sure they get outside and play."

Jul 25, 2018
Ep. 30 - Have You Seen the Light?: Foxfire and Bioluminescent Fungi
00:56:22

Have you seen the light? This month, the guys take their first foray into the world of fungi, specifically bioluminescent fungi! Although fireflies and other glowing critters have been well researched, fungi that glow are not nearly as well understood. Often referred to as "foxfire" or "fairy fire", their glow was first documented way back in ancient times, but researchers are still figuring out what it's all about. Join Bill and Steve as they shed some light on the latest research into these fascinating fungi.

This episode was recorded in the Eternal Flame Falls section of Chestnut Ridge Park in Orchard Park, NY on July 4th, 2018.

Jul 14, 2018
Ep. 29 - Jack-in-the-Pulpit, AKA George-Michael-in-the-Banana-Stand
01:13:02

This is the story of two guys who enter the woods looking for Arisaema triphyllum, the graceful woodland wildflower known to many as Jack-in-the-pulpit. Not only is it beautiful to behold, but this member of the Arum family has a fascinating natural history; it can switch its sex, fool midge flies, and cause botanists to have heated debates about subspecies. During the episode, Steve makes a contribution to botanical history by coming up with the best alternative common name Bill has ever heard (see title), and we wrap things up with Bill eating some of this toxic plant. Listen to the end to see if Bill dies. Enjoy! 

Jun 09, 2018
Ep. 28 - Spring Ephemerals: The Spotted Salamander
01:01:00

The great salamander migration has begun! ...and ended... Every spring there is a small window of time when adult spotted salamanders emerge from their subterranean homes and mate in nearby seasonal wetlands. Bill, Steve, Rich, and Donna venture out to find these elusive critters.

May 07, 2018
Ep. 27 - Spring Ephemerals: Skunk Cabbage
01:10:19

It's not a skunk... and it's not a cabbage... This month, Steve and Bill discuss Skunk Cabbage. The guys go over the spathe, spadix, contractile roots, and thermogenesis, among other things. We also pose maybe too many questions to our audience:

1. Is Skunk Cabbage a clonal species?
2. Can Skunk Cabbage have multiple inflorescences? 
3. Do warblers nest in Skunk Cabbage spathes? 
4. Does Skunk Cabbage heat up to to promote cross pollination? 

Enjoy (and help us answer these questions)!

Apr 06, 2018
Bonus 06 - Spring Ephemerals: Coltsfoot
00:49:31

Today we begin the first of many future episodes about spring ephemeral wildflowers. During this episode, Steve and Bill talk about Coltsfoot's adaptations, life cycle, use as a cooking spice, and toxicity. Unfortunately, the guys never figure out what the species name, farfara, means... if you know, share the love. Enjoy!

Mar 17, 2018
Ep. 26 - Don't Hassle Me, I'm Local: Ecological Restoration and Local Ecotypes
00:58:25

Can one specimen of a native plant be more "native" than another?  Plant populations that have adapted to local environmental conditions are called "local ecotypes". They can be genetically different from populations of the same plant growing under different conditions, and for those ecologists who are working to restore damaged ecosystems, whether or not they should use local ecotypes is an important question to consider.

Mar 13, 2018
Ep. 25 - The Eastern Screech-owl
01:10:53

Steve and Bill start off 2018 with an episode about Eastern Screech-owls. The guys talk about the Eastern Screech-owl's dichromatism, adaptations for hunting at night, and even call one in during the podcast. Make sure to wear headphones for this one- the birds calling in the distance aren't always easy to hear. Steve also gets really nervous about being killed by a bobcat for some reason... Enjoy!

Feb 02, 2018
Ep. 24 - The Flying* Squirrel
00:54:57

*it doesn't actually fly.

Steve and Bill wrap up 2017 with an episode about Flying Squirrels. They talk about their adaptations for gliding, evolutionary history, and baculum morphology. They also talk about the new species that was discovered earlier this year. Enjoy!

Jan 01, 2018
Bonus 05 - The Urban Cooper's Hawk Podcast
00:42:21

We hope you're ready to learn all about Cooper's Hawks in cities. Steve leads the discussion on cooper's hawk biology, hunting strategies, and nest predation habits. Also, keep your cats indoors.

We teamed up with The Urban Wildlife Podcast for this episode's topic, so make sure that you go check them out. We also announce an artsy relationship with Always Wondering Art, as well as a tasty relationship with Boxerbar Energy Bars. You should go show them all some support. We hope you enjoy the episode!

Dec 16, 2017
Ep. 23 - The HWA (Hemlock Woolly Adelgid)
1:01:49

This episode is all about the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (HWA)! Steve and Bill explain this insect's history, biology, and it's negative effects on Eastern and Carolina Hemlock. The guys dive into what damage has already been done, what damage is still projected to happen, and what we're currently doing to stop the spread of this destructive asian hemipteran! We hope you enjoy!

Dec 01, 2017
Bonus 04 - The Eastern Hemlock
00:39:36
Eastern Hemlocks are a staple of northeastern US forests. During this bonus episode, Steve and Bill make some tea and dive into what makes this tree so special. Historically, Hemlock has experienced 3 major declines, with the most recent happening right now. The culprit is an introduced hemipteran from Asia. Later this month, the guys will release a regular episode on that insect. But for now, enjoy this primer for episode 23!
Nov 15, 2017
Ep. 22 - Acorns and Corvids are MFEO (Made For Each Other)
00:54:36
This episode is nuts! Like peanut butter and jelly, Blue Jays and oak trees go together - they have a fascinating relationship that plays out in our forests every fall. Jays (and many of their corvid relatives) collect boatloads of acorns and engage in a caching behavior called scatter hoarding. The extent to which oaks have evolved to rely on this behavior is startling, and in this episode, Bill and Steve (he's back!) pull back the curtain on the fascinating world of acorns and corvids, revealing why these two groups are MFEO (Made For Each Other).
Nov 06, 2017
Bonus 03 - Ticks & Tick-borne Diseases (feat. Dr. Wayne Gall)
01:05:35
What's better than a regular episode about ticks? That's right, a bonus episode featuring someone who actually spent their career as an entomologist specifically studying ticks. Enter entomologist, Dr. Wayne Gall. The first half of this episode follows Steve and Wayne sampling for ticks at Stiglmeier Park in Cheektowaga, NY. The second half takes place at the Julia Boyer Reinstein Library where Wayne dives into more detail about his work in Western New York. This episode was recorded in spring 2017, but we're releasing it during mid-October. Believe it or not, Autumn is still an important time to think about ticks and Wayne would often hold off sampling for ticks until early to mid October. We hope you enjoy this special bonus episode!
Oct 16, 2017
Ep. 21 - A Pain in the Grass: Restoring Grassland Bird Habitat
01:01:50
Grasslands birds and the habitats they depend on are some of the most threatened components of our North American landscape. But take heart! Because people like this month's guest co-host, Kyle Webster, are working to restore and maintain grasslands for the birds (and other organisms) that require them. As a member of New York State Parks's environmental field team, Kyle works to use the latest research to understand and improve the management of these critical habitats. Join Bill and Kyle (Steve's still in Illinois) as they discuss birds, burns, and conservation biology.
Sep 30, 2017
Ep. 20 - Get the Buck Out!
00:47:54
So, how do you feel about deer? Over the past 100 years, populations of the White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have gone from scarce to ubiquitous. There’s a significant body of research pointing to the detrimental impacts of deer overbrowsing on our forests. Here at The Field Guides, we don’t like to exclude anyone, but we are interested in learning about deer exclosures – structures designed to keep these plentiful herbivores out of an area. Usually they are placed to allow for forest regeneration or to study the effects of deer exclusion; often, it’s done for both reasons. So what does the research show? Does excluding deer lead to healthier forests? This episode will shed some light on the answer. Listen to this rare, Steve-less episode as Bill is joined by Kristen Rosenburg, an environmental educator with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. They discuss deer exclosures, check some out at Kristen’s work site, and talk about what happens when researchers “Build That Wall!”. Special thanks to Kristen for sharing her time and expertise with us, as well as to the NYS DEC for allowing us to steal Kristen away for a morning.
Aug 30, 2017
Ep. 19 - Ticks Suck The Big One
01:03:43
This episode is all about ticks! Bill and Steve describe the difference between Ixodidae (hard ticks), Argasidae (soft ticks), and Nuttalliellidae (a single extant African species with ancestral tick traits). They also discuss the right way to remove a tick, Lyme disease, and how ticks may be partly responsible for humans being “naked apes.” We hope you enjoy!
Jul 08, 2017
Ep. 18 - Sap! Nature's Junk Food
00:57:32
During this episode, Steve talks about EVERY SINGLE extant non-human animal that drinks xylem or phloem sap. Join the guys as they explore the paradox of phloem sap, the barriers to eating it, how squirrels tap maple trees, hemipterans (true bugs), yellow-bellied sapsuckers, and much, much more. This episode stands alone, but we highly recommend listening to episode 17, "The Sappiest Podcast Ever..." either before or after this one. Either way, we hope you enjoy the episode!
May 21, 2017
Ep. 17 - The Sappiest Podcast Ever...
00:56:08
During this episode, Bill and Steve talk about nature's junk food - sap! Join the guys as they cover how sap moves through Maple trees, as well as how climate change will affect Maples and the sap collecting season. They also interview two volunteers at the Beaver Meadow Audubon Center about turning Maple sap into syrup, cream, and sugar. Enjoy the episode!
Apr 04, 2017
Bonus 02 - Bark! (feat. In Defense of Plants & Midwest Explorer)
00:41:08
Our 2nd bonus episode has arrived! This episode, Steve is joined by Matt from ‘In Defense of Plants’ & Sara from ‘Midwest Explorer’ for a hike at Hunter’s Creek Park. They talk about tree bark, bird poop, and American Sycamore Trees. Steve also ventures into Buffalo, NY to see the oldest American Sycamore in the world… allegedly (but probably not). Enjoy!
Mar 08, 2017
Ep. 16 - (Dont?) Feed The Birds, Nerds!
00:35:20
This episode, Bill and Steve discuss whether or not we should be feeding birds. Do filled bird feeders stop birds from migrating? Do bird feeds help birds survive the winter? Do bird feeds spread disease throughout bird populations? All this and more - enjoy!
Feb 21, 2017
Bonus 01 - The Christmas Bird Count
00:39:41
For this bonus episode, Bill, Steve, Chris, and Dave participate in the Christmas Bird Count. They count birds, talk about the history and findings of the count, and tell their own birding stories. Enjoy!
Feb 14, 2017
Ep. 15 - The Subnivean Zone - A Winter UNDER-land
00:49:59
Winter is often perceived as a time of dormancy and inactivity, but underneath the snow, in the subnivean zone, a complex and fascinating world of plant and animal interactions exists. Weasels hunt through snow-roofed tunnels, rodents graze on grasses, bark, and seeds, and occasionally the taloned feet of an owl punch through the roof, searching for a meal. In this episode, Steve and Bill pull back the snowy curtain, sharing recent research into what’s happening in the subnivean zone and the impacts of climate change on this intriguing and unseen winter world. This episode was recorded in the Shale Creek section of Chestnut Ridge Park, located in Orchard Park, NY.
Jan 18, 2017
Ep. 14 - Vases and Candles and Spikes! Oh My!
00:20:34
This week Steve leads the discussion on "ice spikes." This is a rare winter phenomenon that Bill and Steve stumbled across at Stiglmeier Park (Cheektowaga, NY) during January, 2016. Join the guys as they run through two (presumably) incorrect hypotheses on how ice spikes form, and one well-documented method for their formation within freezers. We also explore the conditions that increase the chance of ice spikes forming in natural areas. While the episode mainly focuses on the "spike" form, "vase," "candle," and "tower" forms are also possible.
Dec 29, 2016
Ep. 13 - What the Flock is a Murmuration of Starlings?
00:19:43
What the flock is up with murmurations? And what's the difference between a swarm, a herd, a school, and a flock? In this first of a two-part episode, Bill and Steve explore the world of collective behavior, and take a specific look at murmurations of the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). This species gathers in large flocks (sometimes numbering into the tens of thousands!) that dive and swoop across the sky, creating beautiful, shifting forms that delight, amaze, and mystify. Researchers from numerous fields study these formations, and this month, the Field Guides share the latest research into this stunning natural phenomenon.
Dec 07, 2016
Ep. 12 - Pokeweed Every Day
00:31:32
This month's episode features Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana). This is a fascinating plant with some surprising tie-ins with American history. Join Steve and Bill as they tell you about pokeweed's uncommon red pigment, its use in phytoremediation, and the various ways in which it demonstrates toxicity. Enjoy!
Nov 04, 2016
Ep. 11 - Spruce Grouse in the House
00:37:30
Have you ever heard of a Fool's Hen? It’s just one of the many nicknames of the Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis), a bird of extremes and paradoxical behaviors. It often allows people to come within just a few feet before taking flight (hence the “fool” part of its nickname), but it can also be notoriously difficult to find. In addition, this species is adapted to survive on food that few other animals eat. Join Steve and Bill (and their friend, Rich) as they head into the wilds of Ontario Canada to search for this elusive critter, share the fascinating stories of its natural history, and shed light on some recent Spruce Grouse research. This episode was recorded in March of 2016 in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada.
Oct 26, 2016
Ep. 10 - Witch Hazel: An Explosive Late Bloomer
00:32:56
Exploding seed pods?!? Flowers in the winter?! Many species have evolved unusual strategies for reproduction, and this month’s target species is no exception. Witch Hazel (Hamemelis virginiana) is a small tree of the eastern forest understory that is easy to miss. It’s small and unassuming, but closer inspection reveals an array of fascinating adaptations that make it unique among our woodland species. Join Steve and Bill as they hunt for this wonder of the woods and share what they learned about it. This episode, they are joined by friend and author Gerry Rising, who recently published Birds and Bird Watching-100 Brief Essays. This month’s episode was recorded at the Reinstein Woods Nature Preserve & Environmental Education Center in Depew, NY.
Oct 04, 2016
Ep. 09 - Two Guys and a Calcareous Outcropping
00:36:48
Have you ever heard of Valcour Island? Bill and Steve heard tantalizing rumors about it and journeyed to Lake Champlain to check it out. Champlain borders both New York and Vermont, and one of its largest islands is Valcour, home to a number of rare plants and the largest Great Blue Heron rookery in New York. Bill and Steve camped out on this special place, exploring, botanizing, and demonstrating why The Field Guides are the slowest hikers on the planet. Come along for the ride and find out all the fascinating finds we discovered.
Sep 10, 2016
Ep. 08 - Meat Schmeat, or Bill & Steve Commit Marketing Suicide: The Vegan Episode
00:58:37
Ok, Field Guides listeners - *Bill and Steve crack their knuckles* - this one's a touchy subject for some people, but it's an important one. Just how much DO our food choices impact the environment? There's ample rhetoric on both sides, but what does the research say? In this Steve and Bill will tell you what they discovered while delving into the topic, all while trying their best not to get too preachy. (Also, they'll fill you in on what they thought of Scott Pilgrim vs. the World). This episode was recorded in the Letchworth Woods area of the University at Buffalo's north campus in western NY.
Aug 06, 2016
Ep. 07 - Stalking the Redback Salamander
00:45:34
This episode takes place at the Kenneglenn Scenic and Nature Preserve in Wales, NY. The preserve is owned and managed by the Western NY Land Conservancy.
Jul 07, 2016
Ep. 06 - Staghorn Sumac
00:45:01

Episode 6 of The Field Guides is here!
SPOILER ALERT!!! 
This episode Bill and Steve talk about Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina). 

Mar 04, 2016
Ep. 05 - Multiflora Blows
00:31:34

This month we talk about the hippest plant we know, Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora). Let us know what you think, enjoy!

Feb 07, 2016
Ep. 04 - Brrrrrds in Winter
01:01:42

Episode notes:

At one point we wonder if a bird we see is a grebe. We know that there aren't any grebes that have winter ranges in Western New York, but this has been a strange winter and less likely things have happened.

Questions that came up during the episode:

Although it was cut during editing, Bill and Steve wondered during recording, “Why do flamingos stand on one leg?” Bill thought he had come across the answer in the past, but had forgotten it. Steve just plain didn’t know. 

The answer? No one knows! While many theories are out there, no one has found a definitive answer (yet). The folks at How Stuff Works have done their usual great job of collecting solid information, and they present the reigning theories here: http://animals.howstuffworks.com/birds/flamingos-stand-on-one-leg.htm

And for a relatively recent study on one researcher’s efforts to get to the bottom of the flamingo-on-one-leg mystery, check out this article: http://www.livescience.com/5732-flamingos-stand-leg.html

Mistakes:

While Steve was correct about the Red Knot (Calidris canutus), Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis), Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), American Robin (Turdus migratorius), and House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), he was incorrect about the scientific name for the White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) which he thought was Sitta canadensis (Red-breasted Nuthatch); idiot!

Additionally, Steve said "hyperthermia" instead of "hypothermia" when talking about swimming in winter; double idiot!

Surprise surprise, Steve also explained phenotypes and genotypes rather poorly. In his excitement, he described both in terms of "changes in" observable characteristics and genes, respectively. What he should have said was that a genotype is an individual's gene for a trait, and that a phenotype is the observable expression of a gene; triple idiot!

But the quadruple idiot award for this episode goes to Bill, who insisted emphatically that House Sparrows were not Sparrows at all, but Weaver Finches. This is incorrect. Following the release of this episode, Steve researched Bill's claim, and being a great guy, he didn't call Bill a moron, but sent him a few Wikipedia links with the kind message, "I think you might be wrong about House Sparrows..." After just a few minutes of internet searching, Bill found out why he thought what he did. Old editions of the Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds places House Sparrows in the Weaver Finch family, but all recent references (within the past 30 years) Bill could find to their taxonomy refer to them as "Old World Sparrows," the family Passeridae. National Geographic Complete Birds of North America states, "Old World Sparrows are not closley related to New World sparrows in the family Emberizidae. Instead their closest alliance is with the family Ploceidae, in which they were formerly placed." Ploceidae is the Weaver Finch family. So, basically, House Sparrows used to be considered Weaver Finches but research has revealed that they are only closely related to them.

Work Cited:

Björklund, Mats, et al. "Increase in body size is correlated to warmer winters in a passerine bird as inferred from time series data." Ecology and evolution 5.1 (2015): 59-72.

Brittingham, Margaret C., and Stanley A. Temple. "Use of winter bird feeders by black-capped chickadees." The Journal of wildlife management (1992): 103-110.

Brodin, Anders. "Why do hoarding birds gain fat in winter in the wrong way? Suggestions from a dynamic model." Behavioral Ecology 11.1 (2000): 27-39.

Carr, Jennie M., and Steven L. Lima. "Wintering birds avoid warm sunshine: predation and the costs of foraging in sunlight." Oecologia 174.3 (2014): 713-721.

R. R. J. Chaffee, et al. “Studies on thermogenesis in cold acclimated birds.” Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 41 (1963): 2215-2220

Coughlan, Neil E., et al. "Humid microclimates within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) can potentially facilitate long distance dispersal of propagules." Acta Oecologica 65 (2015): 17-23.

Ederstrom, H. E., and S. J. Brumleve. "Temperature gradients in the legs of cold-acclimatized pheasants." American Journal of Physiology--Legacy Content 207.2 (1964): 457-459. 

Houston, Alasdair I., and John M. McNamara. “A Theoretical Investigation of the Fat Reserves and Mortality Levels of Small Birds in Winter”. Ornis Scandinavica 24.3 (1993): 205–219. 

Klaassen, Raymond HG, et al. "When and where does mortality occur in migratory birds? Direct evidence from long‐term satellite tracking of raptors."Journal of Animal Ecology 83.1 (2014): 176-184. 

Koskenpato, Katja, et al. "Is the denser contour feather structure in pale grey than in pheomelanic brown tawny owls Strix aluco an adaptation to cold environments?." Journal of Avian Biology (2015).

Macdonald, Christie A., et al. "Cold tolerance, and not earlier arrival on breeding grounds, explains why males winter further north in an Arctic‐breeding songbird." Journal of Avian Biology (2015).

Martinson, Tammie J., and David J. Flaspohler. "Winter bird feeding and localized predation on simulated bark-dwelling arthropods." Wildlife Society Bulletin (2003): 510-516.

Mori, Emiliano, and Sandro Bertolino. "Feeding ecology of Long-eared Owls in winter: an urban perspective." Bird Study 62.2 (2015): 257-261.

Murray, Molly. "Did You Know? Nature's Winter Survival Strategies." www.delawareonline.com. 20 Jan. 2015. Web. 9 Dec. 2015.


Petit, Daniel R., Lisa J. Petit, and Kenneth E. Petit. "Winter caching ecology of deciduous woodland birds and adaptations for protection of stored food." Condor (1989): 766-776.

Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo, and Svein Haftorn. "Different metabolic strategies of northern birds for nocturnal survival." Journal of Comparative Physiology B156.5 (1986): 655-663.


Robb, Gillian N., et al. "Winter feeding of birds increases productivity in the subsequent breeding season." Biology letters 4.2 (2008): 220-223.

Roth, Timothy C., and Steven L. Lima. "Hunting behavior and diet of Cooper's hawks: an urban view of the small-bird-in-winter paradigm." The Condor 105.3 (2003): 474-483.

Sibley, David. Sibley field guide to birds of eastern North America. Alfred A. Knopf, 2003.

Smit, Ben, and Andrew E. McKechnie. "Avian seasonal metabolic variation in a subtropical desert: basal metabolic rates are lower in winter than in summer." Functional Ecology 24.2 (2010): 330-339.

Swanson, David, et al. "Relative roles of temperature and photoperiod as drivers of metabolic flexibility in dark-eyed juncos." The Journal of experimental biology 217.6 (2014): 866-875.

Thompson, John N., and Mary F. Willson. “Evolution of Temperate Fruit/bird Interactions: Phenological Strategies”. Evolution 33.3 (1979): 973–982.

Jan 06, 2016
Ep. 03 - Hi-BEAR-nation
00:59:30

Episode Notes:

I think the title speaks for itself...

Questions that came up in the episode:

Flying Squirrels More Populous than Reds and Grays?

During this episode, Bill mentioned a statistic he’d heard, claiming that Flying Squirrels outnumbered Red and Gray Squirrels in the Northeast. After recording episode 3, Bill tried to track down any credible sources, but he found not a single reference to this claim on any website, blog, or scientific paper. Unless someone out there has a reliable source to back up this statistic, we’ll have to conclude that Bill just made this up.*

*UPDATE - BILL WAS RIGHT! At least in Ohio, that is. A big thank you to Randy from Bowling Green who sent us a link to Ohio's Department of Natural Resources and their page on the Southern Flying Squirrel. It states, "The flying squirrel is the most common squirrel in Ohio. Because they are nocturnal and seldom seen, most people don't recognize that they live with flying squirrels." While we wish that this info was linked to the research, we're going to trust that Ohio's DNR know what they're talking about because Bill's ego is fragile and he really wants to to be right. http://wildlife.ohiodnr.gov/species-and-habitats/species-guide-index/mammals/southern-flying-squirrel

Mistakes:

I'm sure we will find out.

Work Cited: 

Barboza, Perry S., Sean D. Farley, and Charles T. Robbins. "Whole-body urea cycling and protein turnover during hyperphagia and dormancy in growing bears (Ursus americanus and U. arctos)." Canadian Journal of Zoology 75.12 (1997): 2129-2136.

Breukelen, Frank van, and Sandra L. Martin. "The hibernation continuum: physiological and molecular aspects of metabolic plasticity in mammals."Physiology 30.4 (2015): 273-281.

Burt, William Henry. A field guide to the mammals: North America north of Mexico. Vol. 5. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1980.

Daan, Serge, Brain M. Barnes, and Arjen M. Strijkstra. "Warming up for sleep?—ground squirrels sleep during arousals from hibernation." Neuroscience letters 128.2 (1991): 265-268.

Ditmer, Mark A., Thomas E. Burk, and David L. Garshelis. "Do innate food preferences and learning affect crop raiding by American black bears?." Ursus 26.1 (2015): 40-52.

Donahue, Seth W., et al. "Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears." Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 408 (2003): 295-301.

Donahue, Seth W., et al. "Parathyroid hormone may maintain bone formation in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) to prevent disuse osteoporosis." Journal of Experimental Biology 209.9 (2006): 1630-1638.

Fuster, Gemma, et al. "Antiproteolytic effects of plasma from hibernating bears: a new approach for muscle wasting therapy?." Clinical Nutrition 26.5 (2007): 658-661.

Goodrich, John M., and Joel Berger. "Winter recreation and hibernating black bears Ursus americanus." Biological Conservation 67.2 (1994): 105-110.

Heldmaier, Gerhard. "Life on low flame in hibernation." Science 331.6019 (2011): 866-867.

Herrero, Stephen. "Aspects of evolution and adaptation in American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) and brown and grizzly bears (U. arctos Linne.) of North America." Bears: Their biology and management (1972): 221-231.

Jani, Alkesh, et al. "Renal adaptation during hibernation." American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 305.11 (2013): F1521-F1532.

Laske, Timothy G., David L. Garshelis, and Paul A. Iaizzo. "Monitoring the wild black bear's reaction to human and environmental stressors." BMC Physiology11.1 (2011): 13.

McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E., et al. "Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation)." Bone 45.6 (2009): 1186-1191.

McGee-Lawrence, Meghan, et al. "Suppressed bone remodeling in black bears conserves energy and bone mass during hibernation." The Journal of Experimental Biology 218.13 (2015): 2067-2074.

Spector, David A., et al. "The urothelium of a hibernator: the American black bear." Physiological Reports 3.6 (2015): e12429.

Tøien, Øivind, et al. "Hibernation in black bears: independence of metabolic suppression from body temperature." Science 331.6019 (2011): 906-909.

Vaughan, Terry A., James M. Ryan, and Nicholas J. Czaplewski. Mammalogy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2013.

Dec 14, 2015
Ep. 02 - Fall Colors
00:59:41

Episode Notes:

When discussing branching, Steve and Bill wondered whether Horsechestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) was native. While some members of this genus are native to North America, the Horsechestnut (AKA Horse-chestnut or Conker Tree) is an imported species native to the Balkans.

Mistakes: 

     Steve had mentioned that there was only one genus in the Aceraceae, or maple family. This is wrong. That fool neglected the two species within the genus Dipteronia that are endemic to mainland China.

      Additionally, Steve also said, “we’ve slowly been knocking out all these different genes that code for all these different hormones”, which may have been misleading. Plant hormones are not transcribed directly from DNA; instead they are later synthesized by the products of specific genes. If the genes responsible for the synthesis of a particular hormone are “knocked out,” the plant will no longer be able to synthesize that hormone.             

         Also when Bill was describing how the abcisssion layer forms, he said that the separation layer gets thicker and pushes against the separation layer. What he meant to say was that the protection layer (the layer closer to the twig) gets thicker and pushes against the separation layer (the layer closer to the leaf). Here is a more complete description of the process: 

Abcission cells start to collect where the stem meets the branch. Two layers form – the separation layer and a protection layer. In the separation layer, the cells are short with thin walls. So, this area becomes weak and a tear starts to form. The protection layer is closer to the tree – a kind of nodule starts to grow. It cuts off all water and nutrients to the leaf, and, as the nodule grows, it pushes the leaf farther and farther from the branch until the separation layer is so brittle, it breaks. 


Work Cited: 

Anderson, Rachel, and Peter Ryser. "Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content." Plants 4.3 (2015): 505-522.

Archetti, Marco, et al. "Unravelling the evolution of autumn colours: an interdisciplinary approach." Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24.3 (2009): 166-173.

Archetti, Marco. "Phylogenetic analysis reveals a scattered distribution of autumn colours." Annals of botany (2009). 

Archetti, Marco. "Classification of hypotheses on the evolution of autumn colours." Oikos 118.3 (2009): 328-333.

Bolser, Jessica A., et al. "Birds select fruits with more anthocyanins and phenolic compounds during autumn migration." The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 125.1 (2013): 97-108.

Döring, Thomas F., Marco Archetti, and Jim Hardie. "Autumn leaves seen through herbivore eyes." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 276.1654 (2009): 121-127.

Estiarte, Marc, and Josep Peñuelas. "Alteration of the phenology of leaf senescence and fall in winter deciduous species by climate change: effects on nutrient proficiency." Global change biology 21.3 (2015): 1005-1017.

Habineck, E. M. "Correlation of soil development and landscape position with fall leaf colors." 2007 GSA Denver Annual Meeting. 2007.

Hamilton, William D., and S. P. Brown. "Autumn tree colours as a handicap signal." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences268.1475 (2001): 1489-1493.

Hüner, Norman PA, and William G. Hopkins. "Introduction to plant physiology." (2008).

Killingbeck, Keith T. "Nutrients in senesced leaves: keys to the search for potential resorption and resorption proficiency." Ecology 77.6 (1996): 1716-1727.

Landi, M., M. Tattini, and Kevin S. Gould. "Multiple functional roles of anthocyanins in plant-environment interactions." Environmental and Experimental Botany 119 (2015): 4-17.

Lee, David W., et al. "Pigment dynamics and autumn leaf senescence in a New England deciduous forest, eastern USA." Ecological Research 18.6 (2003): 677-694.

LevYadun, Simcha, and Jarmo K. Holopainen. "Why reddominated autumn leaves in America and yellowdominated autumn leaves in Northern Europe?."New Phytologist 183.3 (2009): 506-512.

Schaefer, H. Martin, and David M. Wilkinson. "Red leaves, insects and coevolution: a red herring?." Trends in ecology & evolution 19.12 (2004): 616-618. 

Schippers, Jos HM, et al. "Living to die and dying to live: The survival strategy behind leaf senescence." Plant physiology 169.2 (2015): 914-930.

Taylor, Gail, et al. "Future atmospheric CO2 leads to delayed autumnal senescence." Global Change Biology 14.2 (2008): 264-275.

Oct 22, 2015
Ep. 01 - Goldenrod Galls
00:58:52
Bill and Steve take you out into the field and share their findings on goldenrods and the three major goldenrod galls
Sep 20, 2015