Teaching Hard History

By Teaching Tolerance

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What we don’t know about American history hurts us all. Teaching Hard History begins with the long legacy of slavery and reaches through the civil rights movement to the present day. Brought to you by Teaching Tolerance and hosted by Dr. Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Teaching Hard History brings us the lessons we should have learned in school through the voices of scholars and educators. It’s good advice for teachers and good information for everybody.

Episode Date
Checking In: Listener Feedback and Discussing the U.S. Capitol Attack

If you're finding this podcast useful, please support us by taking our Listener Survey—only 10 questions—at tolerance.org/podcasts.

And stay tuned! More episodes are on the way.

In the meantime, if you're looking for ways to talk with students about the relationship between the hard history of white supremacy and the insurrection at the U.S. Capitol, you can find resources for leading student-responsive, historically grounded discussions about the recent violence at tolerance.org.  

Jan 19, 2021
Making a Scene: The Movement in Literature and Film – w/ Julie Buckner Armstrong

From the hard work of organizing to the reality of everyday life under Jim Crow, films and literature can bring historical context to life for students. In this episode, we recommend several “must use” films, books, poems and plays for teaching the civil rights movement. We also discuss strategies for incorporating these works across the curricula and for turning even problematic texts into grist for meaningful critical discussions.

For more movement music inspired by this episode, check out the new Spotify playlist. And be sure to check out the enhanced full transcript of this episode for more classroom resources about Civil Rights Literature and Films.


**New for Educators** You can get a professional development certificate for one hour—issued by Teaching Tolerance—for listening to this episode. Listen to the episode for the special code word, then visit tolerance.org/podcastpd.

Dec 22, 2020
The Real Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott – w/ Emilye Crosby

Everyone thinks they know the story, but the real history of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott is even better. This episode details the events that set the stage for Ms. Parks’ civil disobedience. You’ll meet the leaders and organizations who transformed a moment of activism into a 13-month campaign. And you’ll learn about the community that held fast in the face of legal and political attacks, economic coercion, intimidation and violence.

Language Advisory: This episode contains historical reenactments of interviews and courtroom testimony which contain some profanity and racial slurs.

For more movement music inspired by this episode, check out the new Spotify playlist.

And be sure to check out the enhanced full transcript of this episode.


Dec 08, 2020
Connecting Slavery with the Civil Rights Movement

To fully understand the United States today, we have to comprehend the central role that slavery played in our nation’s past. That legacy is also the foundation for understanding the civil rights movement and its place within the history of the Black freedom struggle. This episode is a special look back at our first season. It explores and expands on the 10 key concepts that ground Teaching Tolerance’s K-12 frameworks for teaching the hard history of American slavery.

Nov 24, 2020
Teaching the Movement’s Most Iconic Figure – w/ Charles McKinney
You cannot teach the civil rights movement without talking about Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. But it’s critical that students deconstruct the mythology surrounding the movement’s most iconic figure to learn about the man, not just the hero. The real Dr. King held beliefs that evolved over time. A complex man, he was part of a much larger movement—one that shaped him as much as he shaped it.

Our new Spotify playlist has even more movement music inspired by this episode.

For even more resources, check out the enhanced full transcript of this episode. For example... 

These Birmingham News file photos from the 40s, 50s and 60s, recollect the explosive death and destruction at the hands of racists in ‘Bombingham.’ 

And the lesson “Birmingham 1963: Primary Documents” asks your students to interrogate historical documents with differing opinions about this conflict.(Grades 6-8, 9-12)

New from Teaching Tolerance: Introduce your students to the history of Indigenous enslavement on land that is currently the United States with The Forgotten Slavery of our Ancestors (12 min)—along with Discussion Guide.

Nov 10, 2020
The Jim Crow North – w/ Patrick D. Jones

The Civil Rights Movement was never strictly a Southern phenomenon. To better understand the Jim Crow North, we explore discrimination and Black protest in places like Milwaukee, Omaha, Cleveland and New York. To examine the Black Freedom Movement beyond the South, we examine the Black-led fights to gain access to decent housing, secure quality education and end police brutality in these cities.

For more movement music inspired by this episode, visit this new Spotify playlist.

Be sure to watch our new classroom film The Forgotten Slavery of our Ancestors (12 min), which offers an introduction to the history of Indigenous enslavement on land that is currently the United States. And here's a Discussion Guide with Text Dependent Questions for the film.

The Roz Payne Sixties Archive, a one-of-a-kind digital archive of historical artifacts from a wide array of social movements.

In this lesson—"The Color of Law: Creating Racially Segregated Communities"—Students examine local, state and federal policies that supported racially discriminatory practices and cultivated racially segregated housing.

And for even more resources, check out the enhanced full transcript of this episode.


Oct 27, 2020
Nonviolence and Self-Defense – w/ Wesley Hogan, Christopher Strain and Akinyele Umoja

Armed resistance and nonviolent direct action co-existed throughout the civil rights era. In this episode, three historians confront some comfortable assumptions about nonviolence and self-defense. Wesley Hogan examines the evolution, value and limitations of nonviolence in the movement. Christopher Strain offers a three-part strategy for rethinking this false dichotomy in the classroom. And Akinyele Umoja offers insights about armed resistance from his research in Mississippi.

For more movement music inspired by this episode, visit this new Spotify playlist.

And check out the enhanced full transcript of this episode.

Oct 13, 2020
New Film: The Forgotten Slavery of Our Ancestors – w/ Alice Qannik Glenn

Alice Qannik Glenn is the host of Coffee and Quaq and assistant producer of The Forgotten Slavery of our Ancestors. This short, classroom-ready film offers an introduction to the history of Indigenous enslavement on land that is currently the United States. This new resource from Teaching Tolerance features an extensive group of experts, many of whom will be familiar to listeners from Season 2.

Oct 07, 2020
Jim Crow, Lynching and White Supremacy – w/ Stephen A. Berrey, Hannah Ayers, Lance Warren and Ahmariah Jackson

Jim Crow was more than signs and separation. It was a system of terror and violence created to control the labor and regulate the behavior of Black people. In this episode, historian Stephen Berrey unpacks the mechanics of racial oppression, the actions white people took—in and beyond the South—to maintain white supremacy, and the everyday ways Black people fought back. And the directors of the film An Outrage join ELA teacher Ahmariah Jackson to discuss teaching the racial terror of lynching.

For more movement music inspired by this episode, visit this new Spotify playlist

Here's the Gordon Parks' 1956 Atlanta airline terminal photograph that Dr. Berrey describes. 

And check out the enhanced full transcript of this episode. It is full of links to resources related to this episode, like this audio of Daisy Thomas Livingston from the Behind the Veil oral history collection about the Jim Crow South, this interactive map of "Sundown Towns in the United States." Or the teaching guide and full documentary An Outrage (free to stream at tolerance.org)

Sep 29, 2020
A Playlist for the Movement – w/ Charles L. Hughes

Music chronicles the history of the civil rights struggle: The events, tactics and emotions of the movement are documented in songs of the era. From The Freedom Singers to Sam Cooke, historian Charles L. Hughes explains how your students can use music for both historical insight and evidence in the classroom.

For more movement music, check out this episode’s Spotify playlist.

And you can find useful resources—like how to bring Beyoncé into your classroom with "Pop Music as Critical Text"—along with a full transcript on our website.

Sep 08, 2020
Beyond the "Master Narrative" – w/ Nishani Frazier and Adam Sanchez

Students don’t enter our classrooms as blank slates. When it comes to the civil rights movement, we often have to help our students unlearn what they think they know while we’re teaching them what actually happened. The people were more complex, the strategies more complicated and the stakes more dangerous than we like to remember. In this episode, historian Nishani Frazier and social studies teacher Adam Sanchez demonstrate the value of teaching the movement from the grassroots up. 

You can find useful resources—like Nishani's Harambee City website and Adam's “Teaching SNCC" classroom activities—along with a full transcript on our website.

And for more Movement Music, check out the Spotify playlist for this episode.

Aug 25, 2020
Reframing the Movement – w/ Nishani Frazier and Adam Sanchez

Teaching the civil rights movement accurately and effectively requires deconstructing the myths and misconceptions about the civil rights movement. Most people are familiar with a very specific version of the Civil Rights Movement that exaggerates Government support and denies the existence and persistence of racism outside the South. Julian Bond called this the “Master Narrative.” It celebrates sanitized icons and downplays grassroots organizing. It overhypes nonviolence while disparaging self-defense and Black Power. In this episode, we talk with historian Nishani Frazier and social studies teacher Adam Sanchez about how to separate civil rights fact from civil rights fiction in your classroom.

You can find links to useful resources—like Adam’s “Who said it: Malcolm or Martin?” worksheet (and the answer key)—along with a full transcript on our website.  

And be sure to check out the Spotify playlist for this episode

Aug 11, 2020
Wrap Up: Teaching the Connections – w/ Bethany Jay

The systems that enabled and perpetuated African and Indigenous enslavement in what is now the U.S. have much in common, and their histories tell us a great deal about the present. Professors Bethany Jay and Steven Oliver join us to talk about connections between the first two seasons and how to teach them, and we preview what’s to come in season three. 

Jun 09, 2020
Hard History in Hard Times – Talking With Teachers

In this special call-in episode, listeners share their stories and questions from throughout season 2—including teaching remotely, working with families and stakeholders, and incorporating social justice into subjects like math and science. As educators, we’re strongest when we support each other.

And you’ll hear great suggestions from fellow teachers, like these resources we discuss from Fairfax County Public Schools in Virginia:

And of course, you'll find more resources, links and a transcript on our website.

May 08, 2020
Call Us! (by Sunday, April 19)

It’s time for our first call-in show! We know things are chaotic for you and every other educator right now. We feel it too, so this seems like the perfect time to talk. Pick up the phone and dial 888-59-STORY (888-597-8679). Our lines are open until Sunday night, April 19. Teaching hard history is even harder right now, so let’s talk about resources you can use if you’re teaching virtually. Ask us your questions; tell us your stories. And let us know how you’re doing.

Whether you work with elementary, middle or high school students or whether you teach social studies or English language arts, the coming months are a good time to plan how you can bring accurate, foundational content about enslavement into your lessons. Tell us how you’ve been introducing your students to enslavement. What have you learned? What can we do to help? And we’ll try to have you on the show next week. P.S. If you like, you can also email us at podcasts@tolerance.org.

Apr 13, 2020
Inseparable Separations: Slavery and Indian Removal

Indian Removal was a brutal and complicated effort that textbooks often simplify. It is also inseparably related to slavery. Enslavers seeking profit drove demand for Indigenous lands, displacing hundreds of thousands of Indigenous people. Some of these Indigenous people participated in chattel slavery. Focusing on the Chickasaw and Choctaw nations, this episode pulls the lens back to show how Removal and enslavement must be taught together. This story must be told if we're going to understand the full hard history of American enslavement.

Mar 27, 2020
Slave Codes, Liberty Suits and the Charter Generation – w/ Margaret Newell

The Americas were built on the lands, labor and lives of Indigenous peoples. Despite being erased from history textbooks after the so-called first Thanksgiving, Indigenous peoples did not disappear. Colonial settlers relied on the cooperation, exploitation and forced labor of their Native neighbors to survive and thrive in what became North America. Focusing on New England, historian Margaret Newell introduces us to the Charter Generation of systematically enslaved people across this continent.

Mar 06, 2020
Using the WPA Slave Narratives – w/ Cynthia Lynn Lyerly

From 1936 to 1938, the Federal Writers’ Project collected stories from people who had been enslaved. The WPA Slave Narrative Collection at the Library of Congress is a valuable resource; these oral histories are also problematic. Interpreting these narratives within literary and historical context, students can develop primary source literacy. Historian Cynthia Lynn Lyerly outlines unique insights these texts can add to your curriculum.

Feb 14, 2020
Groundwork for Teaching Indigenous Enslavement – w/ the Turtle Island Social Studies Collective

To better understand the United States’ past and present, we need to better understand Indigenous identities—and our classrooms play a huge role. This starts with examining what’s missing from our social studies, history, civics and government curricula. Throughout this episode, we reference the K-5 Framework for Teaching Hard History as we shed light on key topics like sovereignty, land and erasure.


Feb 08, 2020
Mid-season Recap: Key Lessons on Indigenous Enslavement

Educators can no longer ignore our country’s history of Indigenous enslavement. Our students need a fuller understanding of the pivotal history of slavery to comprehend the present and develop a vision for our nation’s future. In this mid-season recap, we highlight key lessons about this consequential part of American history—along with teaching strategies and resources—through the voices of leading scholars and educators featured so far.

Resources and Readings



And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

Jan 24, 2020
Silver, Resistance and the Evolution of Slavery in the West – w/ Andrés Reséndez

Throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, the forced labor and bondage of Indigenous peoples was integral to the economic and political history of what became the Southwestern United States. Historian and author Andrés Reséndez outlines the significance of silver mining, Indigenous enslavement and resistance in the history of New Mexico and Latin America. We also examine how, as white settlers moved west, so-called “free soil” states like California continued to institutionalize coerced labor.

Dec 20, 2019
The Other Slavery – w/ Andrés Reséndez

A hundred years before the first ship carrying enslaved Africans arrived in Virginia, Europeans introduced the commercial practice of enslavement in “The New World.” And for the next 400 years, millions of Indigenous people throughout the Americas were enslaved through several forms of forced labor and bondage. Historian and author Andrés Reséndez calls this “The Other Slavery,” and his work is changing our understanding of the transatlantic slave trade.

Resources and Readings

Andrés Reséndez
History, University of California, Davis


And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

Dec 06, 2019
Coming Soon: Conversations with Andrés Reséndez

Andrés Reséndez is the author of The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America. His work has changed conventional wisdom about the institution of slavery in the Atlantic World. Over the next two episodes, host Hasan Kwame Jeffries and Reséndez will discuss key turning points in this history—exploring how it expands our understanding of the transatlantic slave trade and the lasting legacy of colonialism, which continues to reverberate in our communities. Be sure to join us.

And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

Nov 25, 2019
Teaching Slavery through Children's Literature, Part 2 – w/ Debbie Reese

Each autumn, Thanksgiving brings a disturbing amount of inaccurate information and troubling myths into classrooms across the United States. Most students don’t learn much about the history of Native nations—and even less about Indigenous peoples today. Dr. Debbie Reese explains what to look for and what to avoid (or teach with a critical lens) when selecting children’s books by and about Indigenous people. She also recommends specific books to counter common misconceptions in your classroom.

Resources and Readings

Dr. Debbie Reese
Editor/Publisher, American Indians in Children's Literature (AICL) | Twitter


And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

Nov 08, 2019
Teaching Slavery through Children's Literature, Part 1 – w/ Ebony Elizabeth Thomas

Children’s books are often the primary way young students are exposed to the history of American slavery. But many books about slavery sugarcoat oppression. Professor Ebony Elizabeth Thomas examines what we should consider when it comes to how children’s books portray African Americans and Indigenous people, their cultures and the effects of enslavement. She also explains why it’s crucial to create “a balance of narratives” when selecting books about marginalized and underrepresented communities.

Resources and Readings

Ebony Elizabeth Thomas


Hasan Kwame Jeffries

And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

Oct 25, 2019
In the Elementary Classroom – w/ Kate Shuster, Marian Dingle, Bria Wright, Marvin Reed and Alice Mitchell

For elementary teachers approaching the topic of slavery, it can be tempting to focus only on heroes and avoid explaining oppression. But teachers’ omissions speak as loudly as what they choose to include. And what children learn in the early grades has broad consequences for the rest of their education. Dr. Kate Shuster guides us through the new Teaching Hard History K–5 framework from Teaching Tolerance. We also learn how four elementary teachers are beginning to use it in their classrooms.

Resources and Readings

Kate Shuster

Bria Wright
Fifth grade, Raleigh, North Carolina, Teaching Tolerance Advisory Board


Marvin Reed
Third grade, Berkeley, California, Teaching Tolerance Advisory Board


Alice Mitchell
Fifth grade, Boston, Massachusetts, Teaching Tolerance Advisory Board


Marian Dingle
Fourth grade, Atlanta, Georgia, Teaching Tolerance Advisory Board


And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

Oct 04, 2019
Indigenous Enslavement: Part 2 – w/ Christina Snyder

Understanding Indigenous enslavement expands our conception of slavery in what is now the United States. It spread across the entire continent and affected millions of people of different backgrounds. If we define slavery too narrowly, we can fail to see its persistence over time and even its modern-day permutations. Historian Christina Snyder examines the Civil War, Lincoln and emancipation with Indigenous people in mind.

Resources and Readings

Christina Snyder
McCabe Greer Professor of History, Penn State University


And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

Sep 20, 2019
Indigenous Enslavement: Part 1 – w/ Christina Snyder

Millions of Indigenous people lived in North America before European colonial powers invaded. Along with an insatiable desire for free labor, Europeans brought systems of slavery that significantly differed from the historical practices of enslavement among Native nations. Historian Christina Snyder explains what happened when these worlds collided. European concepts of bondage transformed the way Native nations interacted, resulted in the enslavement and death of millions and sparked widespread resistance.

Resources and Resources

Christina Snyder
McCabe Greer Professor of History, Penn State University


And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

Sep 06, 2019
The Hidden History of American Slavery – w/ Maureen Costello, Eduardo Díaz and Renée Gokey

American slavery shaped our modern world and most certainly the foundation and development of what is now the United States. The Smithsonian’s Eduardo Díaz and Renée Gokey discuss the importance of learning about Indigenous enslavement. And Teaching Tolerance Director Maureen Costello explains all of the program’s classroom resources available for teaching this history, including a first-of-its-kind K-5 framework.

Resources and Readings

Maureen Costello
Director, Teaching Tolerance


Eduardo Díaz
Director, Smithsonian Latino Center 

Renée Gokey
Teacher Services Coordinator, National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) | Teaching Tolerance author


Hasan Kwame Jeffries
Department of History, Ohio State University | Teaching Hard History author


And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.


Aug 23, 2019
Coming Soon: Season 2 of Teaching Hard History

We’re turning our attention to the enslavement of Indigenous people, spending more time with teachers in the classroom and adding support for K–5 educators. Tune in next week for more advice about teaching the history and long legacy of American slavery.

And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

Aug 13, 2019
Wrap up: Questions from the Classroom – w/ Bethany Jay

Historian Bethany Jay returns – answering questions from educators across the country. Host Hasan Kwame Jeffries and the co-editor of Understanding and Teaching American Slavery confront teacher anxieties and counter misconceptions in our season finale. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Feb 14, 2019
Young Adult Trade Books – w/ John H. Bickford

From elementary to high school, YA literature can introduce fundamental themes and information about slavery, especially when paired with primary sources. John H. Bickford shows how to capitalize on the strengths and weaknesses of trade books about slavery. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Feb 07, 2019
Sample Lessons w/ Jordan Lanfair and Tamara Spears

Using the present to explore the past. Tamara Spears and Jordan Lanfair suggest a Social Studies unit about Resistance & Kanye West, and a set of English Language Arts lessons examining holidays to understand the legacy of American slavery. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Jan 23, 2019
Classroom Experiences w/ Tamara Spears and Jordan Lanfair

How it’s done. Tamara Spears teaches middle school Social Studies in New York and Jordan Lanfair is a high school English Language Arts teacher in Chicago. Each has been developing additional lessons about slavery for years. They share their experiences. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Jan 15, 2019
Coming Soon: Stories from the Classroom (and more)

Over the next few episodes, we're bringing Season One to a close. Tune in for stories from the classroom, guidance for elementary teachers and language arts classes. And answers to questions from listeners like you. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Jan 14, 2019
Slavery Today w/ James Brewer Stewart

Enslavement didn’t end with Emancipation. Historian James Brewer Stewart discusses modern-day slavery happening across the world—and right here in the U.S. – showing educators how to connect the past with the present. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Jun 29, 2018
Drop Us A Line – Your Questions. Your Stories. Your Episode!

A listener’s question leads to a meaningful moment. And now we want more! Take a listen, then email podcast@tolerance.org to tell us your story about teaching hard history for an upcoming, special episode. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Jun 04, 2018
Confronting Hard History at Montpelier

At James Madison’s Montpelier, the legacy of enslaved people isn’t silenced—and their descendants have a voice. Christian Cotz, Price Thomas and Dr. Patrice Preston Grimes explain how that happened, and why it’s important. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

May 29, 2018
Slavery in the Supreme Court – w/ Paul Finkelman

In the United States, justice was never blind. Historian Paul Finkelman goes beyond legal jargon to illustrate how slavery was entangled with the opinions of the Court—and encoded into the Constitution itself. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

May 10, 2018
Slavery in the Constitution – w/ Dr. Paul Finkelman

Constitutional historian Paul Finkelman explains the deeply racist bargains the founding fathers struck to unify the country under one document and discusses what students should know about how slavery defined the United States after the Revolution. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Apr 26, 2018
Ten More … Film and the History of Slavery w/ Ron Briley

Film historian Ron Briley returns with more documentary, feature film & miniseries suggestions for history & English teachers. From Ken Burns to Black Panther, this episode offers background & strategies to incorporate pop culture into classroom lessons. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Apr 12, 2018
Film and the History of Slavery w/ Ron Briley

Film has long shaped our nation's historical memory, for good and bad. Film historian Ron Briley offers ways to responsibly use films in the classroom to reframe the typical narrative of American slavery and Reconstruction. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Mar 29, 2018
Diverse Experience of the Enslaved w/ Deirdre Cooper Owens

Most students leave school thinking enslaved people lived like characters in Gone with the Wind. Dr. Deirdre Cooper Owens reveals the remarkable diversity of lived experiences within slavery and explains the gap between what scholars and students know. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Mar 15, 2018
Resistance Means More Than Rebellion – w/ Kenneth S. Greenberg

To see a more complete picture of the experience of enslaved people, you have to redefine resistance, Dr. Kenneth S. Greenberg offers teachers a lens to help students see the ways in which enslaved people fought back against the brutality of slavery. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Mar 02, 2018
In the Footsteps of Others: Process Drama – w/ Lindsay Randall

Students learning about slavery often ask, “Why didn’t enslaved people just run away or revolt?” Lindsay Anne Randall offers a lesson in “Process Drama”—a method teachers can use to answer this question, build empathy and offer perspective. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Feb 15, 2018
Dealing With Things As They Are: Creating a Classroom Environment – w/ Steven Thurston Oliver

In many ways, the U.S. has fallen short of its ideals. How can we explain this to students—particularly in the context of discussing slavery? Professor Steven Thurston Oliver has this advice for teachers: Face your fears. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Jan 31, 2018
Slavery & the Northern Economy – w/ Christy Clark Pujara

When we think of slavery as a strictly Southern institution, we perpetuate a “dangerous fiction,” according to Professor Christy Clark-Pujara. Avoid the trap with this episode about the role the North played in perpetuating slavery and the truth behind the phrase “slavery built the United States.” With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Jan 30, 2018
Slavery & the Civil War, Part 2 – w/ Dr. Bethany Jay

Dr. Bethany Jay is back to talk about teaching the end of the Civil War, and how enslaved people’s participation in the war helped subvert the institution of slavery. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Jan 29, 2018
Slavery & the Civil War, Part 1 – w/ Dr. Bethany Jay

What really caused the Civil War? In this episode, Salem State University Professor Bethany Jay offers tips for teaching lesser-known history that clarifies this question and cuts through our cloudy national understanding of the Confederacy. With host Hasan Kwame Jeffries. (Teaching Tolerance / Southern Poverty Law Center)

Jan 29, 2018