SciShow Tangents

By Complexly

Listen to a podcast, please open Podcast Republic app. Available on Google Play Store.


Category: Science & Medicine

Open in Apple Podcasts


Open RSS feed


Open Website


Rate for this podcast

Subscribers: 819
Reviews: 9


 Jan 3, 2021


 Nov 20, 2020


 Sep 9, 2020

Robin
 Jul 29, 2020
I love this podcast but I hate the cussing & cringe every time. I could use it to model intellectual conversation, critical thinking, respectful disagreement, & passion for science with students. I get frustrated that cussing prevents that.


 Apr 22, 2020

Description

SciShow Tangents is the lightly competitive knowledge showcase from the geniuses behind the YouTube series SciShow. Every Tuesday, join Hank Green, Ceri Riley, Stefan Chin, and Sam Schultz as they try to one-up and amaze each other with weird and funny scientific research... while not getting distracted. There will be tangents about video games, music, weird smells, surprisingly deep insights about life, and of course, poop, but it always comes back to the science.

Episode Date
Cephalopods
00:31:57

Tangents is back for a 3rd season, and things are going to get weird! So we’re embracing the weirdness by talking about some of the weirdest animals around: cephalopods! 

In this episode: new games of dubious scientific value and quality! Classic Ceri music ignorance! Big Suckers! And, most importantly, laughs galore! We missed you guys!

[Rhyme Time]

I mean… what citation could there possibly be for this?

I guess ask Hank if you want to know more about Squid Ink and Big Suckers?

[Fact Off]

Bacteria RNA Edit

https://www.hawaii.edu/news/2020/11/20/bacteria-direct-hawaiian-squid/

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-11/uoha-bct111820.php

https://www.quantamagazine.org/new-squid-genome-shines-light-on-symbiotic-evolution-20190219/

The SciShow Video 

https://youtu.be/_XvgdNQsmVE?t=525

Octopus Apartment Building

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/10.1080/10236244.2012.727617

https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/09/why-octopuses-are-building-small-cities-off-the-coast-of-australia/

[Stump the Science Couch]

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/octopus-chronicles/why-don-t-octopuses-get-stuck-to-themselves/

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-dont-octopus-suckers-stick-their-own-skin-180951465/

 

Jan 12, 2021
SciShow Tangents Enhanced Classics - Experiments in Space
00:35:54

SciShow Tangents is still on a break, but we have another Enhanced Classics for you! This week, a rerun of Experiments in Space with a brand new Ask the Science Couch and Butt Fact!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Chicken Fat

https://www.nasa.gov/topics/aeronautics/features/aafex_biofuels.html

Bone loss

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=187

Perfume

https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/9-12/features/spacescents_feature.html

https://spinoff.nasa.gov/spinoff2002/ch_1.html

[Fact Off]

Wake Shield Facility

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920014405

https://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/pg46s95.html

https://uwaterloo.ca/molecular-beam-epitaxy/about/what-epitaxy

https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2002/03jan_bioniceyes

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0042207X01003839

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S009457650000148X

Image: https://archive.org/details/STS069-724-095

 

Mouse sperm experiment

https://www.pnas.org/content/114/23/5988

http://iss.jaxa.jp/en/kiboexp/theme/second/pmlatter/spacepup/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Rocket thrust

https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/UEET/StudentSite/engines.html

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/390-rockets-and-thrust

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228785798_The_merits_of_cold_gas_micropropulsion_in_state-of-the-art_space_missions

https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/rocket/rktth1.html

[Butt One More Thing]

ISS Toilet

Jan 05, 2021
SciShow Tangents Enhanced Classics - Light
00:35:36

SciShow Tangents is taking a short break, but we didn't want to totally leave you hanging! You're about to listen to a rerun of the Light episode, but with a special twist: we recorded a new Ask the Science Couch and Butt Fact! 

Next week we'll be posting another of these Enhanced Classics, then we'll start releasing regular, full-length episodes again. Thanks for hanging with us!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

EROS

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25788334

MOZE

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0389-0

FReSH

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature10428.html

[Fact Off]

Eidophor

https://www.earlytelevision.org/eidophor.html

https://hackaday.com/2016/03/15/retrotechtacular-eidophor-an-unknown-widely-used-projector/

http://www.film-tech.com/ubb/f1/t004319.html

http://www.earlytelevision.org/yanczer_eidophor.html

Centennial light

http://www.centennialbulb.org/index.htm

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/66009/light-bulb-has-been-burning-1901

https://www.lampsplus.com/ideas-and-advice/how-an-incandescent-light-bulb-works/

https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-history/dawn-of-electronics/the-great-lightbulb-conspiracy

https://www.npr.org/2019/03/27/707188193/the-phoebus-cartel

[Ask the Science Couch]

Incandescence: 

http://edisontechcenter.org/incandescent.html

https://physlab.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Planck_ref8.pdf

https://www.fi.edu/history-resources/edisons-lightbulb

LEDs:

https://www.circuitbasics.com/what-is-a-diode/

http://needtoknow.nas.edu/www7.nationalacademies.org/led-lighting/index-2.html

https://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/nlpip/lightinganswers/led/color.asp

https://www.mrsec.psu.edu/content/light-emitting-diodes

[Butt One More Thing]

Fluorescent E.coli for colitis

https://www.embopress.org/doi/full/10.15252/msb.20167416

Dec 29, 2020
Stefan's Favorite Things
00:35:35


Join us as we send Stefan off in grand style by talking a lot about the things that bring him great joy in life: getting yolked, going to the store, and dice. He’s a complicated fellow!

Stefan, it has been a great joy to co-host this silly show with you for the last two years! I know I speak for everyone when I say we will miss hearing your voice every week. Thank you for everything!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

 

[Truth or Fail]

Spiders in cars

https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2014/04/mazda-issues-recall-because-spiders-invade-fuel-tank-causing-fire-risk.html

https://www.popsci.com/blog-network/eek-squad/why-do-spiders-apparently-cars-so-much/

http://delusion.ucdavis.edu/yellowsac.html

https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/toyota-is-recalling-more-than-800-000-cars-because-of-spiders/280694/

Artificial Christmas trees made from car scraps

https://www.aluminum.org/product-markets/automotive

https://digitalcollections.lib.washington.edu/digital/collection/imlsmohai/id/14565/

https://books.google.com/books?id=OlmGjEU7qU4C&pg=PA178&

https://abcnews.go.com/US/ChristmasCountdown/story?id=1414607

Mailing heavy car pieces

https://about.usps.com/who-we-are/postal-history/bank-of-vernal.pdf

https://www.deseret.com/2014/11/24/20553427/legend-of-vernal-bank-built-by-bricks-sent-through-post-office-partly-true

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kit_car

[Fact Off]

Wheaties jingle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJpeR6GvpC8

Workout clothing that regulates temperature

https://news.mit.edu/2017/moisture-responsive-workout-suit-0519

http://www.digra.org/wp-content/uploads/digital-library/DiGRA_2020_paper_88.pdf

[Ask the Science Stefan Couch]

Random dice rolls

How random is dice rolling? http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8738/f63758598ca711c49817f9187f13c22a9893.pdf

[Butt One More Thing]

Farting games

http://www.digra.org/wp-content/uploads/digital-library/DiGRA_2020_paper_88.pdf

Dec 22, 2020
Ceri's Favorite Things
00:35:14


This week, we celebrate the brains of this whole operation: Ceri! 

This episode starts out incredibly wholesome! There are beagles, Pokemon, gardening… but, per usual, Ceri has to make it all about body horror in the end. Find out what terrible modifications she’d make to the human body!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

 

[Fact Off]

Pokemon memory study

Articles:

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-05/su-abr050219.php

https://www.theverge.com/2019/5/6/18531287/pokemon-neuroscience-visual-cortex-brain-information

https://massivesci.com/articles/pokemon-detective-pikachu-brains-video-games/

https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn7567-why-your-brain-has-a-jennifer-aniston-cell/

https://www.sciencealert.com/if-you-were-a-pokemon-whizz-as-a-kid-it-might-be-etched-in-your-brain

Paper:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332900464_Extensive_childhood_experience_with_Pokemon_suggests_eccentricity_drives_organization_of_visual_cortex

Stanford Video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kEIuQRHElcQ&ab_channel=Stanford

SciShow Video:

https://youtu.be/UWEZiOZZ0uA

Beagle & polar bear poop

http://cincinnatizoo.org/news-releases/can-a-canine-detect-polar-bear-pregnancy/

https://blog.nationalgeographic.org/2013/11/12/elvis-the-dog-sniffs-out-pregnant-polar-bears/?utm_source=reddit.com

https://www.wvxu.org/post/no-cubs-anana-zoos-polar-bear-not-pregnant#stream/0

http://blog.cincinnatizoo.org/2014/09/01/how-can-you-tell-if-a-polar-bear-is-pregnant/

[Ask the Science Ceri Couch]

Oxygen tank organ 

https://www.nature.com/news/making-the-most-of-muscle-oxygen-1.13202

https://jeb.biologists.org/content/218/14/2180

https://jeb.biologists.org/content/214/15/2455

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23160832/

https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/112428/12953_2004_Article_18.pdf;jsessionid=BF3DFABDCA9CECAFF34406DB7BF9BE50?sequence=1

Electrogenic organ

https://opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiologyopenstax/chapter/skeletal-muscle/

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-electric-eels-gene

https://jeb.biologists.org/content/212/9/1351

https://jeb.biologists.org/content/216/13/2451

https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2005/24jun_electrostatics

[Butt One More Thing]

Pigeon poop hair bleach

https://www.hji.co.uk/blonde/brief-history-of-blondes-hair-historian/

https://books.google.com/books?id=Yw_0DwAAQBAJ&pg=PT48&lpg=PT48

Dec 15, 2020
Sam's Favorite Things
00:31:00
Dec 08, 2020
Hank's Favorite Things
00:32:30

Season 2 of SciShow Tangents is coming to a close, and to celebrate, we’re honoring each of our panelists with episodes about their favorite things! We’re starting, of course, with our fearless leader and professional liker-of-strange-and-amazing-things: Hank!  

At the end of the month, we'll be naming the winner of this season and announcing the new name of the Tangents currency, so stay tuned!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Pressure-sensitive Adhesives

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure-sensitive_adhesive

Malaria Detector

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181029102828.htm

Urine-Powered Transmitter

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/12/151211130103.htm

https://uwe-repository.worktribe.com/preview/844724/Wearable-MFC%2010-7-15_unedited.pdf

[Fact Off]

Cats eating grass

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/08/mystery-solved-why-cats-eat-grass

Metal whiskers

http://thor.inemi.org/webdownload/newsroom/Presentations/SMTAI-04_tin_whiskers.pdf

https://nepp.nasa.gov/whisker/background/index.htm

https://phys.org/news/2012-12-doctoral-student-unravels-tin-whisker.html

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1359646218300319

https://www.sharrettsplating.com/blog/alternatives-to-cadmium-for-plating-connectors/

[Ask the Science Hank Couch]

Wombat butts

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2016/10/06/wombats-have-buns-of-steel-and-they-might-literally-be-deadly/

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2018/11/wombat-poop-cube-why-is-it-square-shaped/

Caterpillar poop

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2003/03/frass-flies

Hydra butt

https://www.livescience.com/53980-terrifying-mouth-of-a-hydra.html

[Butt One More Thing]

Peru guano

https://www.audubon.org/news/holy-crap-trip-worlds-largest-guano-producing-islands

https://www.bbc.com/news/business-11153967

Dec 01, 2020
Vegetables
00:35:41

In the immortal words of Brian Wilson: "I'm gonna be round my vegetables, I'm gonna chow down my vegetables, I love you most of all... my favorite vegetable"

And he's right, too. 

In this episode we get down in the dirt with our favorite veggies. Carrots... broccoli... and all the rest. All that, and Ceri tries out a fun new pun!

[Truth or Fail]

Sponge gourds

https://www.lewisginter.org/luffa-plant-exfoliate/

Grasspea

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6422318/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214514116300629

https://www.cwrdiversity.org/the-curious-case-of-the-grasspea/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20510335/

https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/CropFactSheets/grasspea.html

Wild carrots

http://www.carrotmuseum.co.uk/wild.html

https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/poison-hemlock-identification-and-control

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6150177/

[Fact Off]

Spinach and growing organs 

https://www.wpi.edu/news/wpi-team-grows-heart-tissue-spinach-leaves

https://api.nationalgeographic.com/distribution/public/amp/news/2017/03/human-heart-spinach-leaf-medicine-science?utm_source=reddit.com

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2017/03/27/scientists-convert-spinach-leaves-into-human-heart-tissue-that-beats/

https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5a63bdefdc2b4ac54c102232/t/5a90cfc0ec212d945185b364/1519439811042/CYSJLabWinter2017.pdf#page=6

Beet smell geosmin

[Ask the Science Couch]

Asparagus pee

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1379935/pdf/brjclinpharm00087-0116.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1715705/pdf/brmedj00052-0020.pdf

https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article/36/1/9/442551

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20140818-mystery-of-asparagus-and-urine

https://www.bmj.com/content/355/bmj.i6071

https://www.livescience.com/57199-why-some-people-cant-smell-asparagus-pee.html

https://theconversation.com/that-distinctive-springtime-smell-asparagus-pee-94696

[Butt One More Thing]

Beeturia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537012/

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319447#Beetroot-pigments

Nov 24, 2020
Wood
00:35:08

If you look out a window right now, you're probably going to see a tree. And that tree? Why, it's made out of wood, friend. And that's where things start to get interesting... 

Get ready to meet Hank's newest alter-ego: Mr. Wood. He's basically Hank, but he just can't stop talking about wood! I had to cut like 3 different, very long stories he told about wood! The man LOVES wood!


Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Shipworms

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shipworms

Dynamite

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/tunneling-clam-bedeviled-humans-sank-ships-conquered-oceans-180961288/

Bounty Gaming

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/hanoi-rat-massacre-1902

[Fact Off]

Super Wood

Article: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180207151829.htm

Paper: https://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf2018/fpl_2018_song001.pdf

Screwdriver test: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BStJLI7WQ8g&ab_channel=VOANews

Ballistic test: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVbczXDFe1Q&ab_channel=MarylandNanoCenter

Metallic Wood

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-01/uop-pe012819.php

[Ask the Science Couch]

Splinters

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0615/p2557.html

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0901/p683.html

http://www.the-dermatologist.com/content/treating-rare-fungal-infections-sporotrichosis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4082545/

[Butt One More Thing]

Toilet paper 

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/622513/reason-toilet-paper-always-white

Nov 17, 2020
Architecture
00:31:09

When you think architecture, you’re probably thinking blueprints, slide rules, maybe a compass or something, I don’t know. But it turns out some of our animal brethren can hold their own when it comes to building stuff, and they don’t have any of those fancy tools! They have, like, their mouths!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Blinds: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171130122759.htm

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adma.201703653

Algae: https://earthbuddies.net/algae-curtain/

Electric Bacteria: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/02/electric-bacteria-create-currents-out-thin-and-thick-air#:~:text=Generating%20electricity%20from%20thin%20air,there's%20moisture%20in%20the%20air.

[Fact Off]

Crystal in hornet nests

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2001/06/mystery-hornets-nest 

https://geology.com/minerals/ilmenite.shtml 

https://www.nature.com/articles/35079679 

https://books.google.com/books?id=If229i4wRQEC&pg=PA25 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jemt.20168 

Neolamprologus obscurus burrows

https://www.popsci.com/fish-teamwork-snare-shrimp/

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00265-018-2566-7

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180306101713.htm

[Ask the Science Couch]

Concrete & environmental impacts

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-46455844

https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2019/feb/25/concrete-the-most-destructive-material-on-earth

https://constructionclimatechallenge.com/2016/07/07/green-building-materials-that-are-alternatives-to-concrete/

https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2016/mar/04/making-concrete-green-reinventing-the-worlds-most-used-synthetic-material

https://www.ny-engineers.com/blog/how-can-concrete-construction-be-greener 

[Butt One More Thing]

Japanese transparent public toilet

https://www.dezeen.com/2020/08/17/shigeru-ban-transparent-toyko-toilet-shibuya 

https://tokyotoilet.jp/en/

Nov 10, 2020
Migration
00:32:43

It’s our 100th episode! And to celebrate our migration from double- to triple-digits, we’re talking about… animal migration... Ok, we forgot it was our 100th episode. But this is still a great episode!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

 

[Truth or Fail]

Arrow Stork

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/76208/how-stork-solved-scientific-mystery

https://www.realclearscience.com/blog/2018/02/19/the_weirdest_ideas_about_bird_migration.html

https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/zoological-collection-of-the-university-of-rostock

https://labandfield.wordpress.com/2013/11/03/bird_migration/

[Fact Off]

American and European eel migration

https://www.jstor.org/stable/2449503?seq=3#metadata_info_tab_contents

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-37563100

https://jeb.biologists.org/content/208/7/1329

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms9705

https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/mystery-of-the-vanishing-eels

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/10/e1501694

https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/sargassosea.html

Army ant bivouac 

[Ask the Science Couch]

Forest migration

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/features/BorealMigration

https://www.npr.org/2020/07/28/896030567/believe-it-or-not-forests-migrate-but-not-fast-enough-for-climate-change

https://daily.jstor.org/the-incredible-moving-forest/

[Butt One More Thing]

Starling poop 

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-01-05/rome-is-drowning-in-the-droppings-of-a-million-migrating-starlings

Nov 03, 2020
The Science of Scary Sounds - A SciShow Tangents Audio Adventure
00:18:00

Monster Month bursts from the grave with one last shocking surprise! Enjoy this audio adventure through a haunted house, as Scary Ceri guides you through some of the spookiest sounds around! Be sure to wear your… deadphones! Ha ha ha ha ha!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Definition]

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181681/

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00761/full

[Natural Sounds]

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/out-the-ooze/201511/what-makes-house-feel-haunted

https://www.businessinsider.com/why-horror-films-scary-fear-neuroscience-psychology-2016-10

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-the-wolf-howling-effect-used-in-horror-movies

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/07/why-screams-are-so-scary

https://www.nyu.edu/about/news-publications/news/2015/july/researchers-find-the-acoustic-signature-of-screams.html

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(15)00737-X

[Music]

https://slate.com/culture/2012/06/in-scientific-studies-of-music-whats-missing-is-the-culture.html

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsbl.2012.0374

https://arstechnica.com/science/2016/07/the-jaws-theme-might-not-be-scary-for-tsimane-people/

https://mcgovern.mit.edu/2020/06/16/universal-musical-harmony/

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-16448-6

https://qz.com/quartzy/1429949/devils-interval-what-makes-music-sound-scary/

[Extreme Highs & Lows]

https://www.newscientist.com/article/2123018-the-feeling-you-get-when-nails-scratch-a-blackboard-has-a-name/

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00131/full

https://scienceline.org/2011/10/why-do-we-hate-the-sound-of-nails-on-a-chalkboard/

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Sound/infrasound.html

http://www.nbcnews.com/id/3077192#.X2kUu5NKhxw

http://www.richardwiseman.com/resources/ghost-in-machine.pdf

https://web.archive.org/web/20110929142806/http://www.psy.herts.ac.uk/ghost/Something-in-the-Cellar.pdf

[Butt One More Thing]

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11031-018-9673-7#Sec14

https://www.livescience.com/62165-how-to-overcome-embarrassment-fart-study.html  

Oct 30, 2020
Monster Month: Monster Mash
00:31:37

Monster Month meets its ghoulish end, and we’re throwing it a swinging wake! This week, all the monsters we didn’t talk about during the rest of October come together for a great big Monster Mash!

Halloween is my favorite time of year, and this one has been more than a little weird. But working on Monster Month helped make up for some of the creepy fun I'm missing out on, and I hope it did the same for you!

RIP Monster Month! For now...

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

 

[Truth or Fail]

King Kong suit experiments

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(15)00946-X

https://www.livescience.com/52209-apes-remember-ancitipate-scary-movie-scenes.html

 

Thieving puppet experiment

https://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/research-with-thieving-puppets-demonstrates-toddlers-caring-sides/

Parrots wasting food

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/02/science/why-parrots-waste-food.html

Social interaction puppet experiment

https://munewsarchives.missouri.edu/news-releases/2015/0210-babies-can-identify-complex-social-situations-and-react-accordingly-2/

 

[Fact Off]

 

Birdcatcher tree

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-tropical-ecology/article/dispersal-and-germination-of-seeds-of-pisonia-grandis-an-indopacific-tropical-tree-associated-with-insular-seabird-colonies/60178D05BB8FFDED4565F2EB72E9061D

https://www.sciencealert.com/this-tree-seems-to-kill-birds-just-for-the-heck-of-it

https://www.academia.edu/16969627/_Birdlime_Sticky_Entrapments_in_Renaissance_Literature_

https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/this-tree-lures-birds-with-a-free-lunch-and-then-kills-them/2017/03/31/27aa04c0-1309-11e7-9e4f-09aa75d3ec57_story.html

https://www.theargus.co.uk/news/16882829.birds-killed-illegal-glue-traps-horsham-nature-reserve/

 

Bloodsucking (Capri Son) ant

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-12/uoia-dap120618.php

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9dsINb64Q0&feature=youtu.be&ab_channel=AntLab

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/dracula-ants-snapping-jaws-are-fastest-known-appendage-any-animal-180971061/#:~:text=According%20to%20Hannah%20Devlin%20of,them%20%E2%80%9Cfull%20of%20holes.%E2%80%9D

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/running-ponies/shadow-labyrinth-mirror-new-species-of-child-eating-dracula-ants-get-cool-ninja-names/

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-03/pp-snd032814.php

 

[Ask the Science Couch]

 

Organ transplants

https://www.cedars-sinai.org/programs/transplant-center/programs/kidney-pancreas/abo-incompatibility.html

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/transplant/programs/reconstructive_transplant/hand_transplant.html

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41423-019-0215-3

https://jbioleng.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13036-017-0089-9

 

Blood compatibility 

https://www.rch.org.au/bloodtrans/about_blood_products/Blood_Groups_and_Compatibilities/

https://www.cedars-sinai.org/programs/transplant-center/programs/kidney-pancreas/abo-incompatibility.html

 

[Butt One More Thing]

 

Yeti poop actually bears

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2017/11/yeti-legends-real-animals-dna-bears-himalaya-science/



 

 

Oct 27, 2020
Monster Month: Vampires
00:33:51

Monster Month turns up the spooky sex appeal as we talk about the hunkiest monster in Monster Town: vampires! 

 

What monster do you think is the hunkiest? Or how about least-hunkiest (sort of tricky! They can all be hunks in their own way)? Send us a tweet and let us know! 

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

 

[Truth or Fail]

 

Wireworms

https://extension.entm.purdue.edu/fieldcropsipm/insects/corn-wireworms.php

https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1119566-overview

 

Vampire Ground Finch

http://blog.discoveringgalapagos.org.uk/vampire-finch/

 

Japanese Wild Boars

https://www.nal.usda.gov/fsrio/research-projects/silver-nanoparticles-pesticide-agricultural-applications#:~:text=Silver%20nanoparticles%20have%20received%20significant,resistance%20to%20existing%20chemical%20pesticides.

https://www.scmp.com/news/asia/east-asia/article/2136652/wild-boars-are-taking-over-japans-small-towns-and-residents-are



 

[Fact Off]

 

Blood battery

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160429095849.htm

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/science/Scientists-create-bio-batteries-which-can-be-charged-with-human-sweat/articleshow/40198217.cms

https://futurism.com/blood-is-helping-us-make-the-next-generation-of-batteries

 

Tick traumatic insemination 

https://www.pnas.org/content/116/29/14682

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2011/08/immune-system-protects-female-bedbugs-traumatic-sex

https://phys.org/news/2019-07-female-bed-bugs-immune-stis.html

 

[Ask the Science Couch]

 

Teeth/beak/etc puncture

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/c/common-vampire-bat/

https://www.dec.ny.gov/animals/7242.html

https://academic.oup.com/beheco/article/11/2/154/204658

https://zslpublications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00583.x

 

Specialized mouthpiece straw

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/06/07/480653821/watch-mosquitoes-use-6-needles-to-suck-your-blood

https://web.natur.cuni.cz/parasitology/vyuka/LekEnt_CV/The%20Biology%20of%20Blood-Sucking%20in%20Insects.pdf

 

[Butt One More Thing]

 

Vampire bat poop

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/22/science/vampire-bats-blood.html

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-018-0476-8

Oct 20, 2020
Monster Month: Living Dead
00:34:37

Monster Month shambles on! This week: the living dead! We’re talking zombies, we’re talking Frankensteins, we’re talking skeletons. And by the end, things get downright poignant!

Also in this episode, an all time Hank hot take about ghosts. I’d love to hash that one out more, so be sure to hit him up on Twitter so we can all figure out why he thinks ghosts are alive… 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Brazilian Treehoppers

https://io9.gizmodo.com/the-brazilian-treehopper-may-be-the-strangest-creature-5975761

https://www.sciencefocus.com/nature/what-is-a-brazilian-treehopper/

Cicada Wing Flicking

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-02/uoc-iot022218.php

Protective Ant Fungus

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-05/ps-tzf050212.php

[Fact Off]

Neochromosomes (Frankenstein’s monster chromosomes) & cancer

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-11/giom-ssm110514.php

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905327/

https://www.nature.com/articles/515314b

https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(14)00373-0

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature14493

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383574218300322

https://www.nature.com/articles/4401161

Glass knifefish brain transplant

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-03/njio-sb032420.php

https://news.njit.edu/simulated-frankenfish-brain-swaps-reveal-senses-control-body-movement

[Ask the Science Couch]

Trying to reanimate animal corpses

https://www.livescience.com/65542-zombies-real-resurrection-experiments.html

https://io9.gizmodo.com/real-life-scientists-who-meddled-with-life-and-death-5949176

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15595271/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003497500010912

Animal brains

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01216-4

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0006899374904788

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/168/3929/375



 

[Butt One More Thing]

 

Dead butt syndrome

https://www.healthline.com/health/dead-butt-syndrome

Oct 13, 2020
Monster Month: Ghosts!
00:31:13

It’s ba-ack! Fear Month is back from the dead in a hideous new form: Monster Month! This week we’re busting out the Ouija board and summoning forth some Ghostly science knowledge from beyond this earthly plane! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Bioluminescent/reflective animals

https://www.owlpages.com/owls/articles.php?a=18

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsta.2014.0206

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/07/150724-fireflies-glow-bugs-summer-nation-science/

Marsh gases

https://cen.acs.org/articles/92/i38/George-Washington-Scientist.html

https://www.popsci.com/jack-o-lanterns-marsh-lights/

https://discovernjhistory.org/magical-mud-microbes-and-methane/

https://www.nj.gov/state/historical/it-happened-here/ihhnj-er-first-science-ex.pdf

https://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/rocky-hill-experiment/

Pepper's ghost illusion

https://cosmosmagazine.com/physics/the-science-behind-the-pepper-s-ghost-illusion/

http://www.theatrecrafts.com/pages/home/glossary-of-technical-theatre-terms/more-about-peppers-ghost/

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/aekye5/the-science-behind-the-worlds-most-convincing-ghost-effect


[Fact Off]

Feeling of presence ghost robot

https://www.wired.com/2014/11/robot-ghost/

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/this-robot-messes-with-your-brain-until-you-feel-a-ghostly-presence/

Ghost fleas and mercury

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/07/ghost-fleas-bring-toxic-mercury-depths-prairie-lakes

https://www.sciencetimes.com/articles/26294/20200701/ghost-fleas-act-mercury-elevators-bring-toxin-up-depths-lake.htm

[Ask the Science Couch]

EMF readers

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/11/the-broken-technology-of-ghost-hunting/506627/

https://www.livescience.com/4261-shady-science-ghost-hunting.html

https://io9.gizmodo.com/meet-the-emf-meter-the-little-tool-that-ghost-hunters-5875212

 

Oct 06, 2020
SciShow Tangents Classics - Bats
00:33:24

We're taking a short dirt nap this week in preparation for October's frightening festivities! Enjoy this classic, slightly spooky episode and join us next week as we kick off Monster Month!

It'll be worth the wait, I promise!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Poem]

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/these-pitcher-plants-call-bats-get-their-poo-180956014/

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsbl.2010.1141

[Truth or Fail]

Bats that spend time on the ground:

http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2005/03/vampire-bats-keep-out-trouble-running-study-shows

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16621953

https://www.australiangeographic.com.au/blogs/creatura-blog/2018/01/why-fly-when-you-can-shuffle-the-lesser-short-tailed-bat-prefers-the-ground/

Diurnal bats:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2018/11/daytime-bats-help-explain-nocturnal-evolution/

https://blogs.plos.org/ecology/2017/06/29/bat-species-found-only-on-islands-in-trouble-worldwide/

https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/mamm.ahead-of-print/mammalia-2017-0128/mammalia-2017-0128.xml

Suction cup bats:

https://www.wired.com/2010/04/how-sucker-winged-bats-hang-on/

[Fact Off]

Bat & dolphin echolocation:

https://evolutionnews.org/2012/05/tangling_the_tr/

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2010/01/hear-bats-and-whales-share-sonar-protein

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(09)02073-9

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12511

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/refined-fine-tuned-placental-mammal-family-tree/

Moth echolocation blocker:

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2009/07/moths-block-bats-sonar

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/325/5938/325?keytype=ref&siteid=sci&ijkey=GbDjRlkoHfRnY

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/phenomena/2009/07/17/tiger-moths-jam-the-sonar-of-bats/

http://jeb.biologists.org/content/214/14/2416

[Ask the Science Couch]

White-nose syndrome:

https://www.biologicaldiversity.org/campaigns/bat_crisis_white-nose_syndrome/Q_and_A.html

https://www.whitenosesyndrome.org/static-page/what-is-white-nose-syndrome

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-bats-could-bounce-back-devastating-white-nose-syndrome-180969378/

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02441-z

https://www.mdpi.com/2309-608X/4/2/48

[Butt One More Thing]

Bat guano gunpowder:

https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/dkc09  

Sep 29, 2020
Language with Deboki Chakravarti
00:34:33

What would a podcast be without language? Perhaps a series of soothing tones? Maybe frog sounds? Wait… that sounds nice… 

Need more sweet language knowledge? 

Crash Course Linguistics: https://youtu.be/eDop3FDoUzk

Want more Deboki? 

Journey to the Microcosmos: https://youtu.be/17tug6T-4jc

Crash Course Organic Chemistry: https://youtu.be/bSMx0NS0XfY

And follow her on Twitter: https://twitter.com/okidoki_boki

And every other Tangents episode! She does a ton of behind the scenes work and we’d, frankly, be screwed without her! Thank you, Deboki!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

 

[Truth or Fail]

Mustached bat sounds and syntax

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7962992/
 

 

Heaps Law

https://www.johndcook.com/blog/2019/08/27/heaps-law/

 

Jackass penguin honks

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsbl.2019.0589
https://www.livescience.com/jackass-penguin-linguistic-rules.html
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/jackass-penguin-calls-follow-similar-rules-human-speech-180974139/
https://youtu.be/oTOcJj_NNUg
 

 

Speed dating communication

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2012/04/30/151550273/to-predict-dating-success-the-secrets-in-the-pronouns

 

Prairie dog chatter
https://www.prairiedoghoogland.com/vocalizations
https://academic.oup.com/jmammal/article/79/3/887/859259

[Fact Off]

Facebook machine learning of language 

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-03/uops-fuc030620.php

Hypothetical spaceship language

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/07/200706145433.htm

https://zenodo.org/record/3747353#.X1j66nlKiJc

[Ask the Science Couch]

Human language efficiency 

https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2016/06/complex-languages/489389/

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/9/eaaw2594

http://www.ithkuil.net/00_intro.html

Computer languages 

https://thenewstack.io/which-programming-languages-use-the-least-electricity/

https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/compiled-versus-interpreted-languages/

[Butt One More Thing]

Pumpernickel

https://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/wordroutes/the-devilish-origins-of-pumpernickel/

 

Sep 22, 2020
Eyeballs
00:32:18

Jeepers creepers, today we’re talking about peepers! 

 

I can't come up with anything that would really add to the above description of the episode, but I also feel like I owe you guys more than that... so hey, what's up? Excited for Halloween? Watching any good shows? I'm sort of out of shows... 

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

 

[Truth or Fail]

 

Bat Eyes

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/78kwdz/bats-crash-into-each-other-all-the-time-high-speed-cameras-reveal

 

Guitarfish Eyes

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/instead-eyelids-fish-has-special-muscles-retract-its-eyeball-180957005/

 

https://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/sharks-rays/sharks#:~:text=Sharks%20have%20eyelids%2C%20but%20they,damage%20when%20fighting%20or%20feeding.&text=In%20addition%2C%20some%20species%20have,the%20eye%20in%20dicey%20situations.

 

Goat Eyes

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/08/07/430149677/eye-shapes-of-the-animal-world-hint-at-differences-in-our-lifestyles

 

[Fact Off]

 

Glowing Contacts

https://www.caltech.edu/about/news/glowing-contact-lens-could-prevent-leading-cause-blindness-82050

https://orionvisiongroup.com/blog/glow-in-the-dark-contact-treatment-diabetic-retinopathy/#:~:text=Diabetic%20Retinopathy%20%E2%80%93%20The%20Facts,the%20precursor%20to%20nerve%20death.

 

Cockeyed squids

https://today.duke.edu/2017/02/mismatched-eyes-help-squid-survive-ocean%E2%80%99s-twilight-zone

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2016.0069

https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/this-squid-gives-better-side-eye-than-you

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-does-someone-get-two/

 

[Ask the Science Couch]

 

Eye shapes

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/90509/13-furry-facts-about-pallass-cat

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/7/e1500391

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/08/07/430149677/eye-shapes-of-the-animal-world-hint-at-differences-in-our-lifestyles

 

[Butt One More Thing]

 

Cow butt eye

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/painting-eyes-cow-butts-could-save-cow-and-lion-lives-180975601/

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/627983/save-cow-from-predators-paint-eyes-on-its-butt

Sep 15, 2020
Cars
00:31:28

Beep beep, toot toot, etc. 

Cars are definitely one of the more common-place things we’ve talked about on Tangents… yet to some, including many on our panel, they are even more mysterious and confusing than the human body or the fundamental forces of nature! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

 

[Truth or Fail]

Freeze-drying

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-03/nuos-nit031820.php

Replacing human tissues

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-03/cuot-nrm031320.php

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.9b01924

Batteries

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140827151654.htm

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2014/RA/C4RA03888F#!divAbstract

 

[Fact Off]

Added engine noise

https://www.caranddriver.com/features/a15117726/faking-it-engine-sound-enhancement-explained-tech-dept/

https://www.carthrottle.com/post/5-ways-that-manufacturers-enhance-the-sound-of-their-cars/

https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/americas-best-selling-cars-and-trucks-are-built-on-lies-the-rise-of-fake-engine-noise/2015/01/21/6db09a10-a0ba-11e4-b146-577832eafcb4_story.html

https://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/a7923/the-rise-of-the-fake-engine-roar-11291754/

https://www.caranddriver.com/features/a15107374/this-is-why-various-engine-types-sound-so-different-feature/

 

[Ask the Science Couch]

Wheels vs. tracks

https://litetrax.com/wheels-vs-tracks-advantages-disadvantages/

https://www.macallisterrentals.com/track-vs-wheeled-equipment-type-machine-rent/

3 vs. 4 wheels

https://thenewswheel.com/why-do-cars-have-four-wheels/

https://jalopnik.com/why-three-wheels-are-better-than-four-5950307

 

[Butt One More Thing]

https://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(07)01404-5/pdf


 

Sep 08, 2020
Black Holes
00:34:05

Does the Tangents crew know anything about black holes? Not really. But when has that ever stopped us? Let’s get theoretical! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

 

[Truth or Fail]

Gravastar

https://www.universetoday.com/24299/types-of-stars/

https://web.archive.org/web/20061213095149/http://www.lanl.gov/news/releases/archive/02-035.shtml

Blanet

https://www.sciencealert.com/we-have-ploonets-we-have-moonmoons-now-hold-onto-your-hats-for-blanets

https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.15198

Massteroid

https://www.space.com/51-asteroids-formation-discovery-and-exploration.html

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/basics/primer/

 

[Fact Off]

Stealing energy from black hole

http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ph240/nagasawa2/

https://www.sciencealert.com/an-experiment-has-just-demonstrated-how-energy-could-be-extracted-from-a-black-hole

https://www.gla.ac.uk/news/headline_727690_en.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=73&v=ES2VxhRAkUM&feature=emb_title

https://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/astronomy-terms/black-hole.htm#:~:text=The%20Schwarzschild%20black%20hole%20is,singularity%20and%20an%20event%20horizon.&text=The%20Kerr%20black%20hole%2C%20which,it%20was%20formed%20was%20rotating.

https://www.quora.com/What-is-an-ergosphere

https://www.howmusicworks.org/103/Sound-and-Music/Amplitude-and-Frequency#:~:text=There%20are%20two%20main%20properties,how%20loud%20the%20sound%20is.&text=A%20frequency%20of%201%20Hz%20means%20one%20wave%20cycle%20per%20second.



[Ask the Science Couch]

White holes

https://www.space.com/white-holes.html

https://www.discovermagazine.com/the-sciences/white-holes-do-black-holes-have-mirror-images

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1HqOEbq2L4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4aqGI1mSqo

 

[Butt One More Thing]

Carl Sagan BHA

https://www.engadget.com/2014-02-26-when-carl-sagan-sued-apple-twice.html#:~:text=In%20the%20wake%20of%20Sagan's,first%20place%20is%20beyond%20comical.



 

Sep 01, 2020
Birds with Jason Ward
00:33:05

Birder Jason Ward joins the science couch to teach us about the wonder and majesty of birds both big and small... then he tells us stories about birds pooping on him!

Hungry for more Jason Ward content? 

Check out his Twitter: @JasonWardNY

And his YouTube series, Birds of North America: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1FvoppCDT1k

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out SciShowTangnets.org!

Aug 25, 2020
Milk
00:30:44

Milk is pretty normal, right? Boring even! But have you ever thought about it? Like, really thought about it? We have! And I gotta say, it led us to some challenging places. 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

 

Aug 18, 2020
Listener Mailbag
00:29:55

We get A LOT of questions from our listeners! So this week we decided to put the competition on hold, open up the old Tangents Mailbag, and answer a few of them! 

 

Get ready to learn some of our deepest secrets, like what Ceri thinks about yogurt and Stefan's milk conundrum! There are other, less dairy related things in this episode, too. Once again, thank you all for your support and for all of the amazing questions you ask us every week. We couldn't do it without you!

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:
Artificial sugars

http://www.madehow.com/Volume-3/Aspartame.html

https://sucralose.org/sucralose-facts/#:~:text=Sucralose%20is%20made%20by%20a,%2C%20but%20is%20calorie%2Dfree.

https://www.stevia.com/2016/10/03/how-is-stevia-leaf-extract-made/

https://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/edible-innovations/artificial-sweetener8.htm

http://www.yalescientific.org/2010/09/mythbusters-does-sugar-really-make-children-hyper/

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/391812

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7963081/

Photic sneezing

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-does-bright-light-cau/

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03012675

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1042271/

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-41551-0

Milk and bones

Whale hearing

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0118582

https://dosits.org/animals/sound-reception/marine-mammals-hear/hearing-in-cetaceans/

https://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/feature/how-to-see-what-whales-hear/

https://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/marine-mammals/keeping-ear-out-whale-evolution

http://repository.ias.ac.in/4651/1/321.pdf

Duck swimming 

https://www.audubon.org/news/webbed-feet-are-evolutionary-hit

https://academic.oup.com/biolinnean/article/110/3/543/2415604

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/veterinary-science-and-veterinary-medicine/uropygial-gland

https://academy.allaboutbirds.org/feathers-article/

Multivitamins

[Butt One More Thing]

Anal pouches

https://books.google.com/books?id=IETMd3-lSlkC&pg=PA99&lpg=PA99

https://www.wired.com/2015/01/creature-feature-10-fun-facts-fossa/

Aug 11, 2020
Glowing Things
00:30:44

Glowing Things: is that a scientific topic? Yes, but not by much. In fact, we spend a lot of the episode figuring out of there even is a scientific definition of 'glow!' Very exciting!

Here's a little fun fact for all you Sam-heads out there: my favorite color is 'glow-in-the-dark green." That's right, I finally admit that I'm the one writing all these descriptions! I guess Ceri doesn't do everything after all, huh?! 

Peace,

Sam

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out SciShowTangents.org!

 

[Truth or Fail]

Foxfire

https://allthatsinteresting.com/foxfire-bioluminescence#:~:text=Foxfire%20is%20the%20informal%20term,together%20to%20form%20a%20glow.

Submarine

https://www.warhistoryonline.com/instant-articles/david-bushnells-turtle-of-1776.html

https://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/online-reading-room/title-list-alphabetically/s/submarine-turtle-naval-documents.html

There is a LOT about this submarine, and a lot of it is contradictory! A very fun Google rabbit hole to fall down. 

[Fact Off]

Death fluorescence 

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/blue-death-in-worms/

https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001613

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3735983/

Picture: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3735983/figure/F1/

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6S3D8Fy8N4

Millipede glowing genitals

https://academic.oup.com/zoolinnean/article/187/1/117/5475011?searchresult=1

The Brain Scoop video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SjNQUOYtZC0

[Ask the Science Couch]

Freezing glow sticks

https://www.compoundchem.com/2014/10/14/glowsticks/

https://www.thoughtco.com/how-do-lightsticks-work-607878

https://www2.chem.uic.edu/marek/apintropage/ap_notes/chapter18/rateseffectstempconcats.htm

[Butt One More Thing]

Glow Woims 

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/16/science/glow-worms-new-zealand.html

Aug 04, 2020
Proteins
00:33:26

What do proteins do? Heck, an easier question to answer would be 'what don't they do?" No, seriously... I think they do, like, everything. 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!

[Truth or Fail]

Protein game

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/victory-for-crowdsourced-biomolecule2/

Protein music

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190626125052.htm

Whey fabric

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-01/ded-ssa012317.php

[Fact Off]

Prions in wine yeast

https://phys.org/news/2014-08-prions-trigger-stuck-wine-fermentations.html#:~:text=Working%20through%20a%20prion%E2%80%94an,without%20altering%20the%20yeast's%20DNA.

Spider silk in vaccines

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/06/180612185155.htm

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-06/udg-ank061218.php

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961218302473?via%3Dihub

http://news.mit.edu/2019/spider-silk-humidity-robotic-muscle-0301

[Ask the Science Couch]

Complete proteins

https://goaskalice.columbia.edu/answered-questions/complete-and-incomplete-proteins-grains-and-vegetables

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002467.htm

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-03/cfgr-utr031119.php

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/134/6/1558S/4688841

[Butt One More Thing]

Sonic hedgehog anorectal malformation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1850556/

Jul 28, 2020
Frogs
00:32:57

What’s a frog? Well, it’s not quite a fish, and it’s not quite a lizard, but put them together and you have a stout, slimy little pal that everyone can agree on! Especially Ceri! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!

 

[Truth or Fail]

Glue

Image of crucifix frog: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Holy_Cross_Frog.jpg

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-05473-z

https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn6492-frog-glue-repairs-damaged-cartilage/

Sand

Image of tadpoles: https://www.thehindu.com/migration_catalog/article14128847.ece/ALTERNATES/LANDSCAPE_1200/31th-frog2.jpg

http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160330-these-newly-discovered-frogs-have-really-weird-tadpoles

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151781

Suction

Image of paradox frog tadpole: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NHM_London_Paradoxical_frog_(Pseudis_paradoxa)_model.jpg

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/31509/what-big-baby-life-and-times-paradox-frog

https://www.mtpr.org/post/field-notes-tale-montanas-strangest-frog

[Fact Off]

Foam-nest frogs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1D8b4e9nGwE

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0934

Frog cell robots

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200113175653.htm

https://www.pnas.org/content/117/4/1853

Video: https://movie-usa.glencoesoftware.com/video/10.1073/pnas.1910837117/video-1

[Ask the Science Couch]

Sticky frog tongues

https://theconversation.com/the-frog-tongue-is-a-high-speed-adhesive-72064

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsif.2016.0764

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/01/watch-frog-s-tongue-ultrasoft-shock-absorber

[Butt One More Thing]

Frog skin buttock graft

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2355278/?page=1

Jul 21, 2020
SciShow Tangents Classics - Bees
00:32:15

The Tangents crew needed to get out and enjoy some summer sun, so this week we're reposting our classic Bees episode! Tune in next week for a new episode!

Do you ever just wonder, “are the bees doing okay?” They’re so important to our food industry and native ecosystems, and every couple of years it seems like something horribly bad is happening to them. So this week, we’re taking a look at the fascinating lives and deaths of bees! Can they recognize human faces or understand the concept of zero? Why are blister beetles mimicking sexy bee pheromones? And what do nightclubs and honeybee hives have in common? 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out SciShowTangnets.org!

[Poem]

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/03/120316-hot-bee-balls-hornets-insects-brains-animals-science/

http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/206/2/353.full.pdf

[Truth or Fail]

  1. Handedness in bees
  2. Bees understanding zero
  3. Bees recognize faces

[Fact Off]

Blister beetles: 

Drunk bees:

[Ask the Science Couch]

CCD: 

https://www.epa.gov/pollinator-protection/colony-collapse-disorder

Glyphosate:

http://jeb.biologists.org/content/218/17/2799

https://www.glyphosate.eu/glyphosate-mechanism-action

https://www.pnas.org/content/115/41/10305

Native bees:

https://www.wired.com/2015/04/youre-worrying-wrong-bees/

http://www.xerces.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Xerces_policy_statement_HB_Final.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5722319/

[Butt One More Thing]

Isopentyl acetate:

https://www.extension.entm.purdue.edu/beehive/pdf/Breed_et_al.pdf

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/isoamyl_acetate#section=Top

 

Jul 14, 2020
Diseases
00:29:15

From toenails to T-cells, human bodies have a whole lot of moving parts, which means there’s ample opportunity for things to go not-quite-according-to-plan!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out SciShowTangents.org!

[Truth or Fail]

Salmonella

https://www.technologyreview.com/2007/09/25/223729/deadly-bacteria-from-outer-space/

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/in-space-infectious-diseases-reveal-their-true-nature-19761956/)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5515522/

UTI

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/technology/science/germs-in-space-tougher-and-deadlier/article694273/#:~:text=In%201970%2C%20Fred%20Haise%2C%20part,2006%20mission%2C%20including%20Pseudomonas%20aeruginosa.

https://history.nasa.gov/SP-350/ch-13-5.html

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23658630/

Green Muscle

https://extension.umd.edu/sites/extension.umd.edu/files/_docs/programs/poultry/IS1976%20Deep%20Pectoral%20Myopathy.pdf

Supplemental 

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/547736/what-happens-when-astronaut-gets-sick-space#:~:text=Astronauts%20floating%20around%20in%20zero,can%20sometimes%20cause%20an%20injury.&text=That%20happened%20with%20spaceflight%2Dassociated,their%20eyes%20during%20space%20missions.

[Fact Off]

Fake Typhus epidemic

https://archive.org/stream/NavyMedicine198004/Navy%20Medicine%201980-04#page/n27/mode/2up

https://www.cdc.gov/typhus/epidemic/index.html

https://www.dshs.texas.gov/lab/serology_agg.shtm

https://amednews.com/article/20040705/profession/307059953/6/

https://academic.oup.com/trstmh/article-abstract/37/5/321/1898852?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Glaucoma T-cells

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180810091530.htm

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-05681-9

Jul 07, 2020
Whales
00:30:45

The sea is filled with giant, super-smart aquatic mammals communicating across vast distances and using the stars to navigate. No jokes in this description! Whales are amazing!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out SciShowTangnets.org

[Truth or Fail]

Dogs sniffing out poop

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4703337/

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/meet-dogs-sniffing-out-whale-poop-science-180958050/

https://conservationbiology.uw.edu/research-programs/killer-whales/

https://www.biology.washington.edu/news/news/1504634400/tucker-orca-poop-detection-dog-seattlemet

Robots scooping poop

http://dcs.whoi.edu/

https://www.newsdeeply.com/oceans/articles/2018/02/22/whale-of-a-journey-robot-searches-for-elusive-humpbacks-on-high-seas

https://money.cnn.com/2016/09/30/technology/mit-robots-sewers/index.html

Whale litter box

https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/faking-out-whales

[Fact Off]

Whale heartbeat

https://www.pnas.org/content/116/50/25329

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-11/su-rrf112219.php

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/researchers-measure-blue-whales-heart-rate-first-time-180973662/

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/11/diving-blue-whales-heart-beats-very-very-slowly/602557/

Lunge feeding

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11135

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-05/uobc-gwh042815.php

https://www.americanscientist.org/article/the-ultimate-mouthful-lunge-feeding-in-rorqual-whales

https://www.popsci.com/whale-nerve-cells-can-stretch

https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0960982215002845

[Ask the Science Couch]

Whale navigation

https://www.wired.com/2011/04/humpback-whale-migration/

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsbl.2011.0279

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/solar-storms-might-throw-migrating-whales-course-180974278/

https://meridian.allenpress.com/jcr/article-abstract/doi/10.2112/SI75-111.1/29667/Coastal-Fronts-Utilized-by-Migrating-Humpback?redirectedFrom=PDF

https://www.livescience.com/63791-underwater-volcanoes-tasmania.html

[Butt One More Thing]

Anal syrup

http://whitelab.biology.dal.ca/rwb/kogiastat.pdf

https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/species/pygmy-sperm-whale

https://www.sciencefocus.com/nature/slimy-saliva-sticky-tongues-and-anal-syrup-3-of-the-slimiest-creatures-in-the-animal-kingdom/

Jun 30, 2020
Flying Machines
00:30:43

Humanity’s quest for flight has been, all things considered, extremely successful! Sure, we aren’t all zipping around in jetpacks yet… but honestly I don’t think we’re ready for jetpacks. 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out SciShowTangnets.org!

[Truth or Fail]

Donut-shaped aircraft

https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument?CC=US&NR=2014319274A1&KC=A1&FT=D&ND=3&date=20141030&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/flying-saucer-patents-alexander-weygers

https://patents.google.com/patent/US2377835A/en

Williams X-Jet

https://patents.google.com/patent/US4447024

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2000/sep/14/technology2

More pictures: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Williams_X-Jet#/media/File:Williams_X-Jet_-_side_view.jpg

Flying magic carpet 

https://books.google.com/books?id=biYDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA94&lpg=PA94&

https://www.theverge.com/2011/11/3/2504531/jetpack-history-future-passed

[Fact Off]

First aerial photograph

https://www.geriwalton.com/felix-nadars-giant-balloon-le-geant/#:~:text=Felix%20Nadar's%20giant%20balloon%2C%20or,known%20by%20the%20pseudonym%20Nadar.&text=Caricature%20of%20Nadar%20as%20a%20ballooning%20photographer.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/dec/23/books-felix-nadar-france-photography-flight

http://www.artinsociety.com/the-adventures-of-nadar-photography-ballooning-invention--the-impressionists.html

https://papa.clubexpress.com/content.aspx?page_id=22&club_id=808138&module_id=158950

Drone organ transport

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-04/uomm-uom042619.php

https://www.jems.com/2020/01/29/new-partnership-in-drone-delivery-system-for-human-organs/

https://weare.techohio.ohio.gov/2019/10/30/vyrtx-pioneers-air-corridor-for-drone-delivery-of-organs/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Alberto Santos-Dumont

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alberto-Santos-Dumont

https://www.cnet.com/news/were-the-wright-brothers-really-first-not-in-brazil/

https://www.cnn.com/2003/TECH/ptech/12/10/brazil.santosdumont.reut/

http://www.wright-brothers.org/History_Wing/History_of_the_Airplane/Who_Was_First/Santos_Dumont/Santos_Dumont.htm

[Butt One More Thing]

Airplane stinky poop

http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/31908620/ba-flight-forced-to-land-early-because-of-smelly-poo

Jun 23, 2020
The Internet
00:29:20

From the joyful to the hateful to the extremely weird, the Internet is all of the complexity of human thought given shape! And boy do humans think about cats and sex a lot!

I hope you're all doing well! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out SciShowTangnets.org!

Jun 16, 2020
Allergies
00:32:39
Jun 09, 2020
Healing
00:33:19

Are you suffering from mild boredom, a grumpy frown, and a general lack of extremely niche scientific knowledge? Well, SciShow Tangents has the cure for what ails you!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!

[Truth or Fail]

Cleaner Shrimp

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180823092057.htm

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00227-018-3379-y

Dolphin letter

https://web.archive.org/web/20111205105601/http://explore.georgetown.edu/news/?ID=57991&PageTemplateID=295

Stressed Mice

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/07/050729063608.htm

https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-dont-be-misled

[Fact Off]

Ant Medics

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajp.1350160407

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2018/02/matabele-ants-rescue-heal-injured-soldiers/

https://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-paramedic-ants-20180216-story.html

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2017.2457

Two-Headed Flatworms

https://www.cell.com/biophysj/fulltext/S0006-3495(17)30427-7

https://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002481

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005273612000855

[Ask the Science Couch]

Scar tissue vs. normal tissue

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-07430-w

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840475/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4352699/

https://medicine.yale.edu/dermatology/dermsurg/Chapter%2018%20Time%20and%20Care%20Heals%20All%20Wounds_36907_284_5_v1.pdf

Reducing scarring

https://medschool.cuanschutz.edu/surgery/specialties/endocrine/patient-care/adrenalectomy/scar-management

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/everyday-cuts-and-scrapes-how-to-prevent-scarring

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3842869/

Fetal wound healing

https://hsci.harvard.edu/skin-regeneration-and-rejuvenation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4229131/

[Butt One More Thing]

Cow poop poultice

https://books.google.com/books?id=0y6gAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA223&lpg=PA223&dq=In+dung#v=onepage&q=In%20dung&f=false

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/poultice

May 26, 2020
Games
00:32:19

Kicking the ball, passing another type of ball, running around the big arena and making a point! SciShow Tangents knows one thing and that one thing is SPORTS! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!

[Truth or Fail]

Crowd Noise

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/45821302_Crowd_Noise_as_a_Cue_in_Referee_Decisions_Contributes_to_the_Home_Advantage

https://www.earq.com/hearing-health/articles/going-to-a-football-game

https://www.hear-the-world.com/en/media/media-releases/world-cup-fans-warned-about-risk-of-hearing-damage-from-vuvuzela

RoboCup

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=350&v=H8xc6LpiNVs&feature=emb_title

https://www.forbes.com/sites/annatobin/2019/06/25/what-to-expect-from-robocup-2019-the-robotics-soccer-world-cup-kicks-off-july-2/#484935147485

https://www.robocup.org/leagues/3

HudGlasses

https://newatlas.com/form-ar-swim-goggles/60985/

https://www.dcrainmaker.com/2018/04/everysight-cycling-display.html

[Fact Off]

Rats playing hide-and-seek

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/09/why-scientists-taught-rats-play-hide-and-seek/597799/

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/09/lab-rats-play-hide-and-seek-fun-it-new-study-shows

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/so-you-think-you-know-why-animals-play/

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/07/science/animals-play-games.html

https://science.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aax4705

 

Empathy video game

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-08/uow-avg080918.php

https://news.wisc.edu/a-video-game-can-change-the-brain-may-improve-empathy-in-middle-schoolers/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Getting competitive about games

www.nbcnews.com/better/pop-culture/why-board-games-bring-out-worst-us-ncna828726

www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-06/uoc--yga061314.php

www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-06/ucl-ddm053116.php

www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-06/s-tsh062818.php

Parasocial relationships & sports fans

https://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1963&context=thesesdissertations

https://surface.syr.edu/thesis/358/

https://www.units.miamioh.edu/psybersite/fans/sit.shtml

https://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2368&context=thesesdissertations

[Butt One More Thing]

Butt controller

https://phys.org/news/2013-12-valve-mouth-mouse-butt-gadgets-video.html

May 19, 2020
Hair
00:30:47

Mammals pretty much have the market cornered on hair, and you know all the other types of animals are jealous of us. Imagine a little lizard with bangs or something? It just wouldn’t be right. Sorry!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out SciShowTangents.org!

[Truth or Fail]

Camarillo white horse

https://books.google.com/books?id=WyYDAAAAMBAJ&pg=RA1-PA216&lpg=RA1-PA216&dq=%22telescopic+sight%22+spider+silk#v=onepage&q=%22telescopic%20sight%22%20spider%20silk&f=false

https://vgl.ucdavis.edu/services/horse/CamarilloWhite.php

https://www.camarillowhitehorses.org/history_camarillo_white_horses.html

African crested rat

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2011.1169

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2011/08/case-poisonous-rat

https://www.livescience.com/15360-crested-rat-poison-hairs-kills.html

Malabar giant squirrel

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2019/04/indian-giant-squirrels-colors-camouflage/

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/shortcuts/2017/jan/08/colour-changing-cats-warn-radioactive-waste-nuclear-plants-distant-descendants

[Fact Off]

Hyena poop hair preservation

Graphene hair dye

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-03/nu-gfn031218.php

https://www.cell.com/chem/fulltext/S2451-9294(18)30082-2?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS2451929418300822%3Fshowall%3Dtrue

[Ask the Science Couch]

Grey hair

www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-does-hair-turn-gray/

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/307/5710/720

https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(05)00293-X?

https://www.fasebj.org/doi/full/10.1096/fj.08-125435

Stress

www.theguardian.com/science/2020/jan/22/stress-speeds-up-hair-greying-process-science-confirms

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-1935-3

https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/hair-turn-gray-2017091812226

[Butt One More Thing]

Trichobezoar 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3083501/

May 12, 2020
Salt
00:31:18

Salt: a mineral so nice that much of early human civilization was based on its procurement! Now we put big chunks of it on tasty pretzels at the mall! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!


[Truth or Fail]

Lake Peigneur

https://www.damninteresting.com/lake-peigneur-the-swirling-vortex-of-doom/

https://www.motherjones.com/environment/2013/08/sinkhole-swallowed-11-barges/

Brinacles

https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/oceanography/underwater-brinicles.htm

Salt Hotel

https://theculturetrip.com/south-america/bolivia/articles/welcome-to-the-hotel-thats-made-entirely-from-salt/

[Fact Off]

Coconut water IV

http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/14/12/5144

https://podcasts.ufhealth.org/can-coconut-water-mimic-human-plasma/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735675700900627

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2011/08/15/139638930/saved-by-the-coconut-water-parsing-coconut-waters-medical-claims

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK154437/

Salt flats for satellite calibration

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Characterization-of-the-Salar-de-Uyuni-for-in-orbit-Lamparelli-Ponzoni/6b6a5037f838a2342d5681b642944fd68c775551

https://academic.oup.com/gji/article/172/1/31/2081107

https://www.nature.com/news/2007/071130/full/news.2007.315.html

[Ask the Science Couch]

Salt in a wound history

https://books.google.com/books?id=29gV_kCmZrIC&pg=PA141

https://www.abc.net.au/life/will-sea-water-help-heal-open-sores/11279036

http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/abolitn/abestwa8t.html

Saline solution

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/03/31/597666140/why-did-sterile-salt-water-become-the-iv-fluid-of-choice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4794509/

Nociception

https://nba.uth.tmc.edu/neuroscience/m/s2/chapter06.html

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK32659/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2903433/

[Butt One More Thing]

Rectal salt glands

https://www.jstor.org/stable/1541076?seq=1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5216465/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00364827.1963.10410275?journalCode=ssar20

May 05, 2020
Holes
00:33:40

Humans have been digging deep holes for fun and profit since time began, and some animals have been doing it for way longer than that! And all of those holes can't hold a candle to some of the natural holes the Earth's got going on. And those are nothing compared to space, which some (Sam) would argue is the biggest hole of all!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!

[Truth or Fail]

Termite mounds: https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(18)31287-9?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982218312879%3Fshowall%3Dtrue

Band of holes: https://www.sciencealert.com/is-this-mile-long-strip-of-holes-an-ancient-inca-tax-system

Molecular drills: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.9b22595#

Roman skin cream: http://cenblog.org/artful-science/2013/01/14/ancient-roman-cosmetics-skin-cream-from-the-2nd-century-a-d/

[Fact Off]

Ant colony fallen through hole

Pictures in this paper: https://jhr.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=9096&display_type=element&element_type=4&element_id=43&element_name=

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s000400050022

https://arstechnica.com/science/2016/09/bizarre-ant-colony-discovered-in-an-abandoned-polish-nuclear-weapons-bunker/

https://www.popsci.com/story/science/ant-colony-escape/

https://jhr.pensoft.net/article/38972/

Star-nosed mole nose holes

The video!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UMz0Q7VbT9w

https://news.vanderbilt.edu/2006/12/20/scientist-discovers-some-mammals-can-smell-objects-under-water-58788/

https://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/26/science/26bubble.html

https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn10834-star-nosed-mole-can-sniff-underwater-videos-reveal/

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171120090051.htm

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170424084028.htm

[Ask the Science Couch]

Sinkholes / blue holes

https://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/feature/blue-holes-and-hurricanes/

http://geology.wlu.edu/intro3d/sinkhole/sinkhole.html

https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/sinkholes?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/explore-worlds-deepest-blue-holes-180959977/

Flooded pit caves

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/30/worlds-deepest-underwater-cave-found-czech-republic-hranice-abyss

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/destinations/europe/czech-republic/deepest-underwater-cave-discovered/

Mariana trench

https://www.nationalgeographic.org/activity/mariana-trench-deepest-place-earth/

Kola Superdeep Borehole

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/ask-smithsonian-whats-deepest-hole-ever-dug-180954349/

[Butt One More Thing]

Scorpion anus

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/01/when-attacked-some-scorpions-discard-their-stinger-and-their-anus

Apr 28, 2020
Trees
00:30:39

This Arbor Day, give your favorite tree the gift they really want: this tree-themed episode of SciShow Tangents. Just put the headphones around its trunk or in a knothole! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!

[Truth or Fail]

Dragon’s Blood Tree

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2018/11/socotra-yemen-biodiversity-photography/

Dynamite Tree

https://youtu.be/lNlk2V9yFhM

https://rare.us/rare-news/science-and-nature/sandbox-tree-hura-crepitans/

Coconut Fatalities

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_by_coconut

 

[Fact Off]

Vampire stump

https://www.cell.com/iscience/fulltext/S2589-0042(19)30146-4
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-07/cp-ats071819.php
https://www.livescience.com/66025-kauri-tree-superorganism-root-grafting.html
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/25/science/tree-stump-alive.html

Ghost redwoods

https://www.mercurynews.com/2010/11/28/albino-redwoods-hold-scientific-mystery/

https://sempervirens.org/discover-redwoods/ghost-redwoods-solving-the-albino-redwoods-mystery/

https://ucanr.edu/sites/Redwood2016/files/250645.pdf

https://ucanr.edu/sites/Redwood2016/files/243400.pdf

[Ask the Science Couch]

Tree definition

https://www.americanforests.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/AF-Tree-Measuring-Guidelines_LR.pdf

Willows

https://oregonstate.edu/trees/broadleaf_genera/willow.html

https://www.thoughtco.com/worlds-smallest-tree-species-1343503

Bonsai / Pygmy Forests

https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/dam/pubs_ext_vt_edu/426/426-601/426-601_pdf.pdf

Other trees

https://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=C944&title=Crape%20Myrtle%20Culture

http://www.pnwplants.wsu.edu/PlantDisplay.aspx?PlantID=169

[Butt One More Thing]

Butt rot

https://hortnews.extension.iastate.edu/2007/7-11/root_butt_rot.html

https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5347109.pdf

Apr 21, 2020
Robots
00:31:38

Real robots have more and more in common with science fiction robots every day. Not enough that you need to worry about them rising up against humans, but you should maybe consider being nicer to your smartphone...

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!

[Truth or Fail]

Plesiosaur Swimming

https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/odd-swimming-style-plesiosaurs-decoded-robot

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2017.0951

RangerBot

https://www.hakaimagazine.com/news/rangerbot-programmed-to-kill/

https://www.sciencealert.com/rangerbot-great-barrier-reef-conservation-crown-of-thorns-starfish

https://www.qut.edu.au/news?id=137688

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zjKTvj0lB4

Firefighting Robot

https://www.theverge.com/2015/2/5/7986345/firefighting-robot-saffir-prototype-us-navy

Lifeguard Robot

https://mentitude.com/ocean-alpha-dolphin-1-unmanned-usrv/

[Fact Off]

Clothing robot
http://www.news.gatech.edu/2018/05/14/robot-teaches-itself-how-dress-people
https://futurism.com/pr2-ai-robot-dressing-gown
https://robots.ieee.org/robots/pr2/

Video of the dressing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYj7gHQ_fwY

Parasitic turtle robots

https://www.newscientist.com/article/2130292-parasitic-robot-controls-turtle-its-riding-by-giving-it-snacks/

https://phys.org/news/2017-05-parasitic-robot-waypoint-turtle.html

[Ask the Science Couch]

Synthetic skin

https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=85&contentid=P01336

https://robotics.sciencemag.org/content/4/32/eaax2198

https://www.tum.de/nc/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/35732/

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8812712

OmniSkin

https://robotics.sciencemag.org/content/3/22/eaat1853

https://www.theverge.com/2018/9/24/17895328/robotic-skin-flexible-soft-robotics-yale-nasa-space

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/these-robotic-skins-turn-everyday-objects-into-robots-180970328/

[Butt One More Thing]

https://www.sciencealert.com/this-robotic-rectum-lets-doctors-get-a-feel-for-prostate-exams

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2016/07/04/robotic-rectum-developed-to-help-doctors-get-to-bottom-of-prosta/

Apr 14, 2020
Rivers
00:32:03

It's Spring here in the Northern Hemisphere, and the rivers swell with crystal clear snowmelt from tall mountain peaks... and we're all stuck inside and can't really look at it! Dang it! So I guess close your eyes and imagine floating down a beautiful river with your favorite podcast hosts as they drone on and on about bridges and salmon and stuff.  

Again, a big thanks for choosing us as the thing to spend your time with! Be well, everyone! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!


[Truth or Fail]

Kites

http://www.kitehistory.com/Miscellaneous/Homan_Walsh.htm

https://www.uu.edu/dept/physics/scienceguys/2004Apr.cfm

https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Kite_that_Bridged_Two_Nations.html?id=7tukmQEACAAJ

Stone-carving

https://www.asce.org/project/five-stone-arch-bridges/

Explosions

http://www.bbc.com/travel/sponsored/story/20160815-the-buddha-that-calmed-the-seas

https://www.theatlantic.com/culture/archive/2011/02/why-is-ottawa-blowing-up-its-river/338889/

https://www.nap.edu/read/6289/chapter/3#16

[Fact Off]

Salmon & sea lions

https://wildlife.org/sea-lions-to-be-culled-to-protect-salmon/

https://www.oregonlive.com/pacific-northwest-news/2018/03/battle_of_species_pits_protect.html

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/01/killing-sea-lions-save-salmon/581740/

https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/west-coast/endangered-species-conservation/adult-upstream-passage-west-coast

https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/fish-ladder.html

Wildebeest bones

https://www.pnas.org/content/114/29/7647

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fevo.2020.00031/full#h6

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2352249618300429?via%3Dihub

https://news.uga.edu/animal-carcasses-source-river-nutrients/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Rivers on Titan

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/the-mysterious-lakes-on-saturns-moon-titan

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/cassini-explores-a-methane-sea-on-titan

https://www.space.com/36904-titan-evolution-more-like-mars-than-earth.html

[Butt One More Thing]

The Great Stink

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/victorian_britain/social_conditions/victorian_urban_planning_04.shtml

https://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths-technology/engineering-technology/how-london-got-its-victorian-sewers

 

Apr 07, 2020
Ducks
00:36:11

Ducks! Basically a joke of an animal, if we're being perfectly honest. They make silly noises, they waddle around, they are extremely cute and goofy looking, and they love to swim around in big piles of money! 

And look, you might see the title and think 'a duck isn't science.' Well i've learned a thing or two from those eggheads on the science couch and I can definitely say that you are wrong! It turns out, everything is science! Seems like a cop out, but it's true.

Anyway, we sincerely hope everyone out there is doing well and staying safe! Love you guys! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Definition] 

Duck mating

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2009.2139

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0000418

https://www.nature.com/articles/news.2009.1159

[Truth or Fail]

Sperm

https://www.livescience.com/1279-rival-sperm-hook-cooperate.html

Mallard Bills

https://www.livescience.com/13681-duck-ejaculate-sperm-antibiotic-beaks-110412.html

[Fact Off]

Duck Imprinting

http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2017/getting-ducklings-row-look-inside-animal-mind-2/

http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2017/getting-ducklings-row-look-inside-animal-mind-2/

Duck hearing

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-09/uod-wdd092518.php

https://www.udel.edu/udaily/2018/august/graduate-student-works-on-training-ducks-hearing-fishing-nets/

https://www.usgs.gov/centers/pwrc/science/air-and-underwater-hearing-abilities-seabirds?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects

[Ask the Science Couch]

Quacks

sounds: https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Mallard/sounds

https://www.pressconnects.com/story/news/local/2019/03/04/ask-scientist-ducks-quack-several-different-reasons/3009779002/

https://www.ducks.org/conservation/waterfowl-research-science/waterfowl-vocalizations

Syrinx

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/10/bird-voice-box-one-kind-animal-kingdom

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/oct/12/oldest-fossil-of-birds-voicebox-gives-new-hint-at-soundscape-of-the-cretaceous-syrinx

Duck quack echoes

sounds: http://www.acoustics.salford.ac.uk/acoustics_info/duck/

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3086890.stm

[Butt One More Thing]

Fly that only breeds in duck poop

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/new-species-fly-found-breeding-central-park-duck-droppings-180965118/

https://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/13411/element/2/12/

Mar 31, 2020
Museums
00:34:15

This episode has a little bit of everything: the French Revolution, haunted amulets, mummies (maybe??)... why, it's like a regular Night at the Museum! Have fun!

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Da Vinci’s Faces

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100715090917.htm

First Museum:

https://theconversation.com/hidden-women-of-history-ennigaldi-nanna-curator-of-the-worlds-first-museum-116431

https://io9.gizmodo.com/the-story-behind-the-worlds-oldest-museum-built-by-a-b-5805358

Woman Hit By Meteorite

http://www.slate.com/blogs/atlas_obscura/2015/06/02/the_hodges_meteorite_is_one_of_the_few_space_to_ever_strike_a_human.html?wpisrc=obnetwork

http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1995LPI....26.1133P/0001133.000.html?high=484678bbd531063

[Fact Off]

Blaschka glass scientific models

http://www.cmog.org/article/blaschkas-glass-models-invertebrate-animals-1863-1890

https://web.archive.org/web/20160411221330/http://www.journalofantiques.com/Feb04/featurefeb04.htm

These three links include info + pictures:

https://digital.library.cornell.edu/collections/blaschka

http://hmnh.harvard.edu/glass-flowers

https://hmnh.harvard.edu/fruits-decay

[Ask the Science Couch]

Painting restoration

https://www.si.edu/mci/english/learn_more/taking_care/conservation_meaning.html

https://www.invaluable.com/blog/the-science-behind-art-restoration/

Sculptures

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/modern-chemistry-techniques-save-ancient-art/

https://www.chemistryworld.com/features/the-art-of-conservation/3009092.article

Bacteria

https://www.wired.com/2011/11/st-artrestoremicro/

[Butt One More Thing]

Coprolite inside another fossil

https://peerj.com/articles/1191/

https://www.forbes.com/sites/shaenamontanari/2015/08/21/spectacular-flying-reptile-fossil-discovered-along-with-its-last-meal-and-something-surprising/#7ca22283bf22

Mar 24, 2020
Experiments in Space
00:35:17

Space… it’s big, it’s confusing, and there isn’t any gravity! That’s why we have a dedicated team of people up in the International Space Station running all kinds of experiments to try and figure out just what the heck is even going on up there. 

You truly have no idea how much of us ordering Popeye’s I had to cut out of this. This was definitely our longest recording session ever and I was livid!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:


[Truth or Fail]

Chicken Fat

https://www.nasa.gov/topics/aeronautics/features/aafex_biofuels.html

Bone loss

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/explorer/Investigation.html?#id=187

Perfume

https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/9-12/features/spacescents_feature.html

https://spinoff.nasa.gov/spinoff2002/ch_1.html

[Fact Off]

Wake Shield Facility

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920014405

https://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/pg46s95.html

https://uwaterloo.ca/molecular-beam-epitaxy/about/what-epitaxy

https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2002/03jan_bioniceyes

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0042207X01003839

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S009457650000148X

Image: https://archive.org/details/STS069-724-095

 

Mouse sperm experiment

https://www.pnas.org/content/114/23/5988

http://iss.jaxa.jp/en/kiboexp/theme/second/pmlatter/spacepup/

 

[Ask the Science Couch]

Human pregnancy

https://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/pdf/prenatal.pdf

https://www.livescience.com/33047-space-sex-pregnancy.html

https://www.thoughtco.com/can-women-get-pregnant-in-space-3072590

NASA sperm study

https://futurism.com/sperm-space-nasa

Space childbirth startup

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/01/space-childbirth-babies/579064/

Other animal development

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/what-space-jellyfish-tell-us-about-interplanetary-travel/

https://www.popsci.com/article/technology/space-born-jellyfish-hate-life-earth/

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/wnjkkw/making-babies-in-space-may-be-a-terrible-idea

[Butt One More Thing]

Flatworms in space

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/reg2.79

Mar 17, 2020
Sugar with Deboki Chakravarti
00:35:06

SciShow Tangents editorial assistant/genius Deboki Chakravarti joins us once more to talk about that sweet sand we all love so much: sugar!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Deboki: @okidoki_boki

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Definition]

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/09/13/493739074/50-years-ago-sugar-industry-quietly-paid-scientists-to-point-blame-at-fat

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2548255

https://slate.com/technology/2018/03/big-sugar-isnt-to-blame-for-steering-us-away-from-fat.html

[Truth or Fail]

Nicotine 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5434031/

https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/nicotine.htm

Hearing Flowers

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/01/flowers-can-hear-bees-and-make-their-nectar-sweeter/?utm_source=reddit.com#close

City Bee, Country Bee

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-05/ncsu-njd051816.php

[Fact Off]

Honeypot ants

https://www.nationalgeographic.org/media/honey-ant-adaptations-wbt/

https://www.nature.com/articles/025405a0

https://books.google.com/books?id=E_6-pGOLUgcC&pg=PA25#v=onepage&q&f=false

https://abt.ucpress.edu/content/48/6/335

Picture: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HoneyAnt.jpg

Picture: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honeypot_ant#/media/File:Honey_Ants_(7344580116).jpg

Sugar dust explosion

[Ask the Science Couch]

Hanger

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4788579/

https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Femo0000422

https://qz.com/work/1302394/why-do-people-get-hangry-a-study-suggests-it-involves-more-than-low-blood-sugar/

Hyperactivity

https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/88/5/960.long?sso=1&sso_redirect_count=1&nfstatus=401&nftoken=00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000&nfstatusdescription=ERROR%3a+No+local+token

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/002221948301600604

https://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/childhood-adhd/what-is-the-feingold-diet#1

https://www.livescience.com/55754-does-sugar-make-kids-hyper.html

Addiction

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2235907/

https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/52/14/910

https://news.psu.edu/story/141336/2006/01/16/research/probing-question-sugar-addictive

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/sugar-addiction-drug_n_4173632

Orexin system

https://www.wired.com/2011/12/why-sugar-makes-us-sleepy-and-protein-wakes-us-up/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2551664/

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2006-05/cp-nme052506.php

https://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/52/1/111.long

Memory

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16225962

https://books.google.com/books?id=Mf3lxvWfA9oC&pg=PA113&lpg=PA113

[Butt One More Thing]

Rectal prolapse

http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/MBCP/ReduceYourRectalProlapse.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9287900

Mar 10, 2020
Viruses with Deboki Chakravarti
00:33:38

Viruses are the subject of confusion & misinformation. Luckily, we have a friend who knows a lot about them! We sit down with microbiology genius Deboki Chakravarti to talk viruses. 

Be sure to check out more of Deboki’s work on Journey to the Microcosmos, and the upcoming Crash Course Organic Chemistry! 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Tulips

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/11/science/broken-tulips.html

https://amsterdamtulipmuseumonline.com/blogs/tulip-facts/broken-tulips-the-beautiful-curse

Coffins

https://blogs.weta.org/boundarystones/2016/12/21/then-there-were-no-coffinshttps://www.acf.org/the-american-chestnut/

[Fact Off]

Multicomponent Viruses

https://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/fulltext/S1931-3128(16)30310-9

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/08/160825141714.htm

Polydnaviruses

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4424053/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3758193/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123846846000264

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123848581000096

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4553618/

[Butt One More Thing]

Caribou poop frozen virus

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/10/virus-resurrected-700-year-old-caribou-dung

https://www.pnas.org/content/111/47/16842

Mar 03, 2020
Oceans
00:31:49

Oceans: they cover 70% of the planet, but what do we really know about them? Like what’s with all the salt, huh? And just what is the difference between a ‘sea’ and an ocean anyway?! I have questions!

This one has a real doozy of a Stefan poem. I cut out a lot of us interrupting him with raucous laughter!  

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Boat cloak

https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20227101-500-explorers-dont-forget-your-inflatable-cloak/?ignored=irrelevant

https://www.rmg.co.uk/discover/behind-the-scenes/blog/boat-cloak-or-cloak-boat

https://web.archive.org/web/20120425161825/http://resource.canadashistory.ca/media/pdf/34-4-Spr-955-p46-51.pdf

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/NENZC18511220.2.5

Image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/Halkett_Boat_Cloak.jpg

Water chair

https://archive.org/details/watercurejournal12newy/page/1/mode/2up

Images: https://paleofuture.gizmodo.com/this-ridiculous-victorian-era-rocking-bath-wasnt-just-f-1515091109

Modesty barrel

https://www.messynessychic.com/2014/04/15/victorian-prudes-beachside-bathing-machines/

https://www.researchgate.net/figure/1715-Lethbridges-diving-barrel-John-Lethbridge-1678-1759-of-Newton-Abbot-Devon_fig2_228397874

https://io9.gizmodo.com/the-strange-and-wonderful-history-of-diving-suits-from-1262529336

https://devonassoc.org.uk/devoninfo/john-lethbridge-and-his-diving-machine-1880/

Image: https://i.kinja-img.com/gawker-media/image/upload/c_fit,f_auto,fl_progressive,q_80,w_470/18zb0i2fswtkxjpg.jpg

[Fact Off]

Pumice rafts

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/dont-believe-the-hype-the-pumice-raft-wont-save-the-great-barrier-reef/

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/145490/a-raft-of-rockhttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-05/dbnl-hxh052317.php

https://www.npr.org/2019/08/25/754190347/giant-pumice-raft-floating-towards-australia-could-help-replenish-great-barrier-

Albatross tracking system

https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/01/31/albatross-marine-poaching/

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/albatrosses-outfitted-with-gps-detect-illegal-fishing-vessels-180974054/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Salty ocean

https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/whysalty.html

https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/why-ocean-salty?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects

Feb 25, 2020
Subatomic
00:34:24

Things get a little weird this episode, and by ‘little’ I mean very little! 

One thing I learned in this episode is that everything in the universe is touching each other, yet the particles in your body never truly touch! Mama Mia! 

Well anyway, I hope you enjoy it! Thanks for listening!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

https://history.fnal.gov/felicia.html#Time

https://history.fnal.gov/meson.html

pictures: https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/felicia-ferret-particle-accelerator-fermilab

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/stocking-series-part-1-wartime-rationing-and-nylon-riots-25391066/

[Fact Off]

Surface plasmon resonance

https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2016/12/nist-device-detecting-subatomic-scale-motion-has-potential-robotics

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13746

Dark matter supercold water

[Ask the Science Couch]

Do atoms touch?

https://www.sciencealert.com/99-9999999-of-your-body-is-empty-space

https://wtamu.edu/~cbaird/sq/2013/04/16/do-atoms-ever-actually-touch-each-other/

https://www.britannica.com/science/Pauli-exclusion-principle

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pauli.html

https://www.britannica.com/science/fermion

https://www.pnas.org/content/114/23/5766

[Butt One More Thing]

Proton-powered poops

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080109104251.htm

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867407014791

Feb 18, 2020
Hearts
00:33:56

This Valentine’s Day, what could be better than cuddling up with someone special and listening to the Tangents Crew talk about various medical procedures in gory detail! Pucker up! 

They say the fastest way to a man’s heart is through his stomach, but I think if you ask a doctor they would probably say that’s wrong! But what do I know?

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Dr. Clarence Walton Lillehei and Heart Surgery

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002950.htm
https://www.healthline.com/health/open-heart-surgery#when-it's-needed
http://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/why/human-health/history-of-the-heart-lung-machine/
https://www.texasheart.org/heart-health/heart-information-center/frequently-asked-patient-questions/how-is-the-heart-stopped-during-open-heart-surgery/
https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/circ.102.suppl_4.IV-87

Cold Operating Room

https://www.jtcvs.org/article/S0022-5223(11)00421-1/pdf
https://www.annalsthoracicsurgery.org/article/0003-4975(89)90151-3/pdf

Patient-Donor Pump

https://www.annalsthoracicsurgery.org/article/S0003-4975(09)01080-7/pdf
https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/01.CIR.100.13.1364
https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/circ.102.suppl_4.IV-87
https://www.jtcvs.org/article/S0022-5223(04)00093-5/pdf
https://books.google.com/books?id=M5sbCxd5cioC

[Fact Off]

Chopin’s heart

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/06/arts/chopin-heart-tuberculosis.html

https://apnews.com/bc0f09217f564329ae6fa2aefa6349a6/chopins-heart-exhumed-secret-relic

https://www.livescience.com/60953-chopin-pickled-heart-reveals-cause-of-death.html

https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(17)31025-2/abstract

https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(17)31278-0/abstract

Heart catheterization

 

https://www.annalsthoracicsurgery.org/article/0003-4975(90)90272-8/pdf

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/clc.4960150715

https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1956/forssmann/facts/

https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/cardiac-catheterization/about/pac-20384695

[Ask the Science Couch]

Non-human hearts (octopuses, earthworms, etc.)

https://www.sciencefocus.com/nature/why-does-an-octopus-have-more-than-one-heart/

https://www.sas.upenn.edu/~rlenet/Earthworms.html

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(05)60870-7/fulltext

Humans multiple hearts

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20131122-can-humans-have-two-hearts

https://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/circulatory/two-lungs-one-heart1.htm

[Butt One More Thing]

Poo-phoria

https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2014/02/18/poo-phoria-passing-a-stool_n_4808627.html

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3778072

Feb 11, 2020
Meat
00:32:59

Meat... seems pretty simple on the surface, but what do we really know about it? Like.. are living things made of meat? Or is meat only meat once it's being eaten? What was the first meat? What was the first thing to eat the first meat? Is eating prehistoric meat a good idea? Do we find the answer to any of these questions in this episode? I can't remember, frankly, but probably a few. 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Foal

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/scientists-extracted-liquid-blood-42000-year-old-foal-found-siberian-permafrost-180971979/

Bison

https://www.uaf.edu/museum/press/spotlight/blue-babe/

https://historythings.com/aged-beef-delicacy-eating-meat-36000-year-old-bison/

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/ancient-bison-stew-blue-babe-alaska

Crocodile

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/ancient-egyptians-hunted-then-mummified-crocodiles-180973197/

[Fact Off]

Carnivorous Herbivores

https://bioone.org/journals/Northwestern-Naturalist/volume-99/issue-3/NWN18-05.1/Scavenging-By-Snowshoe-Hares-iLepus-americanusi-In-Yukon-Canada/10.1898/NWN18-05.1.short

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/when-herbivores-arent-poor-chicken-got-eaten-cow-180951115/

https://bioone.org/journals/Northwestern-Naturalist/volume-99/issue-3/NWN18-05.1/Scavenging-By-Snowshoe-Hares-iLepus-americanusi-In-Yukon-Canada/10.1898/NWN18-05.1.short

https://www.outdoornews.com/2015/03/19/who-knew-tape-shows-deer-raiding-birds-nests/

Dyeing Salmon

https://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=wildlifenews.view_article&articles_id=738

https://nextnature.net/2012/06/dyeing-salmon-pink-for-farms-and-profit

https://www.seattlepi.com/news/article/The-salmon-struggle-A-fish-by-any-other-color-is-1115339.php

[Ask the Science Couch]

Gamey meat

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0309174015301376

https://extension.umn.edu/preserving-and-preparing/cooking-venison-flavor-and-safety

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6154429/

https://bastyr.edu/news/general-news-health-tips-spotlight-1/2015/08/why-choose-grass-fed-meat

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.361.2312&rep=rep1&type=pdf

[Butt One More Thing]

Pork butt

https://www.southernliving.com/bbq/why-is-it-called-boston-butt

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/22382/how-9-cuts-meat-got-their-names

Feb 04, 2020
Music
00:31:07

So look, Stefan sings a song in this episode, so I’m not sure what more you need. He looked cool as heck when he was doing it and I was really proud of him!

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Music & Creativity

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-02/lu-hlt022619.php

Inspirational Music & Sports performance

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-01/f-mmi012918.php

Music & Driving

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-08/aabu-tdm082213.php

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e5b0/98e4ef211279d26a14d7502a80232a90dc2d.pdf

[Fact Off]

Nanoguitar 

Telharmonium

http://synthmuseum.com/magazine/0102jw.html

https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/music-and-theater-arts/21m-380-music-and-technology-contemporary-history-and-aesthetics-fall-2009/lecture-notes-and-videos/MIT21M_380F09_lec11.pdf

http://120years.net/the-telharmonium-thaddeus-cahill-usa-1897/

http://www.csun.edu/~dwh50750/Classes/MUS191/Emusic_readings/ECenturyPartI.html

Scientific american article: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Telharmonium_-_Scientific_American_1907.png

[Ask the Science Couch]

Timbre

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Sound/timbre.html

https://cecm.indiana.edu/etext/acoustics/chapter1_timbre.shtml

https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/health-sciences-and-technology/hst-725-music-perception-and-cognition-spring-2009/lecture-notes/MITHST_725S09_lec07_timbre.pdf

Beetlejuice

https://twitter.com/VoiceSLPChris/status/1111285302352625665/video/1

[Butt One More Thing]

Brown note

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=khzDRYfj97AC&pg=PA932&lpg=PA932&dq=the+collophone+commemorated&source=bl&ots=vrgUH_MUh4&sig=Z2nnGZJ6W3_Ph_gzXKuhXCbLfW0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwie2pKZw7_QAhWsJcAKHdIlCYEQ6AEIGzAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/ppv35z/in-search-of-the-brown-noise

Jan 28, 2020
Running
00:30:36

From diet, to shoes, to movement efficiency, people devote their lives to researching and perfecting the art of running. Meanwhile, cheetahs run 75 mph and they sleep all day. No fair!

Ceri caught a plane to run a marathon right after we recorded this! I probably went home and watched TV for four hours. Oh well!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out SciShowTangents.org!

Jan 21, 2020
Magnets
00:31:18

Wise men have long pondered how magnets work. We all know the answer is “magic,” but Ceri and Hank have to keep up the illusion that science is real, so please humor them.

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Magnet Therapy

https://www.livescience.com/40174-magnetic-therapy.html

God Machine

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2003/godonbrain.shtml

https://science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/brain-religion2.htm

https://www.psypost.org/2018/01/fake-god-helmet-can-elicit-extraordinary-experiences-especially-among-spiritual-people-50619

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/2153599X.2017.1403952

https://mysteriousuniverse.org/2018/01/test-of-god-helmet-at-music-fest-yields-strange-results/

Electro-Metabograph

https://books.google.com/books?id=CeMDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA218&lpg=PA218&dq=Electro-metabograph+machine&source=bl&ots=JjXhceV_VG&sig=ACfU3U3mlpAO1DmRW9B8ef9cSK12nuCRew&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjs2dOe6b_mAhXSHjQIHZPICLMQ6AEwEHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=Electro-metabograph%20machine&f=false

Radium Ore Revigator

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/1/100118-radiation-toxic-water-revigator/

[Fact Off]

Airport runways/WMM

https://www.wired.com/story/airports-rename-runways-magnetic-shift/

https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/news/airport-runway-names-shift-magnetic-field

https://cires.colorado.edu/news/airport-runway-names-shift-earth%E2%80%99s-magnetic-field

https://flightsafety.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/asw_may08_p18-22.pdf

https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/GeomagneticPoles.shtml

https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/news/world-magnetic-model-2020-released

Ferrofluids

http://aerospace.mtu.edu/research/ionic-liquid-ferrofluid-microthrusters/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/ferrofluid

https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4985141

[Ask the Science Couch]

Demagnetizing

https://www.wired.com/story/the-physics-of-falling-magnets-in-stranger-things-season-3/

https://nationalmaglab.org/education/magnet-academy/plan-a-lesson/demagnetizing

http://www.magmamagnets.com/electromagnets-solenoids/

https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/150570/what-is-the-difference-between-electromagnet-and-solenoid

[Butt One More Thing]

Magnetic anal sphincter

https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/mayo-clinic-first-to-implant-device-to-solve-fecal-incontinence/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27926562

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21654242

Jan 14, 2020
Money
00:32:05

Listening to Tangents is like making an investment with your brain. And the dividend? Knowledge. Invest today, won't you?

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan- @itsmestefanchin Ceri- @ceriley Sam- @slamschultz Hank- @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out this episode's page at SciShowTangents.org!

[Truth or Fail]

Supernotes

https://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/23/magazine/23counterfeit.html

https://www.uscurrency.gov/history

Counterfeit $1 bills

https://www.nydailynews.com/news/crime/finding-mr-880-case-1-counterfeit-article-1.109016

https://www.nysun.com/on-the-town/little-old-moneymaker/9282/

pictures: https://thehustle.co/worst-counterfeiter-in-history-mr-880/

https://www.secretservice.gov/about/history/events/

Costume jewelry scam

https://books.google.com/books?id=ELgiAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85

https://o.canada.com/technology/nigerian-email-scams-royally-obvious-for-good-reason-study-says-3

[Fact Off]

Xerox machine anti-counterfeiting

Yap stone money

https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/sea2.12154?referrer_access_token=PoYDhuZQ2I3K6rW0TZp1r04keas67K9QMdWULTWMo8PSbwnv52oah6avTUlc6Ncg2Fsq-XbfQibDgqrz1_Z5GxRdKzRhmEzfI08Tv5kPNn5935yywdPadRZC0bxzVlqKx6dktyKOLwawQhLnG1PcSg%3D%3D

https://www.sciencealert.com/the-original-bitcoin-still-exists-as-giant-stone-money-on-a-tiny-pacific-island

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0012186

[Ask the Science Couch]

Plastic vs. paper bills

https://www.banknoteworld.com/blog/the-pros-and-cons-of-polymer-banknotes/

https://www.euronews.com/2018/05/16/polymer-vs-paper-banknotes-which-one-is-better-for-environment-

https://www.forbes.com/sites/davekeating/2019/08/21/englands-new-currency-is-harming-the-climate-report/#543d2d76524f

https://www.moneyboat.co.uk/blog/paper-vs-polymer/

https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/-/media/boe/files/banknotes/polymer/lca-of-paper-and-polymer-bank-notes.pdf?la=en&hash=7D3845CE11AD21F300CFA023F8FCF4AA37FB73CC

Composting or washing U.S. money

https://www.cnet.com/news/cash-to-trash-watch-millions-of-dollars-turn-into-compost/

https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/presspacs/2014/acs-presspac-january-8-2014/laundering-money-literally-could-save-billions-of-dollars.html

[Butt One More Thing]

Penny swallowing

https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1998-12-01-9812010102-story.html

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/12/981201033841.htm

Jan 07, 2020
Light
00:31:50

SciShow Tangents’ exploration of the electromagnetic spectrum continues with good old, dependable light! What is it? Where does it come from? Only Ceri knows (sort of)!

Also, happy New Year to all of our amazing listeners! Thank you for your support over the last year, and here's to another year of laughing and learning with all of you!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out this episode's page at SciShowTangents.org!

[Truth or Fail]

E. coli

https://arxiv.org/abs/1104.3113

https://phys.org/news/2014-04-bacterial-fm-radio.html

Cactus Radio

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1shcxHWQas

Frequency Comb

https://www.pnas.org/content/116/19/9181

https://www.laserfocusworld.com/lasers-sources/article/14035201/frequency-combs-trick-a-laser-into-producingreceiving-an-rf-signal

[Fact Off]

Battle of the Beams

https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/stories/63/a3714563.shtml

https://www.nytimes.com/1997/12/19/us/r-v-jones-science-trickster-who-foiled-nazis-dies-at-86.html

http://vc.airvectors.net/ttwiz_07.html

RV Jones Obituary

W5LFL

https://amsat-uk.org/2013/01/19/amateur-radio-on-bbc-between-the-ears-space-ham/#more-12135

https://www.amsat.org/owen-k-garriott-w5lfl/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Analog radio

https://public.wsu.edu/~bryan.mclaughlin/Radio/Who_Invented_Radio.html

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/radio/radiorelayer.html

https://www.reddit.com/r/explainlikeimfive/comments/4suas5/eli5_why_is_the_sound_quality_of_am_radio_so_much/

Digital/HD radio

https://www.fcc.gov/consumers/guides/digital-radio

https://electronics.howstuffworks.com/hd-radio.htm

https://hdradio.com/trademark/

https://www.cnet.com/news/digital-radio-all-you-need-to-know/

[Butt One More Thing]

Pigeon poop / cosmic microwave background

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/how-scientists-confirmed-big-bang-theory-owe-it-all-to-a-pigeon-trap-180949741/

Dec 31, 2019
Radio
00:35:05

Humans have wielded the power of radio waves for more than a century, but what exactly are they and how do we use them to transmit information? It turns out, even geniuses like Hank and Ceri have a hard time explaining that!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

EROS

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25788334

MOZE

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0389-0

FReSH

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature10428.html

[Fact Off]

Eidophor

https://www.earlytelevision.org/eidophor.html

https://hackaday.com/2016/03/15/retrotechtacular-eidophor-an-unknown-widely-used-projector/

http://www.film-tech.com/ubb/f1/t004319.html

http://www.earlytelevision.org/yanczer_eidophor.html

Centennial light

http://www.centennialbulb.org/index.htm

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/66009/light-bulb-has-been-burning-1901

https://www.lampsplus.com/ideas-and-advice/how-an-incandescent-light-bulb-works/

https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-history/dawn-of-electronics/the-great-lightbulb-conspiracy

https://www.npr.org/2019/03/27/707188193/the-phoebus-cartel

[Ask the Science Couch]

Brightest artificial light

https://www.wired.co.uk/article/brightest-light-ever-computer-chips

https://www.nature.com/articles/nphoton.2017.100

https://www.unl.edu/diocles/home

https://www.labmanager.com/research-specific-labs/2017/11/home-of-the-world-s-brightest-laser-looks-to-bring-high-quality-x-rays-to-research-medical-applications#.Xe_nrZNKhnN

[Butt One More Thing]

Firefly butt vs. LED

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0030402619300452?via%3Dihub

https://www.futurity.org/light-bulbs-leds-fireflies-1988062/

Dec 24, 2019
Festive Ecology
00:33:41

Jingle Bells, Frosty the Snowman, Let it Snow; the timeless sounds of the holiday. And to that pantheon of greats is added another track: this 30-minute-long, spoken-word science podcast!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

While you're at it, check out the Tangents crew on Twitter: Stefan: @itsmestefanchin Ceri: @ceriley Sam: @slamschultz Hank: @hankgreen

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!

[Truth or Fail]

Poinsettia monopoly

https://www.npr.org/2017/12/22/573046507/how-poinsettias-became-synonymous-with-christmas

http://www.mobileranger.com/blog/the-plant-of-christmas-the-poinsettia/

https://www.actahort.org/books/226/226_34.htm

https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2008-dec-23-me-poinsettia23-story.html

https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/download/12136/PDF

Vanilla flavor

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/ice-cream-bananas_n_55f8d911e4b0d6492d638853

https://www.webmd.com/children/features/is-poinsettia-really-poisonous

Latex/rubber

https://web.extension.illinois.edu/poinsettia/facts.cfm

http://www.industrialrubbergoods.com/natural-rubber.html

https://www.thespruce.com/facts-about-poinsettias-that-may-surprise-you-2132343

[Fact Off]

Tinniculite 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS1075701517070078

https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/msa/ammin/article/102/2/466/264546/new-mineral-names

https://www.mdpi.com/2075-163X/9/6/373/htm

Pine needle recycling

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329280439_Fuels_and_Value-Added_Chemicals_from_Biomass

https://theconversation.com/new-recycling-process-could-help-your-christmas-tree-lead-a-surprising-second-life-107984

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610217350713

[Ask the Science Couch]

Natural vs. artificial tree

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/26/business/energy-environment/fake-christmas-tree-vs-real-tree.html

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2018/12/14/real-vs-fake-heres-why-artificial-christmas-trees-rise/2314418002/

https://www.sfgate.com/realestate/article/Real-vs-Artificial-Christmas-Tree-Which-Is-More-14866084.php

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2018/12/14/real-vs-fake-heres-why-artificial-christmas-trees-rise/2314418002/

[Butt One More Thing]

Mistletoe

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/special/metro/urban-jungle/pages/121218.html

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/culturing-science/mistletoe-natural-history/

https://www.etymonline.com/word/mistletoe

https://www.etymonline.com/word/missel?ref=etymonline_crossreference

Dec 17, 2019
Ceramics
00:32:12

From ancient clay pots to the heat-proof panels on the space shuttle, ceramics have been an integral part of human technology from the very beginning. I can’t even think of any jokes about ceramic! It’s just cool!

More importantly! Over the last week or so, Hank has absolutely ruined everyones’ Twitter timelines with one simple question: “is butt legs?” In this episode, you get to bear ear-witness to the genesis of this wretched, society-shattering question! #buttislegs

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Non-deflatable football

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deflategate

http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Air-Bag.html

Strong water

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Aluminum-oxide#section=Mechanism-of-Action

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.470.4214&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Pajamas

https://www.underarmour.com/en-us/tb12

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3699878/

https://www.espn.com/espnw/life-style/story/_/id/23315114/we-tried-do-tom-brady-recovery-pajamas-live-their-name

[Fact Off]

Moon art

Magnetic field

https://www.livescience.com/57868-earth-magnetic-field-spike-ancient-times.html

https://www.space.com/43173-earth-magnetic-field-flips-when.html

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/02/14/515032512/iron-age-potters-carefully-recorded-earths-magnetic-field-by-accident

https://www.newyorker.com/tech/annals-of-technology/earths-mysterious-magnetic-field-stored-in-a-jar?verso=true

[Ask the Science Couch]

Glazes

https://edu.rsc.org/feature/the-chemistry-of-pottery/2020245.article

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/materials-science/glaze

Specific materials (tin, salt, etc.) 

https://www.thesprucecrafts.com/ceramic-and-glaze-fluxes-2745860

https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1560&context=open_access_etds

https://www.britannica.com/art/tin-glazed-earthenware

[Butt One More Thing]

Ceramic butt wiping

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/toilet-tissue-anthropologists-uncover-all-the-ways-weve-wiped/

https://www.bmj.com/content/345/bmj.e8287.full

Dec 10, 2019
Bones
00:29:07

Bones… seems like a simple enough topic, right? Well, would you believe me if I told you that scientists can’t even agree on how and why bones evolved in the first place?! And teeth? Don’t even get us started on teeth...

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Bone Conduction

https://www.kqed.org/science/1926248/how-elephants-listen-with-their-feet

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/03/010312071729.htm

https://news.stanford.edu/news/2009/february18/elephants-triangulation-seismic-vibration-signal-021809.html

Chew Bones

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2017/07/giraffes-eat-skeletons-bones-spd/

https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/9767/Bredin_Can(2008).pdf;jsessionid=8BFA2F57B27C91C3BB4F18175D4712A8?sequence=1

Glowing Bones

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2018/01/chameleon-bones-florescent-ultraviolet-light-spd/

https://www.sciencealert.com/these-cute-little-orange-frogs-have-a-florescent-secret-under-their-skin

[Fact Off]

Myotragus goat

https://www.pnas.org/content/106/48/20354

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1325260/

https://phys.org/news/2009-11-extinct-goat-cold-blooded.html

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2009/11/17/extinct-goat-tried-out-reptilian-cold-blooded-living-it-didnt-work/#.XdMCY5JKhxw

pics: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myotragus

 

Subvocalization remote

https://dam-prod.media.mit.edu/x/2018/03/23/p43-kapur_BRjFwE6.pdf

https://www.sciencealert.com/silent-voice-headset-subvocalisation-computer-interface-mit

[Ask the Science Couch]

Bone evolution:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237026/

https://austhrutime.com/bone.htm

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC509207/

Aspidin: 

https://natureecoevocommunity.nature.com/users/169723-joseph-keating/posts/37157-aspidin-a-bone-of-contention

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109381/

Teeth: 

https://www.nature.com/news/fossil-scans-reveal-origins-of-teeth-1.13964

https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn24268-fish-fossil-suggests-our-skeleton-evolved-face-first/

[Butt One More Thing]

Lizard Tails:

https://www.futurity.org/salamanders-lizards-tails-regeneration-1838762/

Dec 03, 2019
Nutrition
00:30:18

When it comes to proper nutrition, just about the only thing everyone can agree on is that people need to eat food. Everything else, from eggs to carbs to vitamins, is basically up in the air!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these link:

[Fact Off]

Osedax worms

https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00824.x

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967063707001483

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/668/tab-pdf

“Vitamin” B17 aka. Laetrile

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.3322/canjclin.31.2.91?sid=nlm%3Apubmed

https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/hp/laetrile-pdq#_10

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK65988/

https://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Vitamins

[Ask the Science Couch]

History of nutrition science

https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k2392

Nutrition research is complicated

https://www.vox.com/2016/1/14/10760622/nutrition-science-complicated

https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/explore-healing-practices/food-medicine/why-does-nutrition-advice-change

[Butt One More Thing]

Sewage sludge protein 

https://www.feednavigator.com/Article/2017/04/06/Sewage-sludge-to-animal-feed

Nov 26, 2019
Transportation
00:29:29

Be Advised! This episode was recorded before we decided to reset the scores for Season 2 and rename them Sambucks. Please don't tweet at us about this (and if you do tweet at us about it, be nice)!

People absolutely love going places and doing stuff! And in our zeal to go places and do stuff even faster, we've invented some wild things. Come with us on journey of discovery as we sail the seven seas of science and fly the friendly skies of... innovation...? 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Loading Patterns

https://www.who.int/ith/mode_of_travel/tcd_aircraft/en/

https://www.pnas.org/content/115/14/3623

Reducing Fiber 

https://www.businessinsider.com/heres-why-you-should-fart-in-planes-2013-2

Dirtiest Part of a Plane

https://www.travelmath.com/feature/airline-hygiene-exposed/

[Fact Off]

Ski lift

https://www.uh.edu/engines/epi2953.htm

Pictures/info:https://books.google.com/books?id=slgEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23

https://books.google.com/books?id=XFgEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA38&lpg=PA38

https://www.uprr.com/newsinfo/releases/heritage_and_steam/2006/0228_skilift.shtml

Flight suit

https://www.thevintagenews.com/2016/04/13/wiley-post-one-eyed-pilot-first-fly-solo-around-world-developed-first-pressure-suits-discovered-jet-stream/

https://airandspace.si.edu/multimedia-gallery/si-98-15012hjpg

https://www.airspacemag.com/videos/category/new-label/this-pressure-suit-helped-pilots-survive-new/

[Ask the Science Couch]

License plate restrictions

https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/mar/20/licence-plate-driving-bans-paris-ineffective-air-pollution

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095756416000039

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0967070X01000245?via%3Dihub

Braess’ Paradox

http://homepage.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/Dietrich.Braess/Paradox-BNW.pdf

https://phys.org/news/2010-09-scientist-braess-paradox-high-traffic.html

Removing roads

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2006/nov/01/society.travelsenvironmentalimpact

https://www.landscapeperformance.org/case-study-briefs/cheonggyecheon-stream-restoration

[Butt One More Thing]

Fart volume

https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-big-is-a-fart-somewhere-between-a-bottle-of-nail-polish-and-a-can-of-soda/

Nov 19, 2019
Cryptography
00:32:15

YRHA WJ, XAWOQT KXTAQOQCT! XP DEW TEKIQ LD TWJQC TQNCQA LQTTHVQ, AYQQA LQ "KEEMT KXMQ TAECLD YQHARQC" HOF DEW YXKK SQ XOFWNAQF XOAE ARQ THL NHFQAT, LD OQY QZNKWTXIQ PHO NKWS!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out this episode's page at scishowtangents.org!

Nov 12, 2019
Fire
00:31:52

Ancient man harnessing and wielding the elemental power of the flame was pretty cool, I guess, but I think this being Tangent's one year anniversary is a little cooler, honestly! Plus, we announce who won the first season, so actually this episode is sort of twice as important as fire if you think about it!

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

 

And if you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links: 

[Truth or Fail]

Fire-chasing beetles

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037627

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227016226_The_Photomechanic_Infrared_Receptor_for_the_Detection_of_Forest_Fires_in_the_Buprestid_Beetle_Melanophila_Acuminata

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/artful-amoeba/how-a-half-inch-beetle-finds-fires-80-miles-away/

https://www.jstor.org/stable/3998979?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/phenomena/2012/05/27/fire-chasing-beetles-sense-infrared-radiation-from-fires-hundreds-of-kilometres-away/

https://academic.oup.com/jee/article-abstract/36/2/341/2202937

[Fact Off]

Surgical fires

https://www.livescience.com/65615-chest-cavity-fire-surgery.html

https://www.ismp.org/resources/surgical-fires-caused-skin-preps-and-ointments-rare-dangerous-and-preventable

Death ray building

https://twitter.com/tara_mulholland/status/374877389425086464?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E374877389425086464&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Ffinancialpost.com%2Fnews%2Flondons-fryscraper-owners-to-spend-millions-of-pounds-to-block-car-melting-beam

https://www.pri.org/stories/2013-09-03/londons-walkie-talkie-skyscraper-blamed-melting-cars-starting-small-fire

https://www.livescience.com/39371-skyscraper-melts-cars-20-fenchurch.html

https://www.mississauga.com/news-story/4067822-london-s-fryscaper-draws-crowd-on-hottest-day/

https://www.cityam.com/exclusive-walkie-scorchie-melted-my-jag/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Flame Extinguishment Experiment (FLEX) 

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/FLEX_Video.html

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/in-space-flames-behave-in-ways-nobody-thought-possible-132637810/

Cool flames

https://blogs.nasa.gov/ISS_Science_Blog/2013/11/25/cool-flames-on-the-international-space-station-an-anatomy-of-discovery/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010218012002131

https://youtu.be/BxxqCLxxY3M

[Butt One More Thing]

Incinerating toilets

http://www.nsf.org/consumer-resources/water-quality/wastewater-sewage-treatment/electrical-incinerating-toilets

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-06/documents/incinera.pdf

Nov 05, 2019
Fear Month: Spiders!
00:32:33

SciShow Tangents' Month of Fear concludes with what is undeniably the scariest, most valid fear of any of those discussed... spiders! I'm not saying spiders will pour out of your headphones and into your ears when you listen to this, but I'm also not promising they won't.

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links!

[Truth or Fail]

Records

https://thevinylfactory.com/features/the-10-weirdest-things-pressed-into-vinyl-records-this-year/

https://www.npr.org/2016/01/09/462289635/bones-and-grooves-weird-secret-history-of-soviet-x-ray-music

Tattoos

https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/gwitchin-tattoo-skin-stitching-first-nations-1.3796606

Canvases

https://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/stories/2008/07/cobwebportraits.html

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/the-lost-art-of-painting-on-cobweb-canvases

https://phys.org/news/2010-05-scientists-goats-spider-silk.html

[Fact Off]

[Ask the Science Couch]

Web construction

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/ask-smithsonian-how-do-spiders-make-webs-180957426/

https://sciencing.com/identify-spider-pattern-8635659.html

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6053566/

Making silk

https://www.livescience.com/32582-how-do-spiders-make-silk.html

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/spidroins

[Butt One More Thing]

Trashline orb weavers

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/meet-the-spiders-that-completely-defy-what-we-know-as-jet-lag/

https://nature.mdc.mo.gov/discover-nature/field-guide/trashline-orbweavers

Oct 29, 2019
Fear Month: Claustrophobia
00:33:14

SciShow Tangents' Month of Fear continues and… wait… do you feel it… the walls they’re... closing in around you! Crushing you!

...were you scared? Well, if you were Hank you probably would have been because his fear is enclosed spaces! How is that related to science? Good question!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links: 

[Truth or Fail]

Fire Extinguisher

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-04/tuot-ncf041819.php

Water-Filled Suit

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214552417301335

Air Purifier

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/06/space-station-mold-survives-200-times-radiation-dose-would-kill-human

[Fact Off]

Noc the beluga whale

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/story-one-whale-who-tried-bridge-linguistic-divide-between-animals-humans-180951437/?page=1

http://cell.com/current-biology/supplemental/S0960-9822%2812%2901009-3

https://www.public.navy.mil/navwar/NIWC-Pacific/technology/Pages/mammals.aspx

Normal beluga: https://dosits.org/resources/resource-categories/feature-sounds/beluga/

Noc sound: https://www.nature.com/news/the-whale-that-talked-1.11635

Dark flies

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/loom/2012/03/14/fifty-seven-years-of-darkness/#.XaY74udKgW_

https://phys.org/news/2016-02-evolution-dark-fly.html

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160204111403.htm

[Ask the Science Couch]

Estimates of plant rooms

https://io9.gizmodo.com/how-many-plants-would-you-need-to-generate-oxygen-for-y-5955071

http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1999-02/917906305.Bt.r.html

https://everything2.com/title/How+much+plant+life+is+needed+to+keep+a+person+alive+in+a+sealed+room%253F

Photorespiration

http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/155/1/56

Biosphere 2

http://biosphere2.org/visit/about-biosphere2/fast-facts

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/29/sunday-review/biosphere-2-climate-change.html

https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/68/9/722/5055575?searchresult=1

[Butt One More Thing]

Apollo 10 floating poop

https://www.vox.com/2015/5/26/8646675/apollo-10-turd-poop

https://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a410/AS10_CM.PDF

Oct 22, 2019
Fear Month: Decomposition!
00:32:48

As the SciShow Tangents Month of Fear continues, your hosts get down into the wormy, slimy muck to discuss Ceri’s biggest fear: decomposition! Does that sound too generic to be truly terrifying? That’s what Sam thought too, and now he is also quite scared of decomposing! Boo!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out this these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Straw Urinals - https://www.unreservedmedia.com/paris-open-air-urinals/

Peepee Day - https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/earthnews/6554958/Urinate-on-the-compost-heap-to-save-the-planet-says-the-National-Trust.html

https://grist.org/living/ask-umbra-can-i-pee-in-my-compost-pile/

Human Composting - https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/washington-first-state-allow-burial-method-human-composting-180972020/

[Fact Off]

Ocean viruses - https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/9/e1602565.full

https://www.ocean.washington.edu/courses/oc400/Arrigo2005.pdf

Burying beetles - https://www.fws.gov/Midwest/endangered/insects/ambb/abb_fact.html

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2018/10/news-burying-beetle-nursery-bacteria-fungus-decomposition/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Food Safety

https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/fsis-content/internet/main/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/food-safety-tips-for-college-students/ct_index

https://food.unl.edu/will-reheating-food-make-it-safe-if-you-forget-refrigerate-it

https://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/food-technology/bacterial-food-poisoning/

https://www.fda.gov/food/consumers/what-you-need-know-about-foodborne-illnesses

Decomposers

https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/dsny/docs/tip-sheet-decomposer-id-cpts-id-f.pdf

Pizza (Quora answer)

https://www.quora.com/Is-it-safe-to-eat-pizza-left-out-overnight

[Butt One More Thing]

A/V plug

http://www.orderofthegooddeath.com/deathly-doodle-leakage

http://fluidpusher.blogspot.com/2009/10/questions-of-day-jenn-edition.html

Oct 15, 2019
Fear Month: Sharks!
00:30:58

SciShow Tangents' Month of Fear continues! This week, Stefan is confronted by his fear of sharks! Thrill as we weave a tale of nigh-immortal sharks! Feel the chills run down your spine as you learn about how weird shark penises are! Try not to scream when you hear about Sharkarado, the Shark Colorado! This episode... might be too scary!!! 

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Still Shark Eggs

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0052551

Tiger Shark Siblings

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/baby-sand-tiger-sharks-devour-their-siblings-while-still-in-the-womb-46192985/

Thermal Vents

https://www.livescience.com/61699-skates-eggs-thermal-vents.html

[Fact Off]

White Shark Café

https://schmidtocean.org/cruise/voyage-white-shark-cafe/#data

http://whitesharkcafe.org/media/photos-videos

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/05/28/613394086/great-white-sharks-have-a-secret-cafe-and-they-led-scientists-right-to-it

https://www.sfchronicle.com/news/article/Mysterious-great-white-shark-lair-discovered-in-13234068.php

https://www.nature.com/articles/415035b

Greenland sharks eating seals

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022098112001657?via%3Dihub

https://animals.mom.me/seals-sleep-4736.html

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/6/120626-greenland-sharks-seals-sleeping-animals-science/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Intromittent organs/penises

https://academic.oup.com/icb/article/56/4/705/2198314

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2013/06/scienceshot-birds-disappearing-penis

Shark claspers

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/04/how-shark-penises-evolved

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms7698

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/clasper

[Butt One More Thing]

Coprolite shark tooth

https://www.earthtouchnews.com/discoveries/fossils/that-time-a-prehistoric-shark-took-a-bite-out-of-a-turd/

Oct 08, 2019
Fear Month: Failure with Caitlin Hofmeister!
00:33:38

Here at Tangents, we don't mess around when it comes to Halloween. So each week in October, the topic will be one of our greatest fears! Hank was apparently too afraid to even be on this episode, so instead special guest Caitlin Hofmeister confronts her fear of failure as we tell her tales of science gone wrong!

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Bubble Wrap

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/accidental-invention-bubble-wrap-180971325/

Whoopee Cushion

https://torontoist.com/2013/04/toronto-invents-the-whoopee-cushion/

Vaseline

https://www.dummies.com/education/history/american-history/the-history-of-an-incredibly-useful-u-s-product-vaseline/

https://www.damninteresting.com/nugget/story-of-vaseline/

[Fact Off]

Mosquito self-limiting gene

Four Pests campaign

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/bodyhorrors/2014/02/26/mao-four-pests-china-disease/#.XKzfDOtKhxw

https://io9.gizmodo.com/china-s-worst-self-inflicted-environmental-disaster-th-5927112

https://chineseposters.net/themes/four-pests.php

http://www.zonaeuropa.com/20061130_1.htm

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1127087/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Killifish

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6317/1305

https://www.ucdavis.edu/news/against-tide-fish-adapts-quickly-lethal-levels-pollution/

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/09/science/atlantic-killifish-evolution-pollution.html

Radiotrophic fungi

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/radiation-helps-fungi-grow/

https://mbio.asm.org/content/7/6/e01483-16

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0000457

Birds

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140424223057.htm

https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2435.12283

https://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/pdf/S0169-5347(16)00019-7.pdf

[Butt One More Thing]

Artificial poop pills

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/08/sham-poo-washes-out/493811/

https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/214/2/173/2572105

Oct 01, 2019
Plastic
00:29:28

Plastic: space age wonder material or planet-destroying scourge? The real answer may lie... somewhere in the middle (but leaning more towards scourge). Plus, learn exactly how many LEGO minifigures you can eat before you die!

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Milk

https://blogs.getty.edu/iris/galalith-alchemy-in-the-age-of-plastic/

https://www.chemistryworld.com/podcasts/casein/3007625.article

https://www.ganoksin.com/article/galalith-jewelry-milk-stone/

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/bring-science-home-milk-plastic/

Blood

https://books.google.com/books?id=3uoiAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA9

https://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/rjrtags/ill65.htmlhttps://surface.syr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1261&context=beads

https://materialdistrict.com/material/blood-plastic/

https://surface.syr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1261&context=beads

pictures: https://www.hippohardware.com/blogs/news/at-deaths-door-a-history-of-hemacite

Venom

http://www.t3db.ca/toxins/T3D2544

[Fact Off]

Bees and plastic

https://www.sciencealert.com/wild-bees-have-been-found-building-nests-entirely-out-of-plastic-for-the-first-time

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13592-019-00635-6
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-03/pp-bsw030117.php

https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1890/ES13-00308.1

Celluloid billiard balls 

http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_eye/2015/05/13/the_death_of_billiards_and_the_rise_of_plastic_on_99_invisible_with_roman.html

https://www.liveabout.com/what-pool-balls-are-made-of-368742

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/once-upon-time-exploding-billiard-balls-were-everyday-thing-180962751/

http://mentalfloss.com/article/64247/first-plastic-billiard-balls-routinely-exploded

[Ask the Science Couch]

Corn plastic

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/environmental-impact-of-corn-based-plastics/

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/corn-plastic-to-the-rescue-126404720/

https://mcgillcompost.com/blog/recycling-number-7-pla-plastics

[Butt One More Thing]

Cigarette butts

https://www.sciencealert.com/this-company-recycles-cigarette-butts-and-turns-them-into-plastic

Sep 24, 2019
Teens
00:31:49

For humans, the teenage years are marked by angst, self-discovery, and homework. For elephants, they’re marked by pus-weeping face glands, uncontrollable rage, and a green penis!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Guevedoces:

https://secondnexus.com/opinion/the-intersex-children-of-salinas/

https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-34290981

https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/924291-overview

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2265.1991.tb03769.x

Cat scratch disease: https://www.sciencealert.com/a-case-of-schizophrenia-found-to-be-a-bad-case-of-cat-scratch-disease

[Fact Off]

Music

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/in-teen-music-choices-fear-rules/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=%22Gregory+S.+Berns%22

Elephant Musth

https://www.bbcearth.com/blog/?article=teenage-elephants-need-a-father-figure

http://www.rhinoresourcecenter.com/index.php?s=1&act=pdfviewer&id=1253211728&folder=125

[Ask the Science Couch]

Risk taking/brain development

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3445337/

https://opentextbc.ca/introductiontopsychology/chapter/6-3-adolescence-developing-independence-and-identity/

Lying

http://www.jeffreyarnett.com/articles/articles/ARNETT_the_right_to_do_wrong.pdf

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001691815300184

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0109591

[Butt One More Thing]

Koala pap

https://www.savethekoala.com/about-koalas/life-cycle-koala

http://koalainfo.com/pap-the-first-solid-food-of-koalas

Sep 17, 2019
Fashion
00:31:50

New York Fashion Week is in full swing, and the world's most stylish science podcast is celebrating by exploring the intersection of fashion and science!

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Beards & miasma theory

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/plague-know/

https://mentalfloss.com/article/31056/why-did-people-wear-powdered-wigs

https://io9.gizmodo.com/the-science-behind-todays-plague-doctor-costume-1737404375

Lightning rods

https://www.newspapers.com/clip/9256546/lubbock_morning_avalanche/

https://books.google.com/books?id=UEH1AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA184

https://books.google.com/books?id=g6cwDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA190

Pictures: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightning_rod_fashion

Bulletproof silk

https://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2578879

http://mentalfloss.com/article/24039/brief-history-bulletproof-vests

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/jul/29/bulletproof-silk-vest-prevent-first-world-war-royal-armouries

[Fact Off]

Julie and ear grass

Lizards and human shirts

[Ask the Science Couch]

Bamboo

http://www.patagonia.com/static/on/demandware.static/-/Library-Sites-PatagoniaShared/default/dw0de5a5be/PDF-US/bamboo_rayon.pdf

Hemp

https://slate.com/technology/2011/04/hemp-versus-cotton-which-is-better-for-the-environment.html

Wool

https://www.iwto.org/news/environmental-impacts-wool-textiles

Linen

https://econation.co.nz/linen/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320307130_GOING_ECO_GOING_DUTCH_A_local_and_closed_loop_textile_production_system

Mass production (dyeing, burning)

https://e360.yale.edu/features/can_waterless_dyeing_processes_clean_up_clothing_industry_pollution

https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2018/9/17/17852294/fashion-brands-burning-merchandise-burberry-nike-h-and-m

[Butt One More Thing]

Cow manure clothes

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/poop-clothing_n_58e7d6f0e4b058f0a02efa77

Sep 10, 2019
Navigation
00:31:52

Wether it's a human trying to figure out the quickest way to the airport, a salmon returning to the waters where they were born, or a dog trying to figure out the perfect place to poop, almost everyliving thing uses some sort of innate or technological navigation system every day. 

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Orientation of mental maps:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135803

Humans sensing magnetic fields:

https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/can-humans-sense-the-magnetic-field--65611

[Fact Off]

Marine chronometer

http://www.jgiesen.de/LunarDistance/index.html

https://www.jstor.org/stable/3087198?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-at-sea/longitude-problem

https://archive.org/details/principlesmrhar00unkngoog/page/n22

https://www.timeandwatches.com/p/the-detent-escapement-from-marine.html

Etak navigator

[Ask the Science Couch]

Sunstone/calcite:

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2011/11/viking-sunstone-revealed

https://arstechnica.com/science/2018/04/mysterious-sunstones-in-medieval-viking-texts-could-really-have-worked/

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsos.172187

https://www.nature.com/news/2011/110131/full/news.2011.58.html

Image of calcite: https://www.sciencesource.com/Doc/TR1_WATERMARKED/6/9/f/3/SS2509789.jpg?d63642476241

Sep 03, 2019
Precious Metals
00:31:34

Almost all of human culture and economics is structured around a handful of pretty metals that we have arbitrarily assigned value to! 

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Silver nanoparticles

https://jnanobiotechnology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12951-017-0254-9

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-05/osu-elc051418.php

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/07/embryo-inspired-bandage-17-times-stickier-band-aid

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-02/ez-pnf021419.php

Copper

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK225400/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/copper-toxicity

Platinum

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29632935

https://www.forbes.com/sites/carmendrahl/2017/04/14/why-is-platinum-in-some-chemotherapy-drugs-and-can-we-improve-them/#1a89a88417d4

[Fact Off]

Alchemy and phosphorus:

https://phys.org/news/2019-01-phosphorus-years-discovery-vital-element.html

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/02/02/465188104/phosphorus-starts-with-pee-in-this-tale-of-scientific-serendipity

Gold vein earthquakes: 

https://www.nature.com/news/earthquakes-make-gold-veins-in-an-instant-1.12615

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/earthquakes-are-basically-gold-factories-4659100/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Nickel allergy/reactivity:

https://www.nickelinstitute.org/about-nickel/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4783936/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047925/

https://books.google.com/books?id=CpAM1U1efqcC&pg=PA120

Gold allergy/reactivity:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11244133

https://books.google.com/books?id=1mk3lFVtBSQC&pg=PA104

Implant metals:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9440845

[Butt One More Thing]

Metals in poop:

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es505329q

https://www.pnas.org/content/112/29/8803.full

Aug 27, 2019
Extremophiles
00:33:38

Extremophiles are tough little guys that not only survive but thrive in the harshest environments on Earth; unforgiving places like volcanic vents at the bottom of the sea, lakes of acid, and your bellybutton

To learn more about extremophiles and a whole universe of other microscopic creatures, check out Journey to the Microcosmos at https://www.youtube.com/microcosmos

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Single-species Ecosystem

https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn10336-gold-mine-holds-life-untouched-by-the-sun/

Extremophile Cheese

https://www.businessinsider.com/belly-button-innie-inside-cheese-bacteria-lint-fungi-2019-7

Fluffy Pink Golden Fungus

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/scientists-discover-fungus-capable-collecting-gold-its-environment-180972293/

[Fact Off]

Berkeley pit extremophiles:

https://medium.com/vision-2018/life-from-the-pit-70d3e0fbc0f6

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zEnWZcG3Nzk

https://cen.acs.org/biological-chemistry/natural-products/Scientists-mine-potential-drugs-Berkeley/97/i18

PCR & Taq polymerase:

https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/fact-sheets/Polymerase-Chain-Reaction-Fact-Sheet

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/probe/docs/techpcr/

https://www.thermofisher.com/order/catalog/product/10342020

https://www.yellowstonepark.com/things-to-do/yellowstone-bacteria-beer-science

[Ask the Science Couch]

Extremophiles:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4187170/

Bacteria vs. Archaea:

http://bio1520.biology.gatech.edu/biodiversity/prokaryotes-bacteria-archaea-2/

https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/archaea/archaea.html

Archaea characteristics:

https://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/astrobiology/environments/

https://microbiologyonline.org/about-microbiology/introducing-microbes/archaea

https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/archaea/archaeamm.html

[Butt One More Thing]

Pompeii worm:

https://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/marinesymbiosis/pompeii.html

http://faculty.montgomerycollege.edu/gyouth/FP_examples/student_examples/sathya_ramachandran/pompeiiworms.html

Aug 20, 2019
Acid
00:32:36

This week, the Other Couch's high-school-level understanding of chemistry is really put to the test as we talk about acid! What is it? How does it dissolve things? It has something to do... with protons? It seems way simpler in the movies!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Formic acid (general):

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Formic-acid

Fire ant antivenom:

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/343/6174/1014.abstract

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/invasive-crazy-ants-are-eating-up-invasive-fire-ants-in-the-south-65189409/

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-rise-of-the-crazy-ants/

Bone-house wasps:

https://www.wired.com/2014/07/the-spider-eating-bone-house-wasp/

Electricity-generating wasps:

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/12/101221-solar-power-hornet-science-animals/

[Fact Off]

Internal sensor:

https://www.seeker.com/when-swallowed-this-sensor-is-powered-by-stomach-acid-2248294501.html

Pregnancy gif:

https://giphy.com/gifs/pregnancy-baby-fetus-WS91RYT47sA6I

https://imgur.com/gallery/d7n3eIH

Moss bandage:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-humble-moss-helped-heal-wounds-thousands-WWI-180963081/

https://images.app.goo.gl/TWkw555pqQcRF4Ap8

[Ask the Science Couch]

Battery energy storage:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-batteries-store-an/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IV4IUsholjg&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtPHzzYuWy6fYEaX9mQQ8oGr

Lead-acid batteries:

https://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/lead_based_batteries

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/leadacid.html

Aug 13, 2019
Deserts
00:30:43

You might think you know everything there is to know about deserts: big, sandy, hot, etc. But between the alien mummies and the ice blades, we're guessing there's a lot you don't know. All that and you get to see Hank just totally embarrass himself while trying to talk about Pokemon. 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Atacama Desert:

Ata:

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/22/science/ata-mummy-alien-chile.html

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/tiny-alien-skeleton-found-chile-was-likely-result-genetic-mutations-180968576/

Ice Blades: 

https://www.sciencealert.com/eerie-ice-spires-harbour-life-in-one-of-the-harshest-environments-on-earth

Microbes:

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-35051-w

https://earthsky.org/earth/mars-like-atacanda-desert-rain-brings-death

[Fact Off]

Thorny devil lizard:

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsos.170591

Libyan Desert glass:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5196362.stm

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022309384901777

https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/47/7/609/570318/overestimation-of-threat-from-100-mt-class?redirectedFrom=fulltext

https://theconversation.com/how-we-solved-the-mystery-of-libyan-desert-glass-117253

[Ask the Science Couch]

Sand depth:

https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-9213-9_325-1

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-65661-8_10

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92232/grand-erg-oriental-algeria

https://www.nps.gov/zion/learn/nature/sand-dunes-sandstone.htm

[Butt One More Thing]

Dung beetles:

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-10/uotw-bud101912.php

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822%2812%2901061-5

 

Aug 06, 2019
Metamorphosis
00:33:07

 

When you think metamorphosis, you might think a beautiful butterfly coming out of its cocoon. However, lots of things metamorphose in much less graceful, much more sticky, gooey, unsettling, and potentially dangerous ways!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links: 

[Truth or Fail]

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-01/uoc-sbb010308.php http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4460030.stm

Kind of gross but very cool, highly recommend this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCo2uCLXvhk

[Fact Off]

Cryptometamorphosis:

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/11/science/snail-metamorphosis.html

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2018.1099#sec-3

Figure from paper: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/cms/attachment/12748a2e-c968-4fff-912a-9f9cd2c3d514/rspb20181099f01.gif

Wax moths and plastic:

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/04/25/525447206/a-worm-may-hold-the-key-to-biodegrading-plastic

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28441558

[Ask the Science Couch]

Grasshoppers/locusts:

http://mentalfloss.com/article/57104/whats-difference-between-grasshoppers-and-locusts

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/when-grasshoppers-go-bibl/

(includes picture) https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2009/01/serotonin-makes-locusts-swarm

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/306/5703/1881

Jul 30, 2019
Fungi
00:32:54

Plants and animals get all the glory, but fungi are out there every day, breaking down leaf litter, making our bread nice and fluffy, and fermenting alcohols. They deserve a little thanks, so we did a whole episode about them!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Fungal Pesticides:

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2017/04/12/522068205/fungal-pesticides-offer-a-growing-alternative-to-traditional-chemicals

https://agrochemicals.iupac.org/index.php?option=com_sobi2&sobi2Task=sobi2Details&catid=3&sobi2Id=31

https://phys.org/news/2019-02-virus-infested-fungus-chemical-pesticides.html

Tinder Fungi:

https://www.uab.cat/web/newsroom/news-detail-1345668003610.html?noticiaid=1345754508535

Egyptian Medicine:

https://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/10/nyregion/secrets-of-the-mummys-medicine-chest.html

[Fact Off]

Whiskey mold:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18065010

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5315285/

https://www.wired.com/2011/05/ff-angelsshare/

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/78dyqb/kentuckys-whiskey-fungus-problem-is-out-of-control

Plastic-digesting fungus:

https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/fungi-research-lifts-lid-shy-organisms-break-down-plastic

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0202047

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749117300295

http://blog.worldagroforestry.org/index.php/2017/09/12/scientists-find-fungus-appetite-plastic-rubbish-dump/

[Ask the Science Couch]

“Zombie” ants:

https://www.pnas.org/content/114/47/12590

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187170

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3204140/

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/11/how-the-zombie-fungus-takes-over-ants-bodies-to-control-their-minds/545864/

[Butt One More Thing]

Zygomycota:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0003237

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T8OAmcUnm4g

Jul 23, 2019
The Apollo Program
00:30:00

From 1961 to 1972, thousands of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, seamstresses, pilots, and even a child or two worked on the Apollo Program, collaborating to bring humanity to the moon. Today, Tangents celebrates this unparalleled work of collective science and engineering!  

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Golf Club:

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/objects-of-intrigue-alan-shepards-golf-club

https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2018/08/16/why-was-alan-shepard-allowed-to-bring-golf-clubs-to-the-moon/#1d7fe6b67f86

Family Photo:

https://www.businessinsider.com/apollo-16-hidden-family-portrait-on-the-moon-2015-10

Ashes: 

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/eugene-shoemaker-buried-moon-celestis-nasa

https://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/news82.html

[Fact Off]

Greg Force: Boy Hero: 

https://www.honeysucklecreek.net/other_stations/guam/index.html

http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/space/07/20/apollo11.irpt/index.html

Spacesuit seamstresses: 

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/neil-armstrongs-spacesuit-was-made-by-a-bra-manufacturer-3652414/

http://mentalfloss.com/article/82726/how-playtex-helped-win-space-race

https://www.racked.com/2018/9/5/17771270/spacesuit-girdles-playtex-seamstresses-nasa

https://gizmodo.com/how-to-sew-a-spacesuit-5788241

[Ask the Science Couch]

Michael Collins lonely: 

https://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2009/jul/HQ_09-164_Collins_statement.html

https://www.space.com/16971-michael-collins-apollo-11.html

https://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/overview/

[Butt One More Thing]

Moon poop bacteria:

https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2019/3/22/18236125/apollo-moon-poop-mars-science

Jul 16, 2019
Cancer
00:30:38

Living things are so full of complicated systems of cells and DNA, that things are bound to go wrong. And sometimes when things go wrong, cancer is the result. Today on Tangents we talk about the causes, health impacts, and potential cures (both real and fake) of cancer. 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Norman Baker

https://historycollection.co/norman-baker-man-claimed-cure-cancer/

Cow War

https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=3298&context=iowastate_veterinarian

Animal Testes Transplant

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/4x3p73/early-body-hacking-when-men-got-goat-testicle-grafts-to-boost-their-sex-drive

The Philosophy of Success Book

https://archive.org/details/Law_Of_Success_in_16_Lessons

[Fact Off]

Turtle fossil bone cancer:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/02/ridiculously-rare-cancer-found-fossil-leg-turtle-triassic-paleontology/

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaoncology/article-abstract/2723578

Parasite-human cancer transmission:

https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2015/p1104-parasite-tumors.html

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/tapeworm-spreads-deadly-cancer-to-human/

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/03/190325110313.htm

[Ask the Science Couch]

General:

https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/infectious-agents/hpv-and-cancer

https://www.popsci.com/transmissible-cancers-animals/

Tasmanian devil:

https://www.tcg.vet.cam.ac.uk/about/DFTD

https://www.nature.com/articles/onc2009350

https://elifesciences.org/articles/35314

Clams:

https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(15)00243-3

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature18599

[Butt One More Thing]

Farts & cancer:

https://time.com/2976464/scientists-say-smelling-farts-might-prevent-cancer/

https://pubs.rsc.org/En/content/articlelanding/2014/md/c3md00323j#!divAbstract

Jul 09, 2019
Natural Disasters
00:32:50

Natural disasters are a fact of life when you live on a giant ball of water, ice, and rock with a gooey magma center that’s hurtling through space… and all the pollution we’re pumping into the environment doesn’t really seem to be helping, either.

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Cloud seeding

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-935704-30-0_9

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/195/4274/139

Absorbent polymer

https://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/C5d.html

http://discovermagazine.com/2002/sep/featrain

Hail cannon

https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0477(1981)062%3C0368%3AHRTFHC%3E2.0.CO%3B2

https://www.businessinsider.com/volkswagen-hail-cannons-mexico-farmers-draught-2018-8

https://books.google.com/books?id=h-ADAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA548

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/hail-cannons-the-devices-that-supposedly-blast-away-bad-weather

Soot

https://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/C5b.html

[Fact Off]

Year Without a Summer:

https://scied.ucar.edu/shortcontent/mount-tambora-and-year-without-summer

http://mentalfloss.com/article/73585/15-facts-about-year-without-summer

https://medium.com/@spencerbaum/the-year-without-summer-and-the-origins-of-frankenstein-13e6884c3ece

Tae Bo “earthquake:”

https://www.geek.com/geek-cetera/korean-skyscraper-shakes-from-17-middle-aged-people-doing-tae-bo-1405157/

http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2011/07/117_91209.html

http://mentalfloss.com/article/31349/how-power-literally-rocked-house

[Ask the Science Couch]

Glass rain:

https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/alien-worlds/galaxy-of-horrors/

Cryovolcanoes: 

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cassini/media/cassini-20081215b.htmL

https://www.nature.com/news/2009/090325/full/news.2009.190.html

Ice quakes on Earth: 

http://climate.missouri.edu/news/arc/mar2014b.php

http://time.com/5517690/frost-quakes-ice-polar-vortex-sounds/

[Butt One More Thing]

Hurricane Florence poop:

https://www.govtech.com/em/disaster/Hurricane-Florence-Bathed-North-Carolina-in-Raw-Sewage-New-Figures-Show-it-was-Even-Worse-than-we-Thought.html

https://www.livescience.com/63625-pig-manure-overflow-hurricane-florence.html

Jul 02, 2019
Fossils with Kallie Moore
00:30:32

Fossils: a profound link to our Earth’s past… some are profound... some are beautiful… some are poop! Kallie Moore, host of PBS Eons joins the Tangents crew to talk old stone bones, fraudulent fossils, and a dinosaur so well preserved, we may be able to figure out what its last meal was. 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions! 

If you want more Kallie Moore, check out PBS Eons:

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCzR-rom72PHN9Zg7RML9EbA

And if you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Pseudofossils:

http://www.dmp.wa.gov.au/Pseudofossils-1663.aspx

Underwater cave:

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/09/pictures/110927-crocodile-fossils-found-underwater-cave/

http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/6440/N3779.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/6920

Picture: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/09/pictures/110927-crocodile-fossils-found-underwater-cave/#/40959.jpg

Amber:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00379271.2010.10697637

https://www.pnas.org/content/112/32/9961?ijkey=4607330261d2012edc599837b06f71be63ebc148&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

[Fact Off]

Opalized fossils: 

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2018/12/exclusive-sparkly-opal-filled-fossils-reveal-new-dinosaur-species-paleontology/

Super preserved Ankylosaur:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2017/06/dinosaur-nodosaur-fossil-discovery/

https://www.livescience.com/65640-opal-dinosaur-herd-bones.html

[Ask the Science Couch]

Zircon:

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/10/scientists-may-have-found-earliest-evidence-life-earth

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2018/09/news-earth-rocks-sediment-first-life-zircon/

Tully monster:

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/laelaps/tully-monster-still-a-mystery/

https://www.isgs.illinois.edu/outreach/geology-resources/illinois-state-fossil-tullimonstrum-gregarium

[Butt One More Thing]

Fake poop:

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/07/140729-dinosaur-coprolite-paleontology-dung-fossil-auction/

Jun 25, 2019
Communication with Vanessa Hill
00:32:50

Birds singing, dogs barking, computers sending and receiving data, you reading this description: at the end of the day, it’s all communication. This week, we sit down with Vanessa Hill, host of the YouTube channel Braincraft, and do a little communicating about communication!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions!

If you want more Vanessa Hill, check out BrainCraft: https://www.youtube.com/user/braincraftvideo

And if you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Fact Off]

Languages & ecological risk:

Evolved antenna:

https://ti.arc.nasa.gov/m/pub-archive/1244h/1244%20(Hornby).pdf

http://www.genetic-programming.org/gecco2004hc/lohn-paper.pdf

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/nmp/st5/ABOUT/about-index.php

Picture of ST5 antenna: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/nmp/st5/TECHNOLOGY/antenna.html

Evolution of antenna: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/2-Sequence-of-evolved-antennas-leading-up-to-antenna-ST5-331427_fig2_226537559

[Ask the Science Couch]

Animal communication: 

http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ling201/test1materials/Animalchart.htm

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2014/08/22/chirps-whistles-clicks-do-any-animals-have-a-true-language/?utm_term=.1e218b9e7f00

http://www.cogs.indiana.edu/spackled/2009readings/Slobodchikoff%202009.PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1834009/

http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150512-birds-hold-the-key-to-language  

[Butt One More Thing]

FRTs:

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2003/11/farting-fish-keep-touch

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rsbl.2003.0107

Jun 18, 2019
Digestion
00:31:43

Everybody eats, and everybody poops, but in between… that’s where the magic happens! This week we’re talking about everyone’s favorite organic method of removing nutrients from food: digestion!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions!

 

And if you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Fact Off]

Throat to small intestine:

Phytobezoars:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4400622/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2673384/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/apt.12141

[Ask the Science Couch]

Gum composition:

https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/102/2/e22.long

https://patents.google.com/patent/US6986907B2/en

https://pslc.ws/macrog/pib.htm

Swallowed gum:

https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/swallowed-gum.html

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/basics/transit.html

[Butt One More Thing]

Everlasting pill: 

https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/antimony-metallic-cleanse-middle-ages

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3037053/

Jun 11, 2019
Messes with Joe Hanson
00:35:14

Be they big or small, purposeful or accidental, innocuous or potentially-planet-destroying, there is no question that humans are great at making messes and not so great at cleaning them up. Joe Hanson, host of the PBS channel Hot Mess, joins us to talk about some of the more notable messes we’ve made, and what, if anything, we can do to be less messy in the future.

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out themes for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions!

And if you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out this episode’s page at scishowtangents.org!

Jun 04, 2019
Sleep
00:33:00

So,right off the bat, basically all you need to know about this episode is that Hank sings this week's Science Poem. Beyond that, we delve into the eternal mystery that is 'sleep.' Where do oursdreams come from? How does sleeping help rejuvenate our brains and bodies? Why do some people need less sleep than others? Turns out, no one really knows yet, but it's still fun to talk about!

 

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions!

 

And if you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Sleeping and Idea Generation:

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/05/sleep-creativity-theory/560399/

http://mentalfloss.com/article/12763/11-creative-breakthroughs-people-had-their-sleep

https://www.brainpickings.org/2016/02/08/mendeleev-periodic-table-dream/

https://www.inverse.com/article/3696-5-dreams-that-led-to-scientific-breakthroughs

[Fact Off]

Auto activation deficit: 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24026624

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130911211923.htm

Narcolepsy and dogs: 

https://med.stanford.edu/narcolepsy/narcolepsyhistory.html

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12026-014-8513-4

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3625934/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9481825

https://med.stanford.edu/content/dam/sm/psychiatry/documents/narcolepsy/latestnews/cell98.pdf

[Ask the Science Couch]

Naturally short sleepers:

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2018/03/410051/scientists-discover-how-gene-mutation-reduces-need-sleep

https://www.pnas.org/content/115/13/3434.short?rss=1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3589707/

Circadian rhythms:

http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/science/variations/individual-variation-genetics

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/having-this-gene-may-make-some-people-night-owls/

Flies:

https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1007098

[Butt One More Thing]

Dormant butt syndrome:

https://wexnermedical.osu.edu/blog/your-dormant-butt-might-be-to-blame-for-knee-hip-or-back-pain

May 28, 2019
Cooking
00:30:45

Every day, billions of people perform vital, life sustaining chemistry right in their homes! Baking, frying, boiling, fermenting… all cooking is science, and the way it weaves into our lives and cultures makes it uniquely fascinating! Join us this week to learn why the heck there’s iodine in your salt, what happens if you forget where in the bog you buried your cask of meat, and why baking a cake at high elevations can be so frustrating!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions!

And if you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Hartshorn salt:

https://www.thespruceeats.com/ammonium-carbonate-hartshorn-hirschhornsalz-1446913

https://library.ndsu.edu/grhc/foods/recipe/ammonia.html

Bog butter:

https://www.irishtimes.com/news/for-peat-s-safe-bog-butter-unearthed-with-turf-1.583009

https://www.nature.com/news/1998/040315/full/news040315-5.html

Turnspit: 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2014/05/13/311127237/turnspit-dogs-the-rise-and-fall-of-the-vernepator-cur

https://books.google.com/books?id=FVF_PhTjK7cC&pg=PA316#v=onepage&q&f=false

[Fact Off]

Iodine in salt:

https://www.nber.org/papers/w19233

Hank’s notes: https://docs.google.com/document/d/13t4UeMlNg5bH3v1HpkixBa_PYT6AB8NtCFqIBEw9XQk/edit?ts=5cbfd777

Graphene vegetable oil:

https://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-have-turned-cheap-cooking-oil-into-a-material-200-times-stronger-than-steel

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14217

[Ask the Science Couch]

Cooking at high elevation:

https://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/icooks/article-3-03.html

https://extension.colostate.edu/docs/pubs/foodnut/p41.pdf

https://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/bread/bread_science.html

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6098858/

[Butt One More Thing]

Baby poop meat:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0309174013005263?via%3Dihub

https://www.livescience.com/43465-baby-poop-sausage-probiotic.html

May 21, 2019
Mars
00:29:26

From countless stories of little green men to colonization plans and endless rover and satellite missions, humans are sort of obsessed with Mars. One of those obsessed humans is Hank Green! This week he finally gets to put all his knowledge about his favorite planet to good use: winning fake points on a game show he made up!

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out topics for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions!

And if you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

https://docs.google.com/document/d/12swg6fcCIZYuQh4q9vmW6SBwMoLwnb7jq3s2qT9_Djg/edit?usp=sharing

[Fact Off]

First Mars image: 

The picture: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/spaceimages/details.php?id=PIA14033

Plutonium-238:

https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/mbyz4v/scientists-are-automating-plutonium-production-so-nasa-can-explore-deep-space

https://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/plutonium-production-space-exploration/

https://www.greenwichtime.com/technology/businessinsider/article/NASA-s-deep-space-nuclear-power-crisis-may-soon-13530374.php

[Ask the Science Couch]

Earth tectonics:

https://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/pltec/

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/18/science/plate-tectonics-continents-earth.html

https://phys.org/news/2018-09-plate-tectonics-earth.html

Mars (lack of) tectonics:

https://marsed.asu.edu/mep/tectonics

https://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/exploring-the-planets/online/solar-system/mars/surface/volcanoes/

[Butt One More Thing]

Poop-eating bacteria:

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2018/02/03/582968023/making-space-food-with-space-poop

May 14, 2019
Sound
00:33:55

We couldn’t make podcasts without the science of sound. There’s a lot of technology involved in capturing the vibrations we’re making with our vocal folds so that we can share them with the whole Internet! So this week, we’re fine-tuning our knowledge of sound. Do scientists even know why music makes us feel emotions? Is the ocean really as silent as it seems, or are fish partying down there? And how did computer nerds send each other video games and Christmas cards through radio broadcasts?

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out themes for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions!

And if you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Butterfly Hearing:

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/10/these-butterflies-boost-their-hearing-unusual-strategy

[Fact Off]

Coral reef sounds:

Computer program cassettes:

https://qz.com/emails/quartz-obsession/1156672/

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Audio/tape2.html

http://artsites.ucsc.edu/EMS/music/tech_background/TE-16/teces_16.html

https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_fifty.html

https://archive.org/stream/byte-magazine-1976-02/1976_02_BYTE_00-06_Color_Graphics#page/n73/mode/1up

http://www.retrotechnology.com/restore/cass_data.html

http://www.kotaku.co.uk/2014/10/13/people-used-download-games-radio

[Ask the Science Couch]

General Feelings & Physiological Effects:

https://www.nature.com/news/why-dissonant-music-strikes-the-wrong-chord-in-the-brain-1.11791

https://www.pnas.org/content/109/48/19858

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00140130600899104?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=terg20

https://www.nature.com/news/neuroaesthetics-is-killing-your-soul-1.12640

Chills:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/researchers-look-what-happens-brain-when-music-causes-chills-180959481/

https://www.wired.com/2011/01/the-neuroscience-of-music/

https://www.nature.com/articles/nn.2726 https://scan.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/03/10/scan.nsw009.abstract?cited-by=yes&legid=scan;nsw009v1

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0305735615572358

Harmony:

https://arxiv.org/html/1202.4212v1/#sec_2_3_2

https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20930-why-harmony-pleases-the-brain/

https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.108103

[Butt One More Thing]

Fart noises:

https://www.menshealth.com/health/a19545944/fart-noises/

May 07, 2019
Mutation with Trace Dominguez
00:33:54

This week, we’re joined by Trace Dominguez from the YouTube channel Uno Dos of Trace to talk about genetic mutations! Tiny changes in an organism’s DNA sequence can lead to big variations or absolutely nothing. It’s just a roll of the dice! So what mutations have shown up in modern humans—different bones, livers, or even eyeballs? What is “foreign DNA” and where does it even come from? And can anybody name as many X-Men as Sam?

If you want to know more about any of the topics discussed today, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

Hypoxia:

https://www.sciencealert.com/indonesian-bajau-genetic-changes-adapt-them-to-aquatic-lifestyle-2

Bones:

https://www.the-scientist.com/notebook-old/the-worlds-densest-bones-47155

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa013444

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28893644

Smoking:

https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1994-10-17-mn-51362-story.html

[Fact Off]

Tetrachromats:

Colchicine and watermelons:

https://csuvth.colostate.edu/poisonous_plants/Plants/Details/79

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4656054/

https://scialert.net/fulltextmobile/?doi=jbs.2013.277.282

https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/CAT71326739/PDF

https://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/newsletters/hortupdate/hortupdate_archives/2000/may00/h5may00.html

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/artful-amoeba/for-plants-polyploidy-is-not-a-four-letter-word/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Foreign DNA:

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-11/uonc-ahc111815.php

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/290835.php

https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-015-0607-3

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2009.1679

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7934/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6177113/

[Butt One More Thing]

Beautiful buttocks:

https://www.nature.com/news/2002/020917/full/news020916-3.html

Apr 30, 2019
Agriculture
00:34:31

A bunch of things are considered agricultural science, from planting crops and raising sheep for wool to food safety and developing fertilizers. This week, we’re skimming the surface of agriculture, with a little detour into animals that sort of farm too. What accidental evolutionary pressures turned weeds into popular crops? Why are seed vaults so important to humanity? And what made Big Mike  basically go extinct, and are we worried about it happening with other crops? (Big Mike is a banana, by the way.)

Want to know more about our topics? Check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

https://india.mongabay.com/2018/10/farmer-termites-bury-invaders-alive-to-protect-fungus-farms/

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10886-017-0902-4

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00040-010-0092-3

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0156847

[Fact Off]

Vavilovian mimicry:

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/weed-science/article/vavilovian-mimicry-nikolai-vavilov-and-his-littleknown-impact-on-weed-science/1B0263622E208DA4548BF0BCB918F255

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02858881

http://labs.eeb.utoronto.ca/barrett/pdf/schb_54.pdf

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00140.x

Leningrad seed vault:

[Ask the Science Couch]

Bananas:

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/oct/25/banana-farming-danger-cavendish-crop-genetics

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2018/jun/18/scientists-scramble-to-stop-bananas-being-killed-off

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2017/12/27/banana-fungus-panama-disease/#.XIgdQFNKhxw

https://www.apsnet.org/about/newsroom/releases/Pages/03Banana.aspx

https://fusariumwilt.org/index.php/en/about-fusarium-wilt/

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-44712034

[Butt One More Thing]

Night soil: 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2013/05/07/182010827/is-it-safe-to-use-compost-made-from-treated-human-waste

Apr 23, 2019
Pregnancy
00:31:09

Pregnancy is, biologically speaking, extremely weird! A pregnant animal’s body goes through so many hormonal and physical changes to make sure a zygote has everything it needs to grow. This week, we’re talking about a few of those things, like why pregnant people get nauseated and other animals might not. So is pseudopregnancy a real thing, or are pandas just tricking zookeepers to get extra treats? Why is there a patent for a birthing machine that looks like a horrible carnival ride? And what the heck is a stone baby?

Want to know more about our topics? Check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

https://patents.google.com/patent/US3216423A/en

https://dublin.sciencegallery.com/failbetter/apparatusfacilitatingbirthchildcentrifugalforce/

[Fact Off]

Panda pseudopregnancy:

Lithopedion:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3979976/

https://alumni.amc.edu/pages/archives/archives---the-stone-baby

https://utmb.influuent.utsystem.edu/en/publications/lithopedion-stone-baby

https://www.health.harvard.edu/womens-health/calcium-beyond-the-bones

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4750627/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Morning sickness:

http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2000/05/morning-sickness-protects-mothers-and-their-unborn

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3676933/

https://www.jstor.org/stable/2664252?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

https://www.pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk/resources/literature-review/symptoms-of-nvp-in-animals/

https://www.livescience.com/32301-do-pregnant-animals-get-morning-sickness.html

[Butt One More Thing]

Meconium:

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/112/2901/150.long

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18281199

Apr 16, 2019
Ancient Mega with Blake de Pastino
00:33:42

This week, we’re joined by Blake de Pastino from the YouTube channel PBS Eons to talk about how plants, animals, and geologic events used to be so… huge. There are still blue whales and massive natural disasters, but the days of the Megalodon have passed. So were those big tunnels in South America really dug out by giant ground sloths? Where is the largest impact crater in the Solar System? And did humans really huddle under the skeletal remains of the giant armadillo-like Glyptodon?

 

To learn more about this week's topic, check out these links:

[Truth or Fail]

https://natural-history.uoregon.edu/collections/web-galleries/saber-toothed-salmon

https://cals.arizona.edu/classes/ento596c/topic/session9.html

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10420940.2016.1223654?scroll=top&needAccess=true&

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2017/03/28/paleoburrows-south-america/#.XFC3uc9Khxz

http://revistapesquisa.fapesp.br/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/044_Paleotocas_ING.pdf

[Ask the Science Couch]

Glyptodon carapaces:

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/02/ancient-armadillos-grew-big-vw-beetles

https://books.google.com/books?id=kUAKgNfiAvoC&pg=PA184#v=onepage&q&f=false

https://www.jstor.org/stable/971990?read-now=1&seq=6#page_scan_tab_contents

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/2055556315Z.00000000031?journalCode=ypal20

https://books.google.com/books?id=2tk_AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA223&lpg=PA223

[Butt One More Thing]

Stegosaurus butt brain misconception:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-double-dinosaur-brain-myth-12155823/

Apr 09, 2019
Bats
00:32:21

Bats have a bad reputation because of the ones that drink blood or spread disease, but these furry flying critters can be pretty cute! This week, we’re talking about everything from echolocation to weird potential uses for bat poop. Are there really bats with suction cups on their wings or is that just a cool toy idea? What is white nose syndrome and could vaping mushroom compounds… help? And what do you really think about Hank’s Dracula impression?

Follow us on Twitter @SciShowTangents, where we’ll tweet out themes for upcoming episodes and you can ask the science couch questions!

And if you want to learn more about any of our main topics, check out these links:

[Poem]

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/these-pitcher-plants-call-bats-get-their-poo-180956014/

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsbl.2010.1141

[Truth or Fail]

Bats that spend time on the ground:

http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2005/03/vampire-bats-keep-out-trouble-running-study-shows

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16621953

https://www.australiangeographic.com.au/blogs/creatura-blog/2018/01/why-fly-when-you-can-shuffle-the-lesser-short-tailed-bat-prefers-the-ground/

Diurnal bats:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2018/11/daytime-bats-help-explain-nocturnal-evolution/

https://blogs.plos.org/ecology/2017/06/29/bat-species-found-only-on-islands-in-trouble-worldwide/

https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/mamm.ahead-of-print/mammalia-2017-0128/mammalia-2017-0128.xml

Suction cup bats:

https://www.wired.com/2010/04/how-sucker-winged-bats-hang-on/

[Fact Off]

Bat & dolphin echolocation:

https://evolutionnews.org/2012/05/tangling_the_tr/

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2010/01/hear-bats-and-whales-share-sonar-protein

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(09)02073-9

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12511

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/refined-fine-tuned-placental-mammal-family-tree/

Moth echolocation blocker:

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2009/07/moths-block-bats-sonar

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/325/5938/325?keytype=ref&siteid=sci&ijkey=GbDjRlkoHfRnY

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/phenomena/2009/07/17/tiger-moths-jam-the-sonar-of-bats/

http://jeb.biologists.org/content/214/14/2416

[Ask the Science Couch]

White-nose syndrome:

https://www.biologicaldiversity.org/campaigns/bat_crisis_white-nose_syndrome/Q_and_A.html

https://www.whitenosesyndrome.org/static-page/what-is-white-nose-syndrome

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-bats-could-bounce-back-devastating-white-nose-syndrome-180969378/

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02441-z

https://www.mdpi.com/2309-608X/4/2/48

[Butt One More Thing]

Bat guano gunpowder:

https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/dkc09  

Apr 02, 2019
Charles Darwin
00:32:37

You might know him from his greatest hits: natural selection, Galápagos finches, and eating lots of the animals he studied… it’s Charles Darwin! This week, we’re talking about this famous biologist and some of the weirder science he did. What kind of books did he write after he published On the Origin of Species? Why was he so disgusted by fish spitting out seeds? And was it normal to write a letter to a scientist friend and ask detailed questions about barnacle sex?

 

Sources:

[Truth or Fail]

https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/4x38gj/darwins-monsters-parasitoid-wasps

https://books.google.com/books?id=lIcoAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA179&lpg=PA179&dq=charles+darwin+eyebrows&source=bl&ots=YrNkw9VczZ&sig=ACfU3U06m2pYFahEfpPveHOyT8auD0ZeXw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwivsMeU4LvgAhUbJzQIHUaoA5wQ6AEwFXoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=charles%20darwin%20eyebrows&f=false

[Fact Off]

Seeds & fish:

http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1683&viewtype=text&pageseq=1

https://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/letter/DCP-LETT-1681.xml

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2017/11/17/darwin-bird-vomit/#.XBlv3c9Khxw

https://academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article/161/1/20/2418329

Barnacles: 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3574338/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Darwin’s understanding vs. ours:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/earth/story/20141017-how-flowers-conquered-the-world

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/what-darwin-didnt-know-45637001/

https://www.wired.com/2014/12/fantastically-wrong-thing-evolution-darwin-really-screwed/

http://www.esp.org/books/darwin/variation/facsimile/contents/darwin-variation-chap-27-i.pdf

http://www.blc.arizona.edu/courses/schaffer/449/Soft%20Inhertance/Geison%20-%20Pangenesis.pdf

[Butt One More Thing]

Darwin bark spider:

http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20151126-the-worlds-biggest-spider-web-can-span-an-entire-river

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0011234

Mar 26, 2019
Timekeeping
00:32:59

If you think about it, we’re all time travelers moving forward at one second per second… right? This week, we try really hard to define time, get sort of existential about it, and then talk about the science of timekeeping, from circadian rhythms to weird mechanical clocks. What happens to someone’s sense of time if you put them in a big bunker locked away from the outside world? How did we decide there would be 60 seconds in a minute, and did we ever try to measure time with a decimal system? And if a human were to instantaneously dissolve into a pile of goo because their time was up, what would it sound like?

Sources:

[Truth or Fail]

https://mechanism.ucsd.edu/teaching/F11/philbiology2011/aschoff.circadianrhythmsinman.1965.pdf

https://www.mpg.de/943613/S003_Flashback_060_061.pdf

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/science-obituaries/6216073/Maurizio-Montalbini.html

[Fact Off]

Music & walking:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0067932

Castle Clock: 

http://muslimheritage.com/article/al-jazari%E2%80%99s-castle-water-clock-analysis-its-components-and-functioning

https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/al-jazari-s-book-of-knowledge-of-ingenious-mechanical-devices-the-castle-water-clock/DgF6LT4UYXvU4A

https://www.ee.columbia.edu/not-your-father%E2%80%99s-analog-computer-professor-yannis-tsividis

Animation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qz7soHvy-Pw

[Ask the Science Couch]

60 seconds/minutes:

https://www.theguardian.com/notesandqueries/query/0,5753,-1487,00.html

http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/161-our-solar-system/the-earth/day-night-cycle/761-why-is-a-day-divided-into-24-hours-intermediate

https://gizmodo.com/why-there-are-24-hours-in-a-day-5926491

http://mentalfloss.com/article/32127/decimal-time-how-french-made-10-hour-day

[Butt One More Thing]

Speed of poop:

https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/04/speed-of-poop-big-or-small-mammals-drop-a-deuce-in-12-secs-study-finds/

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/sm/c6sm02795d/unauth#!divAbstract

Mar 19, 2019
Giant Rodents
00:32:37

When can you start calling a rodent “giant?” When it’s twice the average size of its species? When you’re not grossed out by it? When it could be a mascot for a family fun center? We don’t really have a precise answer to that… but this week, we’re exploring the science of big ol’ rodents! Turns out, giant rodents have shaped the environment in lots of ways, from ancient megafauna stomping through South American wetlands to beavers affecting the climate. And even though they sound kind of scary, giant rats might be able to save human lives. But the real question is: what’s up with capybara anal pouches?

Sources:

[Truth or Fail]

https://news.northwestern.edu/stories/2015/02/making-teeth-tough-beavers-show-way-to-improve-our-enamel-

http://www.sci-news.com/biology/science-biswamoyopterus-laoensis-new-species-flying-squirrel-laos-01361.html

https://www.apopo.info/en/tuberculosis-detection/projects

http://www.treatmentactiongroup.org/tb/background

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/feb/23/rats-who-sniff-out-tubersulosis

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/08/140816-rats-tuberculosis-smell-disease-health-animals-world/

[Fact Off]

Hippos & biggest rodent:

Beavers & carbon emissions:

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-08/uoh-bha082918.php

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2013/07/what-role-do-beavers-play-climate-change

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13280-014-0575-y

[Ask the Science Couch]

Gigantism:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-king-kong-should-have-been-blue-whale-180962603/

https://www.nature.com/articles/482008d

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/05/120521-killer-mice-birds-gough-island-endangered-animals-science/

https://zslpublications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00534.x

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4358651/

[Butt One More Thing]

Capybara anal pouches:

https://zslpublications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1984.tb05087.x

Mar 12, 2019
Celebrity Science with Elah Feder
00:45:26
Mar 05, 2019
Bees
00:31:43

Do you ever just wonder, “are the bees doing okay?” They’re so important to our food industry and native ecosystems, and every couple of years it seems like something horribly bad is happening to them. So this week, we’re taking a look at the fascinating lives and deaths of bees! Can they recognize human faces or understand the concept of zero? Why are blister beetles mimicking sexy bee pheromones? And what do nightclubs and honeybee hives have in common?

 

Sources:

[Poem]

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/03/120316-hot-bee-balls-hornets-insects-brains-animals-science/

http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/206/2/353.full.pdf

[Truth or Fail]

  1. Handedness in bees
  2. Bees understanding zero
  3. Bees recognize faces

[Ask the Science Couch]

CCD: 

https://www.epa.gov/pollinator-protection/colony-collapse-disorder

Glyphosate:

http://jeb.biologists.org/content/218/17/2799

https://www.glyphosate.eu/glyphosate-mechanism-action

https://www.pnas.org/content/115/41/10305

Native bees:

https://www.wired.com/2015/04/youre-worrying-wrong-bees/

http://www.xerces.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Xerces_policy_statement_HB_Final.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5722319/

[Butt One More Thing]

Isopentyl acetate:

https://www.extension.entm.purdue.edu/beehive/pdf/Breed_et_al.pdf

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/isoamyl_acetate#section=Top

Feb 26, 2019
Artificial Intelligence
00:36:43

We’ve all heard about “The Algorithms” that affect our lives, making decisions for and about us. And artificial intelligence systems are recommending podcasts, picking out targeted ads, and playing games against humans every single day. This week, we’re going to skim the surface of AI and chat about everything from Siri to personality prediction software. How are these tools used to help the world, or are we mostly heading toward a dystopian future? What’s the Turing test and is it even a useful measure of artificial intelligence? And if a poem is written with software… is it really art? (We don’t know either.)

Sources:

AI-

[Poem]

http://janusnode.com/

[Truth or Fail]

https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-ai-vs-siri-vs-bing-iq-tests-show-one-is-smartest-by-a-mile/

https://arxiv.org/abs/1709.10242

https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-38390798

[Fact Off]

Anti-poaching:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/new-ai-camera-helps-conservationists-spot-elephant-poachers-180971180/

https://www.inverse.com/article/52203-ai-camera-poacher-watch

https://www.inverse.com/article/48043-paul-allen-makes-amends-with-coral-reefs-with-artificial-intelligence-research

Eye tracking:

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00105/full?utm_source=FWEB&utm_medium=NBLOG&utm_campaign=ECO_FNHUM_personality-eye-movements

[Ask the Science Couch]

Turing test:

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing-test/

https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20865-software-tricks-people-into-thinking-it-is-human/

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/turing-test-measures-something-but-not-intelligence-180951702/

https://www.wired.com/2012/06/flawed-turing-test/

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jun/09/scientists-disagree-over-whether-turing-test-has-been-passed

[Butt One More Thing]

Artificial anus:

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5655776

Feb 19, 2019
The Sun with Caitlin Hofmeister
00:31:31

This week, our producer Caitlin Hofmeister is joining the pod to talk about the Sun, and lending her expertise as a host of the YouTube channel SciShow Space. The Sun affects pretty much everything we do here on Earth, from our weather to our technology. So what schemes have scientists been cooking up to shield the Earth from the Sun? How have solar flares affected humans… and should we be afraid of them? And is “Guy” really a good nickname, or is this star more special than that?

 

Sources:

[Definition]

https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/~pberlind/atlas/htmls/note.html

[Truth or Fail]

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/geoengineering-solution-no-9-the-fl-2008-09-08/

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/geoengineering-holds-promise-but-the-technology-needs-work/

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/blocking-the-sun-is-no-plan-b-for-global-warming/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_sunshade

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2006-11/uoa-ssm110306.php

[Fact Off]

Ocean mines:

https://www.sciencealert.com/the-sun-may-have-detonated-dozens-of-us-sea-mines-uncovered-navy-documents-reveal

https://vva.vietnam.ttu.edu/repositories/2/digital_objects/83295

https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2018SW002024

http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WAMUS_Mines.php#Vietnam_War_%22Destructor%22_Mines

http://www.navweaps.com/index_tech/tech-068.php#Magnetic_Mines

2012 solar storm:

[Ask the Science Couch]

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/iris/multimedia/layerzoo.html

https://www.space.com/17160-sun-atmosphere.html

https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/objects/sun1.html

[Butt One More Thing]

https://newprairiepress.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1507&context=sttcl

https://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/georges-bataille-the-solar-anus

Feb 12, 2019
Stimulants
00:32:51

Are you one of those people who doesn’t feel awake until you have caffeine coursing through your bloodstream? Well, you can choose to ingest some chemical stimulants, but they’re also something your body makes! Just think about the adrenaline rush before a public speech. This week, we’re going to dig into what science actually says about caffeine and dehydration. Why did some people try to ban coffee, and how dangerous was the pick-me-up given to some Antarctic explorers? And why the heck did researchers think gerbils could help with airport security?

 

Sources:

[Fact Off]

Gerbils:

Forced March:

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2810%2962153-8/fulltext

https://granta.com/shackletons-medical-kit/

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2012/09/27/161881513/cocaine-for-snowblindness-what-polar-explorers-packed-for-first-aid

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1279970/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Dehydration:

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/33/2/167

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12187618

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/640f/49f096f9a01e2c3ef103945a39830a12cd5c.pdf

https://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/04/health/nutrition/04real.html?_r=2

[Butt One More Thing]

Civet poop coffee:

https://www.businessinsider.com/kopi-luwak-cat-poop-worlds-most-expensive-coffee-taste-test-2018-11

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Kopi-Luwak

Feb 05, 2019
Flight
00:33:20

At some point, we’ve all probably looked up at birds and wished we could fly. And some curious people took that wish and did science! From the biology of flying animals to machines that help humans take to the skies, this week, we’re exploring the science of flight. Why do we travel by plane instead of floating on airships? How long can some birds fly before landing? And what else do they get up to in midair… eating? ...sex? ...sleeping?

 

[Truth or Fail]

https://www.businessinsider.com/only-one-place-was-allowed-to-take-off-after-flights-were-grounded-on-sept-11-2011-2011-9

[Fact Off]

Swifts:

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(16)31063-6

Frigate birds:

[Ask the Science Couch]

https://www.airships.net/dirigible/

https://www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/products/hybrid-airship.html

https://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/01/19/the-uss-akron-disaster/

https://news.vice.com/en_us/article/pa4q3g/theres-a-push-to-bring-back-the-zeppelin-in-canadas-remote-north

[Butt One More Thing]

http://www.airpowerworld.info/other-military-aircraft/supermarine-stranraer.htm

Jan 29, 2019
Mucus
00:33:32
Jan 22, 2019
Dragons
00:33:18

Some small, magical corner of your heart wants dragons to be real, right? Well... sorry. They’re not. But this week, we wanted to celebrate some science adjacent to dragons, from fruit and animals named after them to giant flying predators that probably terrified humans.

Sources:

[Truth or Fail]

http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150320-meet-two-new-dragon-millipede-species-first-described-in-laos

http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/fieldcourses04/PapersCostaRicaArticles/TheFunctionalityandEvolut.html

[Fact Off]

Fire Hawks:

Haast’s Eagles:

[Ask the Science Couch]

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/phenomena/2015/04/30/how-this-beetle-creates-500-explosions-per-second-in-its-bum/

[Butt One More Thing]

https://www.wired.com/2013/12/the-secret-underwater-world-of-dragons/

Jan 15, 2019
Ice and Snow
00:33:42

From sugary snow cones to WWII plans for an aircraft carrier made of ice and wood pulp, humans have had big dreams for frozen water. So this week, we’re exploring the science of snow and ice across the globe. Turns out, there are ancient refrigerators in the dry Iranian desert and abandoned military bases under the Greenland ice sheet. And even though Japanese snow monkeys seem all cozy and chill in their hot springs, what mischief do they get up to in their free time?

 

Sources:

[Truth Or Fail]

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10329-015-0492-0

https://www.researchgate.net/blog/post/japans-monkeys-wash-their-potatoes-and-ride-deer-like-horses

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/chilling-out-hot-springs-may-help-japans-snow-monkeys-reduce-stress-180968686/

[Fact Off]

Camp Century:

http://www.iceandclimate.nbi.ku.dk/research/drill_analysing/history_drilling/drill_bedrock/

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/08/mysterious-ice-buried-cold-war-military-base-may-be-unearthed-climate-change

http://www.iceandclimate.nbi.ku.dk/about_centre/history/

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Paleoclimatology_OxygenBalance

Iceboxes:

http://eartharchitecture.org/?p=570

[Ask the Science Couch]

http://www.ccmr.cornell.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2015/11/Ice-Alloys.pdf

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-glaciology/article/description-of-the-iceberg-aircraft-carrier-and-the-bearing-of-the-mechanical-properties-of-frozen-wood-pulp-upon-some-problems-of-glacier-flow/BE12BCCE68FE5D9C307299A2F1F2DFC6

[Butt One More Thing]

https://www.livescience.com/61018-turtles-breathe-through-butt.html

Jan 08, 2019
Exercise
00:31:59
Jan 01, 2019
Parasites with Sally Lepage
00:34:07
Dec 25, 2018
Advertising
00:31:59

From website banners to scratch-and-sniff magazine spreads, you’ve probably been the target of thousands of ads. Like, you’re even going to hear one during this podcast—we gotta eat! At this point, you might feel like you’re immune to advertising, because there’s no way a ridiculous infomercial could make you want a reusable juice box. But the psychology behind advertising has always been powerful. So this week, we’re diving into the science of when ads work, when they don’t, and when they’ve led to some pretty serious problems like the opioid epidemic.

Sources:

[Truth or Fail]

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0956797613502732

https://academic.oup.com/jcr/article-abstract/44/4/877/3829544?redirectedFrom=fulltext

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-03/uom-ita031116.php

[Fact Off]

Brand partnerships:

Opioid epidemic:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-advertising-shaped-first-opioid-epidemic-180968444/

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1508818

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5125194/

[Ask the Science Couch]

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-05/uoia-scs051817.php

http://www.nber.org/papers/w20171.pdf

https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2014/06/a-dangerous-question-does-internet-advertising-work-at-all/372704/

https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2011/08/why-good-advertising-works-even-when-you-think-it-doesnt/244252/

[Butt One More Thing]

https://thequackdoctor.com/index.php/dr-youngs-rectal-dilators/

Dec 18, 2018
Eggs
00:28:26

Eggs have tons of different sizes, textures, and protective shells, from giant ostrich eggs to squishy fish egg clusters. But, scientifically, they all boil down to the same thing: an egg is just a reproductive cell that can be fertilized by a sperm to make an embryo. This week, we’re cracking the science of eggs wide open!

[Truth or Fail]

Brown trouts:

http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150214-fake-orgasms-and-other-sex-lies

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347200915859?via%3Dihub

Octopuses:

https://www.mbari.org/deep-sea-octopus-broods-eggs-for-over-four-years-longer-than-any-known-animal/

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0103437

Trilobites:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170124124905.htm

https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/45/3/199/195237/pyritized-in-situ-trilobite-eggs-from-the?redirectedFrom=fulltext

[Fact Off]

Stick insect eggs:

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-05/ku-tsi052318.php

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/10/stick-insects-lure-ants-fatty-knobs

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/05/science/stick-insects-eggs-birds.html

Humsters: 

http://www.stillhq.com/pdfdb/000360/data.pdf

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mrd.1120230307

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4471-3310-0_5

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1725451

[Ask the Science Couch]

Egg shape: 

https://galapagosconservation.org.uk/whale-shark-reproduction/

https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/cmbc/2018/05/15/hydrothermal-vents-incubators-for-deep-sea-skate-egg-cases/

https://books.google.com/books?id=zg1mDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT158&lpg=PT158

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6344/1249

http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160304-one-animal-has-more-babies-than-any-other

Dec 11, 2018
Taste
00:33:21

Have you ever wanted to lick the Moon and find out what that grey dust tastes like? If so, you’re in luck. This week, we’re sampling the science of taste, from the Apollo 16 mission reports to how the flavor compounds in amniotic fluid may affect babies’ food preferences. Apparently, it can get garlicky in there. But can non-human animals develop a sense of taste? And is “pine mouth” a real thing, or is it just what happens when Hank eats mysterious seeds he finds in the forest?

Dec 04, 2018
Satellites
00:34:12

What do the Hubble Space Telescope, the International Space Station, and the Moon have in common? They’re all satellites that orbit the Earth! This week, we’re going extraterrestrial to talk about the dreams, discoveries, and debacles that went into Mir and other weirdly cool human-made satellites. Plus, we dig into burning questions, like whether the Sun can be considered a satellite. And we’re big enough space nerds that we try to explain some celestial mechanics.

Sources:

[Truth or Fail]

https://www.wired.com/2014/07/orange-juice-toothpaste/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3354153/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684458/

http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171114232622/https://www.fda.gov/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/SafetyAlertsAdvisories/ucm247099.htm

[Fact Off]

Moon dust: 

https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2006/30jan_smellofmoondust

Bees and Pesticides:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180828204911.htm

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/285/1885/20180655

https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/187907/the-more-pesticides-bees-more-they/

[Ask the Science Couch]

Developing taste: 

https://www.npr.org/2011/08/08/139033757/babys-palate-and-food-memories-shaped-before-birth

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7583013

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/107/6/e88.full

[Butt One More Thing]

Sea cucumber eating:

https://blog.nationalgeographic.org/2013/03/14/giant-sea-cucumber-eats-with-its-anus/

Nov 27, 2018
Flightless Birds
00:31:08

With American Thanksgiving around the corner, turkey is on everyone’s mind! So this week, we’re taking a closer look at flightless birds of all shapes and sizes! What prevents some birds from using their wings to fly? Did Australians really start a war against emus? Plus, we’ll answer your burning questions about the sex lives of many, many different kinds of birds! Wow!

Sources:

[Truth or Fail]

Inaccessible Island rail:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790318301763?via%3Dihub

https://gizmodo.com/how-a-tiny-flightless-bird-ended-up-on-an-island-in-the-1830188012

Ostrich egg globes:

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/08/130821-ostrich-globe-map-discovery-science-nation/

Emu War:

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/running-ponies/the-great-emu-war-in-which-some-large-flightless-birds-unwittingly-foiled-the-australian-army/  

[Fact Off]

Crested penguins:

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-02/s-ppi021016.php

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00265-016-2060-z

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-06/uod-ppc062816.php

https://www.nature.com/articles/srep28785

Ratite reproduction:

https://zslpublications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00858.x

http://mentalfloss.com/article/80394/10-facts-about-cassowaries

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/discoblog/2011/12/08/finally-the-ostrich-penis-provides-the-answer-to-a-long-standing-question/#.W6FsOZNKhxw

https://www.merckvetmanual.com/exotic-and-laboratory-animals/ratites/reproduction-of-ratites

[Ask the Science Couch]

Kākāpō:

https://blog.nationalgeographic.org/2018/03/22/happy-hatchday-21-years-of-conservation-success-for-the-kakapo/

https://phys.org/news/2015-11-rimu-berry-game-changer-kakapo.html

https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/news/060401_kakapo

[Butt One More Thing]

Ostrich urine & feces:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1095643303000060

Nov 20, 2018
Science Hoaxes
00:36:07

We’re delving into the complicated world of scientific hoaxes. Some are just goofs that went a little too far, but others have had serious negative impacts on public health.

Welcome, traveler, to the first episode! This is Sam from December of 2020. I can't believe, more two years later, we're still playing this goofy game! 

If you're starting here, you have a long and grand adventure ahead of you. It only gets way better from here!

If you're working your way backwards... well, you did it! Hopefully a new episode will be coming out soon, otherwise what will you listen to while you do your chores??

 

Sources:

[Truth or Fail]

Cello Scrotum:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1610985/

https://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b379

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7853564.stm

Surfer’s Ear:

http://ent.uci.edu/more-at-uc-irvine/conditions/surfers-ears.asp

Jeep Butt: 

https://publichealth.gwu.edu/departments/healthpolicy/CHPR/downloads/mil_prep042605.pdf

http://www.academia.edu/19875506/Pilonidal_sinus_Jeeps_disease_An_improved_model_of_care

[Fact Off]

Mary Toft:

http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/exhibns/month/aug2009.html

https://academic.oup.com/past/article/238/1/43/4822513

Parapsychology:

http://www.tricksterbook.com/truzzi/ZS-Issues-PDFs/ZeteticScholarNos12-13.pdf

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.617.9791&rep=rep1&type=pdf

https://www.csicop.org/uploads/files/martin-gardner-pdfs/landmark-pk-hoax.pdf

https://web.archive.org/web/20060503224225/http://www.banachek.org/nonflash/project_alpha.htm

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1S5CRcqJQo

[Ask the Science Couch]

Andrew Wakefield:

https://www.bmj.com/content/342/bmj.c5347

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136032/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2323045/

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/mmr/public/index.html

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2010/jan/28/andrew-wakefield-mmr-vaccine

[Butt One More Thing]

Fake coprolite: 

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/07/140729-dinosaur-coprolite-paleontology-dung-fossil-auction/

Nov 13, 2018
Introducing: SciShow Tangents
00:03:21

Introducing the lightly competitive knowledge showcase from the geniuses behind the YouTube series SciShow. Every Tuesday, join Hank GreenCeri Riley, Stefan Chin, and Sam Schultz as they try to one-up and amaze each other with weird and funny scientific research... while not getting distracted. There will be tangents about video games, music, weird smells, surprisingly deep insights about life, and of course, poop, but it always comes back to the science.

Nov 02, 2018