Daf Yomi for Women - Hadran

By Michelle Cohen Farber

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Hadran.org.il is the portal for Daf Yomi studies for women. Hadran.org.il is the first and only site where one can hear a daily Talmud class taught by a woman. The classes are taught in Israel by Rabbanit Michelle Cohen Farber, a graduate of Midreshet Lindenbaum’s scholars program with a BA in Talmud and Tanach from Bar-Ilan University. Michelle has taught Talmud and Halacha at Midreshet Lindenbaum, Pelech high school and MATAN. She lives in Ra’anana with her husband and their five children. Each morning the daf yomi class is delivered to a cadre of adult women in Ra’anana and then immediately uploaded and available for podcast and download. Hadran.org.il reaches women who can now have access to a woman’s perspective on the most essential Jewish traditional text. This podcast represents a revolutionary step in advancing women’s Torah study around the globe.

Episode Date
Shabbat 152 - August 5, 15 Av

Today's shiur is dedicated for a refuah shleima to Rav Adin Steinsaltz, HaRav Adin ben Rivka Leah. 

The gemara explains verses in Kohelet that describe the deterioration of the body as one gets older as well as what happens to the body and soul after death. various stories involving conversations and something arguments are brought that connect with the ideas discussed. Where does the soul of the righteous, evil and average people go after death. Do the bodies of righteous people decompose? 

Aug 05, 2020
Shabbat 151 - August 4, 14 Av

What is Abba Shaul trying to add by saying, "If one can say it, then one can wait on the border when Shabbat is ending"? One can wait on the border to do a mitzva like for a bride or a dead person. One can also speak on Shabbat about buying or preparing things for these purposes. If a non-Jew does work on Shabbat, can a Jew benefit from this - on what does it depend? If the non-Jew did it for a non-Jew? Or what if it is unclear who it was done for? In the cases where the Jew can benefit, does he need to wait after Shabbat the amount of time it would take to do it after Shabbat? In cases where he cannot benefit, is it forbidden for him to benefit from it forever? One can do certain things with a person who died on Shabbat -what is allowed and what is not? One cannot close the eyes of a person about to die, even on a weekday as that hastens death. The gemara compares the fact that we desecrate Shabbat for a newborn baby but not for a dead person, even as great as King David. Poverty is cyclical - if you are not poor, likely one of your descendants will be. The gemara stresses the importance of helping and being sympathetic to others as you may need that kind of help in the future. The gemara describes old age and death and talks about how crying causes blindness in those over the age of forty. There are different types of tears - some that are good and some that are bad.  

Aug 04, 2020
Shabbat 150 - August 3, 13 Av

Today's daf is sponsored by Rabbi David Young in honor of his chevruta called "Day Yomi, Baby!” - Rabbi Rachel Greengrass, Rabbi Stephen Wise, Rabbi Eric Linder, Rabbi Andy Rosenkranz and Rabbi Sari Laufer.

Can one hire workers on Shabbat for work on Shabbat or after Shabbat? Can one tell someone else to hire workers for them? Is that referring to telling a Jew or a non-Jew? Can one go to the edge of techum Shabbat and wait there until Shabbat ends to do something immediately after Shabbat? It depends on whether or not what you are planning to do is something forbidden on Shabbat. Can one do calculations on Shabbat - under what circumstances? Can one gather to discuss public issues? If one did not make havdala at the end of Shabbat, can one perform melacha

Aug 03, 2020
Shabbat 149 - August 2, 12 Av

Study Guide Shabbat 149

Can one go over a written list of guests that one wants one's servant to invite on Shabbat? Or a list of foods to serve? What is the concern? The gemara brings two explanations and tries to find the situation where there would be a disagreement between the two. Can one look in a mirror on Shabbat - what would be the concern and in what case would it be an issue? Can one cast lots on Shabbat to give out food? What is the concern? In what case would it be forbidden even on a weekday, due to a concern that one may come to gamble? If one causes another to get punished, he is not invited to dwell in the abode of God. From where is this derived - from the spirit of Navot who seduced the kind Achav and led him to his death, from Tzidkiahu the king who caused Nevuchadnetzer to be punished? Or from a verse in Proverbs? The gemara tells of the strength of Nevbuchanetzer and also of a story where he was punished in a very embarrassing manner. 

Aug 02, 2020
Shabbat 148 - Shabbat August 1, 11 Av

Study Guide Shabbat 148

Today's daf is sponsored by Julie Mendelson in honor of her son who is drafting into the army on Sunday. “My favorite study partner - Iknow you might not have time to listen to the daf every day, but we’ll all learn on your behalf while you defend us. B’ezrat Hashem - I hope you have a successful and meaningful service, and come home safe and sound. Love, Mom

Can one set a broken bone on Shabbat? Can one lend food items to someone else on Shabbat – is it like a business transaction? In what way can it be done so that it will not be. Loaning bread to someone can create a problem of loaning on interest – how and how can this be avoided? Can one demand the return of the value of the item in court if it was loaned on Shabbat? Raba and Rav Yosef debate this and the gemara tries to bring sources to prove who is right.

Jul 31, 2020
Shabbat 147 - July 31, 10 Av

Study Guide Shabbat 147

Today’s daf is dedicated by David and Margie Zweibel in memory of David’s father, Yehuda Aryeh ben Moshe z”l and by Ayelet Hermel in memory of her grandmother Rivka Regina bat Faiga and Efraim z"l. 

The mishna and gemara go over all sorts of actions that are either permitted or forbidden due to concern/no concern that one may do something forbidden or because it may be considered uvda d'chol - a weekday activity. Can one do something where it may look like to others that one has laundered? If it is forbidden can one do it where no one will see? Do we generally say that anything forbidden because of marit ayin, what others may think, is forbidden even where others may not see? Can one wipe off one's clothing - it that consdiered laundering? On what does it depend? How subjective it this? If one dried off with a towel after washing in the river, are we worried if we allow them to take it home, they may wring it out? Can one rub oil on one's body? On  what does it depend? In te context of discussiong pleasurable things one does for one's body, the gemara references the story of Rabbi Elazar ben Arach who did not follow the rabbis to Yavneh and stayed in his city to engage in pleasurable activities and forgot all of his Torah. 

Jul 31, 2020
Shabbat 146 - Tisha B'av Daf - July 30, 9 Av

Today's daf is sponsored by Jane Shapiro in honor of Nina Black on her birthday, from her Machi who loves sharing grandchildren and children and daf yomi together. 

Can one break a barrel on Shabbat? Can one make a spout? Can one perforate the cover of a barrel? Can one use a reed or a branch to make a spout? Can one open a hole that was sealed up? On what does it depend? Can one seal a hole with wax? With oil? To what extent did Rav go to respect other rabbis even though he was a more prominent rabbi than they were? 

Jul 29, 2020
Shabbat 145 - July 29, 8 Av

Study Guide Shabbat 145

Today’s daf is sponsored by Margie Zweibel l’ilui nishmat Chami Tzvi ben Yosef Binyamin z”l. And by Aviva Baumser in honor of Deborah Aschheim in honor of your mother Edith Aschheim & all the hard work & Torah dedication you have been doing in her & her husband's name. Kol HaKavod!!!

The gemara delves into the concept of liquids that are squeezed onto a solid are considered food. Is that a subject of debate among tannaim? Fish brine is considered food and not a liquid and therefore can bbe squeezed on Shabbat. Was this said by Rav or Shmuel? If by Shmuel, it contradicts something he says elsewhere. Can one accept hearsay evidence? Only for testimony for a woman that her husband died in order to prevent her from being an aguna and allowing her to remarry. If one cooked an item before Shabbat, one can soak it in hot water on Shabbat, but if not, one can only pour hot water on it on Shabbat. However, there are some salted fish that are prepared by pouring hot water on them and therefore one cannot do that on Shabbat. The gemara discusses some foods that they ate in Babylonia and others that were eaten in Israel that were considered disgusting by those from the other locale. The gemara relates the tension between the rabbis in Babylonia and Israel in a story of rabbis from Israel who were speaking in a derogatory manner about the Babylonians but were then reprimanded by Rabbi Yochanan. 

Jul 29, 2020
Shabbat 144 - July 28, 7 Av

Study Guide Shabbat 144

Today's daf is sponsored by Deborah Aschheim Weiss in memory of her beloved mother, Edith Aschheim z"l on her 37th yartzeit. She loved yiddishkeit and learning despite the limitations on her childhood Jewish education due to WWII. And by Aviva Drazin in memory of Rabbi Joshua Shmidman z"l on his 15th Yahrzeit. His ways were דרכי נועם, and he led, taught and inspired his Kehila in Montreal with a love of Torah, Am Yisrael and Eretz Yisrael. יהי זכרו ברוך.  And by Lesley Nadel for Don Nadel, her husband, best friend and chavruta to wish him a very happy birthday and many more happy and healthy years.

Does Rabbi Yehuda really hold that if one had no particular intent regarding pomegranates or mulberries, then they would be treated as if you planned to juice it and liquids seeping out of it would be forbidden?  The question comes from a mishna regarding whether or not there is a difference between humans and animal regarding the need for intent for the breast milk to come out in order for it to be considered a liquid to create susceptibility to impurity, there is a claim that the rabbis make regarding a basket of olives and grapes and there it seems that if one had no intention for using it for liquids or solid, it would be considered designated for solids. The gemara provides two possible answers. From where does Raba know that the rabbis agree with Rabbi Yehuda about other fruits that are not meant for juicing - that one is allowed to drink liquids that seep out of it? A braita is brought to prove it and in that braita the family of Menashia is mentioned who often made pomegranate juice and the law was decided based on their practice. How could be make a law based on a unique practice? The gemara attempts to answer that question. If one squeezes onto a solid, it is allowed as it is considered a solid, but if one squeezes onto a liquid, it is considered a liquid. The gemara questions this. 


Jul 28, 2020
Shabbat 143 - July 27, 6 Av

Can one clear bones and peels off the table? Are they considered muktze? Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel debate how this can be done. Each one sides with either Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yehuda regarding whether we have a narrow definition of what is muktze or a wider one. Rav Nachman says there's a mistake regarding who said which opinion. Can one use a sponge on Shabbat? Does one need to be concerned that one may squeeze out liquid? There is a debate between Rabbi Yehuda and the rabbis regarding squeezing fruits. Both agree that juicing fruits is forbidden but they disagree regarding liquids that come out of the fruits on their own. There are different opinions regarding what categories of fruits they disagree about - ones that are mainly used for their juices, ones that are mainly used for eating or possibly only those in between. 

Jul 27, 2020
Shabbat 142 - July 26, 5 Av

Study Guide Shabbat 142

This week's shiurim are dedicated for a refuah shleima for our dear Ellie, Chana Esther Bat Ayala Hadar - with all our love, Elana and Danny Storch and family. And by Cliff Felig in honor of Minna Ferziger Felig on the occasion of her birthday. Mazel tov!

Why is one allowed to carry a child with a rock in his/her hand but not money? In the case of the basket with money, it must be there are fruits in the basket also as the basket is serving as a base for both muktze and non muktze items and that is why it can be carried. Why don't we dump the fruits and the rock out and then put the fruits back in? One can carry pure and impure truma if they are together. Rav Chisda says this is only if the impure is at the top and one cannot access the pure that is underneath. However a braita is brought that says either way it is allowed. How can Rav Chisda explain himself in light of the braita? How does Rabbi Yehuda allow on Shabbat one to fix a mixture of 100 measures regular produce and one of truma by removing one that will now be considered the truma - isn't this like fixing something which should be forbidden on Shabbat? Three possible explanations are brought - the first two are rejected. Is there is a stone on top of a barrel, how can one get it off to get to the wine in the barrel? Or money on a pillow? The gemara explains the exact details of the cases and how and why it can be done in that way? Can one carry an item that is muktze in order to protect it by bringing something that is permitted to be carried and carrying them both? Or is that solution only permitted for a dead body out of respect for the body? 

Jul 26, 2020
Shabbat 141 - July 25, 4 Av

In what cases can one move things that are muktze indirectly? When one comes out of a river on Shabbat, one needs to worry about carrying water that is on one's body and therefore should dry off before walking. How can one clean off dirt off one's foot on Shabbat? How can one clean dirt off one's clothing? Can one scrape dirt off a shoe? Can one remove a shoe from the shoe frame? Why can't a child go out with shoes that are too big or a woman wearing shoes she has never worn before? Can one carry a child if the child is carrying a rock in its hand? The mishna discusses cases where an item can be considered secondary to another and therefore will be able to be carried together with it and is not considered muktze. The gemara brings up cases regarding carrying from a public to private domain a child with a purse around its neck. The conclusion there is different from the mishna as there we obligate one for carrying the purse. Why the difference? 

Jul 24, 2020
Shabbat 140 - July 24, 3 Av

Can one put eggs in a mustard strainer on Shabbat - why? If the mustard (oil or wine made from mustard) was kneaded in its own liquids before Shabbat, can one add liquid and mix it on Shabbat or is it a problem of kneading? Is there a difference if it is done with a utensil or by hand? Other drinks that people prepare in a way that involves kneading or may be used for medicinal purposes are discussed - can they be prepare don Shabbat or not? If one needs to take medicine for a number of days in a row, can one prepare the medicine on Shabbat? Can one rub a garment after laundering which was meant both to soften and to whiten - which is the main reason it is done? If for whitening, it would be forbidden. Rav Hisda has a long list of advice including financial, food-related, marital advice to his daughters, etc. Can one sweep the feeding trough of an animal on Shabbat? On what does it depend? Can one move food from one animal to another? It depends from which animal to which - how? 

Jul 24, 2020
Shabbat 139 - July 23, 2 Av

Today's shiur is dedicated by Mark Goldstein in honor of Rena Septee Goldstein, his wife of 38 years and his daf yomi chevruta.

The gemara discussed the problematic nature of having corrupt and arrogant leaders. The people of Baschar ask a number of questions regarding building a canopy on Shabbat, planting hops in a vineyard (issue of kelaim, mixing diverse kinds) and burial on Yom Tov. Rav Menashia tells them that all are forbidden because he is worried about the "slippery slope" as they are not "bnei Torah." Since all these things are allowed only in a particular manner or particular circumstances, he is concerned and they will not properly understand the nuances and think it is allowed across the board. People had non Jewish children plant their hops. Why can't one have Jewish children who are not yet obligated in mitzvot? There is concern that they will think they can also do it when they get older. The gemara brings cases where one can employ artifice to do something like build a wine strainer and claim to use it to hold pomegranates. Rav Ashi says it is allowed only if one actually uses it for pomegranates. In a similar situation, that wasn't necessary - the gemara explains the difference between the two cases. When it comes to rabbinic law, we allow a talmid chacham to use artifice because we are not worried that he do it without artifice. One can filter clear water and wine. What mechanisms can be used to filter the wine? The gemara explain how Rav Papa's family would strain beer (they were beer brewers).

Jul 23, 2020
Shabbat 138 - July 22, Rosh Chodesh Av, 1 Av

Today's shiur is sponsored by Elizabeth Kirshner in loving memory of her father, Rabbi Gabriel M. Kirshner, HaRav Gavriel Meir ben HaRav Shraga Feyvel z"l, who instilled in her a love of Torah from the very first moments of her life. May his neshama have an aliyah and may his legacy bring healing and harmony to the world. And by Caroline Musin Berkowitz in honor of the 98th birthday of her grandmother, Florence Hirsch. As it says in Arakhin 19a, savta b'veita, sima (treasure) b'veita. She is our treasure indeed. And by Marcia Baum in memory of her father Sam Baum, Chaim Simcha Ben Aaron Halevi and Leba z"l , on his 17th Yartzeit. He taught his daughters that they could be, do and learn anything... including the Talmud. And wishing Kay Weinberger a very happy birthday, chodesh tov , and hope you are enjoying learning daf - with love from Valerie Adler.

According to the rabbis who forbid hanging up the wine strainer, is it forbidden by Torah law due to building or by rabbinic law due to the fact that it is considered uvda d'chol, a weekday activity? Rav Yosef and Abaye disagree. Abaye splits building into 3 categories and lists braitot that discuss what type of building is forbidden by Torah law, rabbinic law or entirely permitted (like folding chairs/tables). According to the rabbis who forbade straining the wine of Shabbat, is it by Torah or rabbinic law? Is it because of the melacha of separating or sifting? The gemara discusses various type of temporary tents and explains under what conditions can one build a bridal canopy? Rami bar Yechezkel asked Rav Huna to tell him some laws of Rav regarding Shabbat and also something regarding Torah. In that context, the gemara brings Rav's opinion that there will come a time when the Torah will be forgotten. A Tosefta is brought saying the same things, using a verse from Amos. The gemara goes to lengths to assess what type of Torah will be forgotten? Will it be even things written in the Torah explicitly or in the mishna or did he mean more complicated things? Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai disagrees and thinks that the Torah will not be forgotten - the issue will be that there will not be one central halachic authority and it will be unclear what the law is.  

Jul 22, 2020
Shabbat 137 - July 21, 29 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 137

This week’s learning is sponsored by Margie Zweibel in honor of Howie Shocket, Chaim Tzvi ben Yenta Bluma. He is in our tefillot.

Today’s daf is sponsored by The Mitchell Family in honor of Rabia Mitchell’s birthday. Mazel tov!

In which additional case does Rabbi Yehuda hold that an andrgyne is considered a case of doubt and not for sure male? If there are two babies (of one father) and was born on Friday and the other on Shabbat and the father mistakenly circumcises the Friday baby, or there were two babies one born on Sunday and one born on Shabbat and the father mistakenly circumcises the Sunday baby, is he obligated to bring a sacrifice for unwittingly desecrating Shabbat? Rabbi Eliezer and rabbi Yehoshua disagree in one of the cases and agree in the other but it is not clear in which case do they agree and do they both agree one is obligated or exempt? Three versions are brought in the gemara. The underlying issues is: does the fact that one performed a mitzva or was involved in trying to perform a mitzva exempt him from bringing a sacrifice for desecrating Shabbat? One can perform the brrit milah sometimes on the 9th, 10th, 11th or 12th day after the birth and still be circumcising in its proper time. The mishna describes each case and why. When is brit milah in its proper time for a child who is sick? What are the additional pieces of skin that must be removed in order for the circumcision to be valid? If someone is overweight, more needs to be removed so it will not appear (marit ayin) as if he isn't circumcised. If one is overweight, how can it be determined whether or not more needs to be removed? What blessings are recited at the brit milah? How are the blessings different for a convert and a Canaanite slave? Can one hang a wine strainer on Yom Tov? Is it a problem of building? Can one pour wine into an already set up wine strainer even on Shabbat? Rabbi Eliezer and the rabbis debate this issue. Rabbi Eliezer is lenient. How does it connect with Rabbi Eliezer's stringent opinion about the window shutter where he forbids adding to an already existing temporary tent? 

Jul 21, 2020
Shabbat 136 - July 20, 28 Tamuz

Today's daf is sponsored by Danielle Leeshaw in honor of the wonderful community of daf yomi participants at Hillel International that inspire students and staff to learn and love Talmud study.

How does one perform a brit milah on Shabbat if according to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, it is not clear until the thirtieth day if the baby will survive? How does one treat a case where one is not sure if a baby is viable (in the terminology of the rabbis - a baby born after eight months is not viable but after seven or nine would be viable - what if it is unclear what month the baby was born?) - do we view the baby as alive for the time is was living, even if it doesn't make it to day 30 or do we view it as if it was never alive? The relevance is in a case where the husband died while the woman was pregnant and they had no other children. If the child is considered to have lived for the time it was alive, she is exempt from levirate marriage. If not, she is obligated. The gemara brings two stories of rabbis whose children died within the first thirty days and they mourned for them. Others did not understand why and they needed to explain themselves. One can see from these stories, raising awareness about the difficulties of those dealing with infant loss/stillborn births. Rabbi Yehuda allows a brit milah on an androgenous/hermaphrodite on Shabbat. Rav Shizbi says that in other places Rabbi Yehuda does not treat an androgenous as a clear male - see for example laws of valuation. 

Jul 20, 2020
Shabbat 135 - July 19, 27 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 135

Today’s shiur is dedicated by Miriam Tannenbaum with gratitude to the inspiring Daf Yomi women of RBS-Kehillat Ahavat Tzvion. "So grateful to have started this journey together and to continue even as we move to Efrat" and by Margie Zwiebel for a refuah shleima for Chaim Tzvi ben Yetta Bluma.

In which situations does the mitzva of brit milah not override Shabbat? Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel disagree although it is not clear if their disagreement is regarding a child who is already born circumcised or a convert who was circumcised before converting. What is the status of a child born after eight months of pregnancy? Rabbi Asi connects (based on the connection in the verses of the Torah) between a woman who has impurity from birth for seven days after the birth of a male to the law of performed the brit milah on the eighth day. He therefore holds that a child born though caesarean section would get a brit milah immediately. Abaye disagrees. The gemara then shows that this debate was also a subject of debate for tannaim where Rabbi Chama and tana kama debate the status of slave children and in what situations do are they circumcised on the first day and in which ones on the eighth day? For the first thirty days of a baby's life, it is not clear if the baby will live - only when it reaches day 30 does it become clear. This is why the law of pidyon haben, redeeming the baby, is one the tthirtieth day. If that is the case, how can we do a brit milah on Shabbat on day eight if it's not clear the baby will live? 

Jul 19, 2020
Shabbat 134 - July 18, 26 Tamuz

What can be done to take care of a child after his brit milah on Shabbat? The woman who brought up Abaye told him all sorts of remedies for babies, including some things relevant for brit milah. Can one wash one before or after a brit milah with hot water? For how many days? Can one wask normally or not? Can it be with water warmed up before Shabbat or even with water warmed up on Shabbat? 

Jul 17, 2020
Shabbat 133 - July 17, 25 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 133

Why do we need a drasha to teach us that brit milah overrides the prohibition to cut a leprous mark – isn’t it an act that one does without intention and one should be exempt? From where do we derive that brit milah done not on the eighth day does not override Yom Tov (and obviously, Shabbat). Four answers are brought. Rav Yehuda paskens in the name of Rav like Rabbi Akiva that preparations for milah do not override Shabbat. He also holds like Rabbi Akiva regarding the same issue with the Pashal sacrifice. Why does he need to say this in both cases – wouldn’t it be obvious we can learn from one to the other? All things relating directly to the brit milah override Shabbat – the mishna states what that includes. The gemara says it even includes pieces of the skin that are left that are necessary as part of the mitzvah to remove. However, if they do not prevent the mitzvah from being fulfilled, one can only remove them if one is still in the process of cutting but once the mohel has stopped, he cannot cut those pieces. The gemara tries to connect this opinion with a tanna who in a different case who holds that once one stops, the action is no longer connected with the previous one. Three different tannaitic arguments are brought – the first two are rejected. Why is metzitza allowed? The gemara discusses bandages as mentioned in the mishna and Rava taught how to make a good bandage and as a result got some people upset as he “stole” their business as they knew how to do this and would sell to others. Rava tries to appease them.

Jul 17, 2020
Shabbat 132 - July 16, Tamuz 24

Study Guide Shabbat 132

Today's daf is sponsored by Robyn Samuels for a refuah shelaymah u'mehayra for Yaakov Wolf Ben Tzipa.

From where does Rabbi Eliezer derive that any preparations needed for a brit milah override Shabbat?  From where do we derive (according to all opinions) that a brit milah can be performed on Shabbat? The gemara brings seven possible answers and delves into each possibility. The gemara brings a proof from a braita for Rabbi Yochanan's opinion that it is derived from the word "on the day." Before quoting the derivation from the verse, the braita first suggests two possibilities that maybe logically one could infer that brit milah would override Shabbat or maybe the opposite can be inferred. Rava explains the logic behind each one. In the suggestion of Rava, the issue is raised regarding the hlacha that one cannot remove a leprous mark, even if it means that sacrifices can't be brought in the Temple. However, one can cut off a leprous mark in the performance of the mitzva of brit milah. From where is that law derived? Why is there a difference? 

Jul 16, 2020
Shabbat 131 - July 15, 23 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 131

Today's daf is sponsored by Idana Goldberg and Michael Kellman in celebration of Idana's grandfather, Meyer Weitz's 100th birthday. Mr. Weitz loves studying Talmud and has always been a strong proponent of women's advanced Talmud study. And by Susan Fisher in memory of her father, Eliezer ben Shraga Pharvish Allweis z"l on his yahrzeit. "He loved learning and filled our home with sifrei kodesh and the books which made limmud Torah a joy." And by Vicki Gordon in memory of her father Yisroel (Izzy) Herzog z"l, a giant in Chesed - "I miss him every day."

The gemara brings two explanations of Rav's statement where he distinguishes between carrying in an alley without a proper eiruv (just one beam either horizontal or vertical) when 1. there was an eiruv done between the houses and the courtyard - in that case one is not permitted to carry in the alley more than 4 cubits in a case without a proper eiruv in the alley - and when 2. there was no eiruv between the houses and the courtyard - one is then not permitted to move items that are in the alley more than 4 cubits. Why does he distinguish between those two cases? Rabbi Eliezer holds that preparations for a brit milah are permitted. However, he doesn't hold this for every mitzva. For which mitzvot does he hold this way and for which does he not? From where is each derived from and why can't we learn from one to the other - why does each need its own drasha?

Jul 15, 2020
Shabbat 130 - July 14, 22 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 130

What preparations, if any, are allowed to be done on Shabbat for the purposes of a brit milah? Can one carry a scalpel? Can one cuts trees to make a fire to create a scalpel? Rabbi Eliezer permits and says one should carry it in a way that is visible to all but Rabbi Akiva says that anything that can be done before Shabbat cannot be done on Shabbat. Why does Rabbi Eliezer insist that it be visible - is it to show how much one loves to do mitzvot or to prevent others from suspecting one of carrying on Shabbat? The gemara expounds on the issue of performing a mitzva out of happiness. In Rabbi Eliezer's city, they held like him and in Rabbi Yosi the Galilean's city, they held like Rabbi Yosi regarding eating milk and chicken together, even though in both cases, it was the minority opinion. The gemara talks about how mitzvot that the Jews accepted with happiness continue to be performed with happiness and those accepted with argumentation continue to be performed with argumentation. Likewise, ones that the Jews sacrificed their lives for, end up being performed widely (like circumcision not worshipping idols) and ones that they did not sacrifice their lives for (tefillin) are not widely held. The story of Elisha "the winged" is brought to show that only he sacrificed his life for tefillin but not others. A story is told of a scalpel that was carried via rooftops and courtyards on Shabbat not according to Rabbi Eliezer. According to whose opinion did they do this? Can one carry within an alley where an eiruv wasn't established (if the items were in the alleyway before Shabbat)? Two opposing opinions are brought. 

Jul 14, 2020
Shabbat 129 - July 13, 21 Tamuz

Can one desecrate Shabbat for a woman after childbirth and if so, how much after - 3 days? 7 days? 30 days? When is it considered the beginning of childbirth? The gemara discusses the danger of bloodletting and what one should do to prevent those potential dangers? Eating or drinking wine after was so important that Rav Nachman son of Yitzchak advised his student to engage in artifice in order to make sure one ate or drank. On what days of the week should one not bloodlet and what days of the month or on the calendar? what can be done with the umbilical cord and the placenta of Shabbat? What can be done to ensure the health of the newborn baby? This is derived from a verse describing the calamities that will befall the Jewish people in the days of destruction - what they will not be able to do then when a child is born is an indicator of what we are allowed to do even on Shabbat for a newborn.

Jul 13, 2020
Shabbat 128 - July 12, 20 Tamuz

The gemara goes through all the cases in the mishna regarding items in the storehouse that are considered muktze that one is not allowed to move. All of the cases seem obvious that they are muktze so what is the mishna trying to tell us? If there are food items that are worthy for animals that only rich people have, can one carry them or not? Do we view all of us as if we are like "sons of kings"? Can one carry meat that is unsalted on Shabbat? What about unsalted fish? What actions are allowed to be performed for animals if it is to prevent financial loss or prevent the animal from suffering? How can one help an animal (who is considered muktze) to return home - what type of help is allowed - pushing only or actually helping to walk? Why are the rules for hens different than for other animals/birds? What about a child? Preventing animals from suffering, tzaar baalei chayim, is a Torah law - what is the source? And because if that, is can override a rabbinic law. What can be done to help an animal giving birth on Shabbat? What can be done to help a woman giving birth? A midwife is allowed to travel from far to help with the birth? How else can one desecrate Shabbat on her behalf?

Jul 12, 2020
Shabbat 127 - July 11, 19 Tamuz

The gemara gets into lots of details regarding how one can remove 4 or 5 baskets from the storage house in the case where it is needed for a mitzva - can one carry in out in many smaller utensils or only in 4 or 5 baskets. Can one carry that amount for each person tha tneeds the space or for all the guests? If for all the guests, can one person do all the moving or does each person move for oneself? The gemara discusses the importance of having guests. A list is brought by Rabbi Yochanan of the top 6 mitzvot. One of them is judging one's friend favorably. The gemara brings several stories of people who judged others favorably. The gemara then goes through each of the items mentioned in the mishna that can be carried out of the storage house - meaning it is not muktze and explains why it was mentioned if it was obvious or why it isn't considered muktze? 

Jul 10, 2020
Shabbat 126 - July 10, 18 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 126

Is the opinion in the mishna to allow putting a shutter in a window "in any case" allowing it even if it is not tied, as long as it is designated before Shabbat or does it also need to be tied? Rabbi Abba and Rabbi Yirmia debate this issue and each brings a tannaitic source to support their claim - one about a bolt dragging on the floor and one about a reed used as a bolt. Rabbi Yochanan holds like Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel about the reed used to lock the door and the gemara questions that based on another statement of Rabbi Yochanan that seems to disagree with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. Do we hold like Rabbi Eliezer or the rabbis in the mishna. Two approaches are brought. Does a cover of a utensil need a handle for it not to be considered muktze? Does it depend on what it is covering? The 18th chapter starts with a case of taking items out of a storage house in order to make space. How many can one remove? Under what conditions. Two different understandings of the mishna are brought. 

Jul 10, 2020
Shabbat 125 - July 9, 17 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 125

The gemara goes through a list of items, determining whether or not they are muktze - can they serve a function or not? There is a debate between Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda regarding a broken piece of an earthenware oven. The gemara discussed the case in which they argue and what the argument is about. Two different explanations are suggested. If one built a utensil out of a gourd and put a stone in to weigh it down so one could draw water from a well or stream, can one use it on Shabbat - does the gourd fall into the category of a base for a muktze item or is the stone considered secondary to the gourd? How is it similar to the case of a stone placed on top of a barrel that appears in a different mishna. If one wants to use an item that is muktze machamat gufo, muktze because it doesn't serve any function, what is needed to be able to use it - is it enough to think before Shabbat that one plans to use it or is some action necessary and if so, how serious an action? Can one add an enclosure to a window? On what does it depend? Is it considered building a temporary wall?

Jul 09, 2020
Shabbat 124 - July 8, 1 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 124

The gemara brings several mishnayot that discuss muktze items and there is a debate whether these mishnayot were taught before the leniencies regarding muktze were put into effect or not? A utensil that is designated for permitted actions on Shabbat and one that is designated for forbidden actions, in what situations can each of these be carried? What is Rabbi Nechemia's approach? Raba and Rava disagree about how to understand the debate between Rabbi Nechemia and tana kama. Broken utensils - can they be used on Shabbat and if so, how? There is a debate regarding this and within that there is a discussion about what types of broken utensils are they arguing about - ones that broke on Shabbat or before Shabbat? Is it an issue of nolad, something that didn't exist before Shabbat as it was part of a whole before Shabbat and now it is broken?  

Jul 08, 2020
Shabbat 123 - July 7, 15 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 123

Can one carry a utensil that is generally used for forbidden purposes for some permitted purpose? Raba thinks one can and Abaye brings some sources that seem to contradict. One Raba attributes to Rabbi Nechemia who has a stringent definition of muktze and the other Raba puts in the category of items that are more expensive and one is more particular about its use and therefore wouldn't use it for other purposes other than its main use. There are four different explanations regarding what type of mallet is the one mentioned in the mishna. If a vegetable is buried in the ground, can one remove it and not be concerned about moving the dirt, which is muktze? On what does it depend? If a needle gets ruined and the eye of the needle is no longer there, is it muktze? Are the laws the same for purity/impurity? Other items are discussed regarding whether they are muktze on Shabbat and whether they can become impure. Rabbi Yosi says that all items can be moved on Shabbat other than those that are muktze because of their high value. The gemara discusses what items fall into that category. The gemara then discusses the development over time of the prohibition of muktze and how the laws got more lenient as time went on. There is a debate among Rava and Abaye how to understand what the law was at each stage. In the time of Nechemia was when they first instituted laws of muktze. Why?

Jul 07, 2020
Shabbat 122 - July 6, 14 Tamuz

Today's daf is sponsored in memory of Helen Glucksman, Chana Rachel bat Moshe Aharon Halevi z"l, beloved grandmother of our teacher, Lisa Septimus, from Malkie, Marcy, Rochelle, Sami and Gitta. 

When a non-Jew performs an act that a Jew is forbidden to do on Shabbat, can a Jew benefit from what the non-Jew did? On what does it depend? Is it only for a candle or items like that as one candle can be used for many people? Does it depend on whether the non-Jew knows the Jew? Can one carry an item that is generally used for forbidden purposes for its own sake (if one needs it for a permitted purpose)? If a door breaks on Shabbat or before Shabbat, can it be carried? Can one put it back in its place? Is there a difference between a door that is serving something that is attached to the ground or a door of a utensil? Why? Does the melacha of building include building utensils or not? 


Jul 06, 2020
Shabbat 121 - July 5, 13 Tamuz

Today’s daf is sponsored by Dr. Robin Zeiger and Professor Jonathan Ben-Ezra in memory of Robin's mother Helen (Chana) Zeiger z"l, whose Yarzheit is today.

Does Rabbi Yosi really hold that it is a mitzva to go to the mikveh exactly at the time that one is able to go? If there is a fire in your house and a non-Jew comes to put out the fire, are you allowed to say anything to the non-Jew - to put it out, to stop putting it out? Can you hint to the fact that if the non-Jew puts it out, you will compensate him/her for their work? What about a child who goes to put out the fire? Does one have to prevent an child from sinning in general? Is the court commanded to do that? For what purposes can one carry a utensil in order to cover something? To cover a candle so it doesn't light the rafters on fire, to cover feces so a child doesn't touch them, to cover a scorpion so it doesn't bite. Why do we need to learn that we can cover the feces, can't we move it because a dog can eat it? Or because it is disgusting and one can move something that is disgusting, even if it's muktze. Can one kill bugs or creatures that can bite or endanger people? If so, according to Rabbi Shimon only or also according to Rabbi Yehuda? Does everyone agree? Is it only if it's done by way of walking and one steps on it?  

Jul 05, 2020
Shabbat 120 - July 4, 12 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 120

In the time of the destruction of the temple, were there no honest people remaining? What amount of food in baskets or clothing one take out of the house and how? To where can it be taken? How does this mishna work with the previous mishna that only allowed three meals worth? How can others help? Is one allowed to indirectly put out the fire? There is a debate in the mishna. The gemara brings some sources in other places which seem to contradict the opinions mentioned in the mishna. How can they be rectified?

Jul 03, 2020
Shabbat 119 - July 3, 11 Tamuz

The gemara lists rabbis who all did special things to prepare food for Shabbat including being involved in cooking the food for Shabbat. The story is told of Yosef Mokir Shabbat who was rewarded financially for always buying good food for Shabbat and for borrowing money to do so. The gemara talks about the importance of other mitzvot (by promising rewards) like tithing, learning Torah, answering amen to a blessing and answering in Kaddish "may God's great name be blessed" with a lot of intent, and saying "veyechulu" on Friday night in davening. The gemara then says that a fire will break out in one's house if one doesn't keep Shabbat. They bring a verse from Jeremiah that discusses the fire of the destruction of Jerusalem (that will not be able to be extinguished) will be on account of not keeping Shabbat but it is derived that also one's personal house will burn on fire on Shabbat when one will not be able to extinguish it. Abaye uses that verse to teach that Jerusalem was destroyed on account of desecration of Shabbat. Seven other opinions are brought regarding why the temple was destroyed - people did not recite Shema twice a day, places of Torah learning for young children were closed, people had no shame, leaders were treated with disrespect, people did not rebuke one another, Torah scholars were disrespected, there were no longer honest people. 

Jul 03, 2020
Shabbat 118 - July 2, 10 Tamuz

Today's daf is sponsored by Emma Rinberg in memory of her beloved and much missed father Dr. Eric Glick, Yitzchak Nisan ben Yaacov z"l on his 30th yahrzeit and by Barbara Ashkenas in memory of her dear parents Edward and Evelyn Weinberger z"l who together taught her the beauty of learning Torah performing acts of kindness and giving Tzdakah. And in memory of Dr. Sandra Shimoff who devoted her life to Torah and Talmud study sponsored by her daughter and son in law Sharonna and Ozer Shuster and her grandchildren, Bentzi and Shiffy Shuster.

How many meals does one need to eat on Shabbat- three or four? The gemara grapples with the different approaches in light of different tannaitic sources. The gemara brings several statements to encourage people to keep the mitzva of eating three meals on Shabbat by promising rewards in this world or in the future. Why was all this necessary? There are rabbis that mention mitzvot they are keeping or customs that they do in a way that stands out from others who are either not keeping these laws or not as meticulously. 

Jul 02, 2020
Shabbat 117 - July 1, 9 Tamuz

Today's daf is sponsored by Rabbi Julie Danan in honor of Keren and Tim Carter. Mazal Tov on your 35th wedding anniversary, and with great appreciation to Keren for being such a wonderful and supportive Talmud chevruta. And by Ruth Leah Kahan in honor of Jessica Shklar. Wishing you a very happy birthday. I'm excited that we are sharing this journey and wish you a great year of learning ahead.

The gemara continues trying to figure out what question the rabbis asked Rabbi Yishmael, the son of Rabbi Yochanan ben Broka from our mishna (saving the case with the sefer Torah) on the case of flaying the hide of the animal on erev Pesach that falls on Shabbat. Several explanations are brought to explain what is an alleyway that is mefulash and not mefulash, mentioned in the mishna. One can save three meals with from the fire. Does it depend on what time of day – is it only the amount of meals still needed for that Shabbat or is one always allowed to save three meals worth? If food is not muktze and one is also allowed to carry it out to a space where carrying is allowed, why is it forbidden? The concern is that one will be worked up about losing one’s possessions and will come to put out the fire and therefore by limiting what is permitted, one will remember that it is Shabbat. Laws of meals on Shabbat including lechem mishne, using two loaves of bread, are derived from the manna in the desert.

Jul 01, 2020
Shabbat 116 - June 30, 8 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 116

Today’s daf is sponsored by Jordy Hyman in honor of the birthday of two special friends, Natalie Taylor and Tanya Winchester Behr, who are both partners in my daf adventure. May your learning continue to be meaning and inspiring, and may we share many siyums together! And by Rabbi Dani Passow, the Orthodox Rabbi at Harvard Hillel in honor of Jaime Drucker, Harvard Hillel's Assistant Director. Jaime inspires me and all our students with her personal dedication to Talmud Torah and commitment to making Torah accessible and meaningful to all. Thank you.

Why are there 2 upside-down letter nuns around the section in Bamidbar "and when the ark traveled"? Why is this passage so central? Can one remove a blank parchment of a sacred book from a fire? The gemara attempts five times to answer this question from other sources but each attempt is rejected. What does one do with sacred books written by a heretic? The gemara discusses debates between Jews and early Christians and a section that was removed by the censure has "drashot" on the word "evangelion" having negative connotations. A story is also brought about a corrupt judge from the early Christians whose corruption was brought public in a creative way by Rabban Gamliel and his sister, Ima Shalom. Why don't we read from ketuvim? Under what circumstances? Rav and Shmuel disagree and there are different versions regarding their disagreement. One can also remove the cover of sacred books. To what type of space is one allowed to remove sacred texts into? The gemara brings a braita in which Rabbi Yismael son of Rabbi Yochanan ben Broka disagrees with the rabbis regarding removal on Shabbat of the hide of the animal being sacrificed before burning on the altar. Can one flay the all the skin or only up to the chest? The rabbis question Rabbi Yishmael and there are various versions of the question asked.


Jun 30, 2020
Shabbat 115 - June 29, 7 Tamuz

Shoshana and Moshe Halberstadt are sponsoring the daf learning in memory of Shoshana's father, AJ Kurtz, Avraham Yaakov ben Eliyakum v'Chana z'l on his 3rd yahrzeit.

If there is a fire, what types of sacred books would you be able to remove from your house in a case of a fire (|in a place without an eiruv)? Can one move sacred books that are translated? Do those books need to be buried? Rav Huna and Rav Chisda disagree regarding books that were translated. How do each of the opinions fit in with the mishna? The gemara brought sources to question Rav Huna's opinion. If there a difference between books that are written in ink and ones written with substances that don't last? What if the Torah had large portions erased an only 85 letters in the scroll - could one carry it out of the fire? On what is it dependent?

Jun 29, 2020
Shabbat 114 - June 28, 6 Tamuz

Today's shiur is sponsored by Rabbi Ilana Axel in honor of Rabbi Roger Ross, Rabbi Jill Hausman, Rabbi Mary Jane Newman and in memory of Rabbi William Kurry, z"l. With gratitude. 

One should match the clothes to the event - this is derived from the Torah. From where? It is important for Torah scholars to dress in a respectful manner. Why? What is the size of a stain on clothing or on a saddle that would create a separation for laws of mikveh is one needed to purify it in a mikveh? Does it depend on whose clothing it is since different types of people would care about different sizes of stains. Can one burn fats on the altar from sacrifices on Shabbat that night if it happens to be Yom Kippur? Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva have different approaches? Would they both agree that one does not blow the shofar on Yom Kippur that falls on Erev Shabbat to herald in Shabbat (as they normally did on Fridays in those days)? What about havdala in davening from Shabbat to Yom Kippur when Yom Kippur falls on Sunday? One is allowed to prepare vegetables for after Yom Kippur on Yom Kippur afternoon from the time of mincha. Why is that allowed? How can one prepare from Yom Kippur for after the holiday? Is that allowed even when Yom Kippur falls on Shabbat? 

Jun 28, 2020
Shabbat 113 - June 27, 5 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 113

Today's daf is sponsored by Gitta Jaroslawicz Neufeld in memory of her father, Yosef Ben Menachem Mendel v’Pesha z"l and by Harriet Hartman in memory of her husband Moshe ben Yehuda Aryeh z"l on his first yahrzeit.

What kind of knot can be tied to a pail? What about to an animal and its eating trough? Can one fold laundry on Shabbat? Make one's bed? On what does it depend? The gemara extrapolates a verse in Isaiah relating to how one's behavior on Shabbat should be different than during the week in terms of dress, speech and walking. In the context of fancy clothing, the gemara sidetracks to discuss drashot from the book of Ruth relating to Ruth and Boaz's behavior in the story as well as allusions in the story to events that would happen in the future. 

Jun 26, 2020
Shabbat 112 - June 26, 4 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 112

Today's daf is sponsored by Eli and Karen Wilchek in memory of Oz Wilchek, z"l. And by Dena Dena and Mark Levie and family in honor of Dena’s father, Rabbi Avi Weiss's birthday. Rabbi Weiss is a pioneer for women’s learning and a true role model for am Yisroel. May he continue teaching in good health for many more years to come. 

Which knots can one tie on Shabbat, which are forbidden by rabbinic law and which by Torah law? The gemara goes over the cases in the mishna that are permitted and explains why each needed to be stated and wasn't obvious. The gemara brings two cases where someone's shoe tore on Shabbat and the law was different in each case - why? Is the shoe considered muktze if the outer strap breaks since even if one fixes it, one may be embarrassed to walk around with a noticeable fix? If one can switch left and right shoes (in those days shoes were symmetrical), why would it matter if it were the outer or inner one as one can switch it to the other foot and it will be on the inside? According to whom in this debate does Rabbi Yochanan hold?

Jun 26, 2020
Shabbat 111 - June 25, 3 Tamuz

Study Guide Shabbat 111

A cup of ikarin - it is forbidden on Shabbat but how can one drink it on a regular day if it causes one to become sterile - isn't that forbidden. The gemara attempts to establish the case in the mishna to be one where one would not be commanded - several attempts are rejected until the gemara finds an answer. Can one gargle with vinegar to help with teeth issues? Is vinegar good for one's teeth? A braita says one can gargle and swallow - how does that work with our mishna? Rava and Abaye suggest different answers but Rava's is questioned by something he holds elsewhere regarding going to the mikveh on Yom Kippur. One can annoint a wound with oil but not rose oil, as it was uncommon to use it and therefore it would be obvious that one was using it for medicinal purposes. Sons of kings used it more commonly and therefore it was allowed for them. Rabbi Shimon holds that everyone is like the sons of kings and it is permitted to all. Rav holds like Rabbi Shimon. The gemara questions how this can be the case as it is known that Rav does not hold like Rabbi Shimon. The gemara concludes that his reality was different and rose oil was commonly used and that's why he allowed it and not because he agreed with Rabbi Shimon. The new chapter begins with tying knots - what types are prohibited by Torah law and which are permitted? 


Jun 25, 2020
Shabbat 110 - June 24, Tamuz 2

Study Guide Shabbat 110

Today's shiur is dedicated by my parents, Robert and Paula Cohen in memory of my grandfather, Chaim Avraham ben Alter Gershon HaKohen z"l. 

What are remedies for one who has an issue with a snake, i.e. swallowed by, bitten by, pursued by a snake or pursued for sexual pursuits? What is "water of dekalim" mentioned in the mishna or "a cup of ikarin" that cannot be drunk on Shabbat? What are these used for and what are alternatives if one doesn't have them or it isn't effective? How can one drink "a cup of ikarin" if it causes one to become sterile - isn't that forbidden? 

Jun 24, 2020
Shabbat 109 - June 23, 1 Tamuz

Today’s daf is sponsored by Pearl Mattenson in memory of her sister Karen Tendler z”l on the occasion of her 10th yahrzeit.

What things can one do/eat on shabbat for medicinal purposes. What are the criteria for permitting it? Can one soak in a body of water for medicinal purposes? Does it depend on which body of water? The gemara explains all sorts of rememdies that people used in the times of the gemara for various ailments.

Jun 23, 2020
Shabbat 108 - June 22, 30 Sivan

Some things are forbidden because it is considered removing it from its place of growth, including a fetus of an animal from the womb. Is a fetus considered a live being or not? What is the melacha that one is obligated for? Is the skin of a bird or fish considered skin? Can one write tefillin on parchment made from its skin? A story is told of the welcome that Rav received (not the most positive) when he arrived in Babylonia and was greeted first by Karna and quizzed and then by Shmuel. One can write tefillin on a kosher animal even if it was a treifa (sick) or died on its own. This was a subject of debate between a Baitusi and Rabbi Yehoshua the Garsi regarding the rabbinic traditions. Brine cannot be made on Shabbat as it is a tolada of ibud, processing. But can one prepare salt water for dipping one's bread? Taking medicine is problematic on Shabbat (in certain circumstances) lest one grind one's own medicines. However if one uses a medication that could also be used not as a medication and therefore it is not clear whether one is using it for medicinal purposes or not, it is allowed. In the context of salt water, the gemara asks regarding one who washes in the Dead Sea for medicinal purposes for one's eye. In what case would it be allowed? Other issues related to eye salves on Shabbat are discussed. 

Jun 22, 2020
Shabbat 107 - June 21, 29 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 107

Today's daf is sponsored by Dr. Robin Zeiger and Professor Jonathan Ben-Ezra in honor of their daughter Bracha, of whom they are so proud that she is giving a siyum on Maseachet Taanit. And by Lillian Cohen in memory of her father Kurt Philipp, David ben Tzvi, z"l on what would have been his 91st birthday. And in honor of Father's Day by Carolyn Benger in honor of her father, Bernhard Benger (Dov ben Zvi). "He was my first teacher and opened my eyes to Torah. I miss you everyday, Daddy, and am thinking of you this Father's Day." And in honor of Paul Gompers, an exemplary Dad in every way. Love, Sivan, Annika and Zoe. And in honor of Adam Cohen from his children. Your dedication to learning Daf Yomi as well as living a true Torah lifestyle is truly inspiring. We love you so much. Love, Max Hannah Sam and Celia.

If an animal or bird are already captured, one can prevent it from getting out and keep it captured. What are the three known cases where the tannaim say "one is exempt" and they mean that it is permitted even by Torah law? According to the mishna, if one captures one of the eight creeply crawling creatures listed in the Torah (whose dead bodies carry impurities) or injures it, one is obligated and any others one is exempt. Why? There is a debate in the gemara whether this is only according to Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri or the rabbis also? Rav thinks it is also the rabbis (they only disagree regarding impurity, not Shabbat). The gemara questions this opinion from two tanaitic sources which imply that they disagree also about Shabbat. From where do we learn what defines "an injury" that one would be obligated for? Other creatures according to the mishna, one is exempt for capturing or injuring - this would imply that they would be obligated for killing them. Is that a subject of debate or do all agree? If one captures a creature not for its own purpose but to prevent it from bothering or some other reason, one is exempt, according to the mishna. This is according to Rabbi Shimon who exempt in a case of melacha seaina tzricha legufa

Jun 21, 2020
Shabbat 106 - June 20, 28 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 106

Is it true that any destructive act, one is not obligated by Torah law for doing on Shabbat? What about burning a fire and inflicting a bodily injury? There is a debate between Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yehuda. When is one obligated for trapping an animal, bird or fish? What are the differences between them? On what does it depend? 

Jun 19, 2020
Shabbat 105 - June 19, 27 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 105

Today's daf is dedicated by Ricki Gerger in honor of Orli Halpern, an 11-year-old girl in Takoma Park, Maryland, who is recovering from a liver transplant. She is the bravest person she knows. 

From where in the Torah do we learn that there are abbreviations? The gemara finishes up the issue of writing with a debate regarding one who wrote two letters but in between found out that it was Shabbat or that it was forbidden to write. What are the requisite amount for weaving and other related melachot? One who tears to sew two stiches is olbigated but what about one who tears their clothing for a dead person or out of anger - is that considered a productive act or a destructive act? The gemara talks about the importance of eulogizing and mourning for others.

Jun 19, 2020
Shabbat 104 - June 18, 26 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 104

In writing a sefer torah, if a mem which is used in the middle of a word can function as a mem at the end of a word, would the same hold true in the reverse case? Historically, did one precede the other? The gemara brings a drasha on the meaning of all the letters in the Hebrew alphabet and also regarding the direction and shapes of the letters. Drashot are also brought using codes like Aleph-Tav, Bet-Shin and others. In what ways and with what types of ink is one obligated to bring a sin offering if one wrote on Shabbat and in what ways is one exempt from a sin offering (but obligated by rabbinic law). Is one obligated if one wrote over letters already written or added one letter to a letter that was already written and formed a word or wrote two letters nowhere near each other? What if one wrote on one's body? Or scratches letters on his body? A story is told of Ben Setada who etched secret magic spells on his flesh to be able to sneak it out of Egypt. There is a section about him that was removed by the censor. Was it referring to Jesus? If one wrote the last letter of a book, is that forbidden by Torah law? What if one wrote one letter in two different cities (one letter in each city)?

Jun 18, 2020
Shabbat 104 - June 18, 26 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 104

In writing a sefer torah, if a mem which is used in the middle of a word can function as a mem at the end of a word, would the same hold true in the reverse case? Historically, did one precede the other? The gemara brings a drasha on the meaning of all the letters in the Hebrew alphabet and also regarding the direction and shapes of the letters. Drashot are also brought using codes like Aleph-Tav, Bet-Shin and others. In what ways and with what types of ink is one obligated to bring a sin offering if one wrote on Shabbat and in what ways is one exempt from a sin offering (but obligated by rabbinic law). Is one obligated if one wrote over letters already written or added one letter to a letter that was already written and formed a word or wrote two letters nowhere near each other? What if one wrote on one's body? Or scratches letters on his body? A story is told of Ben Setada who etched secret magic spells on his flesh to be able to sneak it out of Egypt. There is a section about him that was removed by the censor. Was it referring to Jesus? If one wrote the last letter of a book, is that forbidden by Torah law? What if one wrote one letter in two different cities (one letter in each city)?

Jun 18, 2020
Shabbat 103 - June 17 - 25 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 103

Today's shiur is dedicated by Deborah Lewis in honor of Janet Lachais and by Sima Greenberg in memory of Paula Zaager z"l.

Why is one obligated for banging a sledgehammer on the anvil? What is the requisite amount for plowing, weeding, reaping, gathering wood, writing? It depends on what purpose one was doing it? Why is that important - if one weeds for the purposes of using what one weeded and not for benefitting the land, in any case the land benefits and therefore it is a case of a psik reisha (if will definitely happen) and even Rabbi Shimon agrees in this case that one would be obligated, even if one didn't intend (davar sheaino mitkaven)? The gemara's answer has important ramifications for understanding Rabbi Shimon's opinion. The gemara brings various opinions regarding writing on Shabbat. Does one need to write letters or is one also obligated for writing symbols and notations? What if one writes two of the same letter? If one intended to write a word and one stopped after two letters which also form a word, is one obligated? If in the Torah, one was supposed to write a mem in the middle of the word but wrote it as a mem used at the end of words, is that ok? Can one learn that from the sugya of writing on Shabbat? 

Jun 17, 2020
Shabbat 102 - June 16, 24 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 102

Today's daf is dedicated by Anoushka Adler in honor of her mother, Valerie Adler, a lover of Jewish learning and Jewish life, who has taken on studying the Daf. You are her biggest role model. And by Kay Weinberger in loving memory of her mother, Eva Redstone, Hava bat Chaim v'Sarah z"l, on her 20th Yahrzeit.

The mishna says if one threw an item four cubits Unwittingly and then remembered before it landed and a dog ate it as it fell or it fell into a fire and burned, one is not obligated. In order to be obligated to bring a sin offering, one must have begun and ended the act unwittingly. The connection between the cases in the mishna and what exactly the mishna is referring to is a subject of debate as it seems to combine two different issues and possibly contradict itself. There are several different ways to read the mishna. The twelfth chapter begins with building. Is there a requisite amount that one would be responsible for building? If not, why not? What is the significance of building something so small? And where in the building of the mishkan was there of something so small? When building with stones, the act that is considered building depends of whether it is the top, middle or bottom row of stones. Which actions are considered building and which are considered forbidden on account of striking the final blow? Which are a subject of debate?


Jun 16, 2020
Shabbat 101 - June 15, 23 Sivan

Today's daf is sponsored by Dodi Lamm in memory of her father, Harav Moshe ben Meir Shmuel v’Perel, Rabbi Maurice Lamm z"l,w ho brought nechama to so many and continues to do so in these difficult times via his books. 

What is the law regarding a hanging mechitza (one that does not reach the ground)? In which cases do we view it as if it drops down to the ground and in which cases do we not allow that solution to be employed? Why? When the mishna mentioned boats that are tied to each other - what were they permitting? In what way did they need to be tied together - how strong a rope? 

Jun 15, 2020
Shabbat 100 - June 14, 22 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 100 in English and Hebrew

Today's shiur is sponsored by Elizabeth Kirshner in memory of her Bubbie, Blanche Engel, Bluma bat Chaya Feiyga for her first yahrzeit. She was a supporter of Torah learning and a regular at many shiurim, and was so proud of my ongoing learning. May her neshama have an aliyah and may her memory continue to inspire. 

The gemara deals with definitions of when an item is considered placed or taken from the ground - what if the item is in a liquid and is unstable? How do we view water in a pail - as resting on unstable water or is all the water viewed as one and considered resting in a stable manner in a utensil? How do we view oil that is settled on top of wine? The gemara goes back to the discussion regarding putting in item in a private domain and at the same moment filling the private domain so that it no longer has the requisite amount to be considered a private domain - is it cancelled. Does it depend on what is placed and how it is placed inside? Is there a different between water and solid items? The mishna deals with throwing items onto a wall. What if it fell into a hole in the wall that is not 4 handbreaths wide - is that hole viewed as part of the private domain and we view it as if it is 4 handbreaths wide since it is part of the wall which is that wide? Or do we view it by the size it is and maybe people in the public domain use the space, it is considered public? A mound 10 handbreaths tall in a pulibc domain - at what length of the incline it is considered a private domain? What if one threw an item less than or more than 4 cubits in public and it rolled to more thanor less than 4 cubits? What is the law regarding a puddle in a public domain - is it considered part of the public domain? On what does it depend? Why is the same sentence about the puddle repeatied in the mishna? The gemara brings 3 answers. How can one draw water while in a boat on Shabbat. Two potential solutions are brought. 

Jun 14, 2020
Shabbat 99 - June 13, 21 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 99

Today's daf is sponsored in honor of Judy Berman to celebrate her birthday. Your dedication to the daf is inspiring and we love you so much. Love, your children. And in memory of David Meir Shavit ben Shlomo Lipa z"l by his children who have joined the daf yomi learning, whose yahrzeit is on Shabbat.  

In what way was the covering of the Tabernacle made of goat hairs more unique than the one made of colorful threads? What were the exact dimensions of the wagons that carried the beams and the space in between? The banks of a pit or a rock that is 4x4 and 10 handbreaths tall is a private domain and one is obligated for placing an item on top of it. Several questions are asked regarding placing items from a public domain or a pillar or wall in the public space that is tel handbreaths tall - doesn't it past through an exempt place (above 10 in the public space) before getting there - so maybe one should not be obligated. What if it was a wall that wasn't 4x4 wide and first functions as a wall of a carmelit and then became a wall of a private space - is the wall considered a private domain? What is the creation of the private space happens at the same time as one is moving something from it to the public space? 



Jun 12, 2020
Shabbat 98 - June 12, 20 Sivan

Today's shiur is dedicated to Elana Rand by her family. 

One is not obligated for moving an item in the public domain if it is covered as that is not the way it was done in the Tabernacle. How can that be, if Rav said in the name of Rabbi Chiya that underneath, on the sides and in between the wagons is considered the public domain and those spaces are covered either by the beams or by the wagon? The gemara delves into the details of the size of the beams, the wagon, the wheels, the space in between wagons, in order to answer the question. There is a debate whether the beams were as wide at the top as they were at the bottom or were they one handbreath at the bottom and one finger's width at the top? What are the ramifications of each opinion?


Jun 12, 2020
Shabbat 98 - June 12, 20 Sivan

Today's shiur is dedicated to Elana Rand by her family. 

One is not obligated for moving an item in the public domain if it is covered as that is not the way it was done in the Tabernacle. How can that be, if Rav said in the name of Rabbi Chiya that underneath, on the sides and in between the wagons is considered the public domain and those spaces are covered either by the beams or by the wagon? The gemara delves into the details of the size of the beams, the wagon, the wheels, the space in between wagons, in order to answer the question. There is a debate whether the beams were as wide at the top as they were at the bottom or were they one handbreath at the bottom and one finger's width at the top? What are the ramifications of each opinion?

Jun 12, 2020
Shabbat 97 - June 11, 19 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 97

What was Tzolfchad's sin according to Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, if he wasn't the wood gatherer? Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira also disagree regarding Aaron - did he get leprosy also with Miriam? One who accuses one of sinning if that person is innocent, is punished through the body. This is derived from Moshe. How? One who throws an item from one private domain to another through a public domain, there is a debate whether they are obligated by Torah law or not. Is the debate within ten handbreaths of the ground but above ten, all would agree that one is exempt or is the debate above 10 and below ten all would agree that one is obligated? Do they all agree that going through airspace is considered as if it had rested in that domain or is that a subject of debate? Do they all agree that we do not learn throwing from passing or is that a subject of debate? If one owned both private domains, one can throw and item from one to the other even with a public domain in between. What is the source for the law of levud, that a space less than 3 handbreaths is not viewed as a space but is perceived as if it is closed. If one passes an item from one public domain to another public domain through a private domain, one is obligated but only if the private domain had a roof. Then it is viewed as if it rested there. A statement was passed down in the name of Shmuel that Rebbi obligated in public to public through private two osin offerings - one for taking out and one for bringing in. This contradicts another statement of Rebbi and therefore Rav Yosef says the statement was made about Rabbi Yehuda instead and proves it from a braita. However his proof is rejected.  The gemara tries again to prove is it Rabbi Yehuda but is not able to prove it. One who intends to throw an item 8 cubits but throw for or vice-versa - what is the law? Is one obligated?

Jun 11, 2020
Shabbat 96 - June 10, 18 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 96

Today's daf is sponsored by Audrey and Jake Levant in honour of Audrey’s mother, Geri Goldstein, who made aliya 10 years ago today.

The gemara finishes the discussion regarding the sizes of holes in earthenware utensils and what the halachic implications are for each size. The eleventh chapter starts with throwing items - from public to private domain or the reverse or from private to private through a public domain. In which cases is one obligated? On what does it depend? What is the source for the prohibition to take an item from a private domain to a public? From where do we learn that one cannot take an item from a public domain and move it into a private domain? Why is it important to categorize actions as Avot (primary categories) or Toladot (sub-categories)? If one throws an item more than four cubits in a public domain and it lands on a wall, if it lands higher than 10 handbreaths, one is not obligated as it landed in an "exempt space." If it landed lower than 10 handbreaths from the ground, one is obligated for carrying in a public domain. From where is this law derived? When the Jews were in the desert, there was a man accused of gathering wood - what melacha did he transgress? Why is it important to determine that? The gemara explains that it has implications for a statement of Isi ben Yehuda who claims that there is one melacha that one is not obligated by the death penalty. There is a debate about whether this person was Tzelofchad.

Jun 10, 2020
Shabbat 95 - June 9, Sivan 7

Today's shiur is sponsored in honour of Rabbanit Yehudit, Judith Levitan, of Sydney Australia, who just received semikha from Yeshivat Maharat. Mazal Tov, may your wisdom, intuition and Torah learning continue to shine and bring inspiration and knowledge to others - from Jordana Hyman. And by Rebecca Schwarzmer in memory of her grandmother Ruth Friedman Cohn, Rachel bat Chaim z"l, whose yartziet is today and her mother, Linda Cohn Brauner, Leah bat Netanel ha'Kohen z"l whose yartziet is tomorrow. 

One who braids, puts on eye shadow, or a dough like substance to redden the cheeks or gel type substance in the hair - is it forbidden by Torah or rabbinic law and for what melacha? One who milks or prepares cheese for what is one obligated and is it forbidden by Torah or rabbinic law? What about sweeping or puring water on the ground or taking honey off  the honeycomb? Is it forbidden to pull out something from a potted plant? Does it matter if the pot has a hole or not. Rabbi Shimon doesn't distinguish. The gemara questions him and tries to assess if he would change his mind in certain situations. What are the different sizes of holes in earthenware vessels that are significant for various law of purity/impurity? 

Jun 09, 2020
Shabbat 94 - June 8, 16 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 94

Today's daf is dedicated in memory of Dvora bat Moshe vRachel z"l by Josh Kirsch and by Michael Lawrence in honor of his wife, Lisa's on her birthday. He is very proud of your dedication to learning daf yomi and wishes you many more years of continued learning "ad meah v'esrim."

If one carries out an item less than the requisite amount in a utensil or a live person on a bed, the utensil/bed is considered insignificant compare to the item/person and one is therefore not obligated for carrying it out as the item is less than the requisite amount and one is not obligated for carrying a live person as the person can carry him/herself. If one carries out a part of a dead body or impure item, if the amount was the amount that causes impurity in that item, Rabbi Shimon and tana kama (Rabbi Yehuda) debate if one would be obligated as this is a melacha sheaina tzricha legufa. Rashi and Tosafot disagree regarding the definition of melacha sheaina tzricha legufa. According to the braitia, one who removes a food in a utensil and has intent also to remove the utiensil is olbigated for both - how can this be - shouldn't one only need to bring one sin offering for carrying? Rav Sheshet and Rav Ashi bring different answers. A live person/animal who can carry themselves - is one obligated for carrying them or not? Rabbi Natan and the rabbis disagree in the case of animals - do they also disagree regarding humans? In which cases does Rabbi Shimon hold that one is exempt for melacha sheaina tzricha legufa. One who removes haris from a leprous mark is obligated - how many hairs? Does it depend how many were there in the first place? Does doing a partial act count as on its way to a whole act and therefore deemed significant or not? One who bites or picks off one's nails on Shabbat or pulls out hairs - Rabbi Eliezer and the rabbis debate whether or not they are obligated by Torah law. Does it depend if one did with a utensil or by hand? Does it depend if the nail was already coming off?  

Jun 08, 2020
Shabbat 93 - June 7, 15 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 93

Today's shiur is dedicated in memory of my grandmother Helen Cohen, Henna bat Yitzchak Nechemia z"l.

If two people do a melacha together are they obligated by Torah law? What are the different opinions? On what does it depend? What are the sources for each opinion? Several texts are brought to prove that something that is considered a supporting item is not considered significant. According to the opinion that two people are obligated for doing one melacha even if each could have done it alone, do they need to have carried a requisite amount for each or are they obligated even if they carried the requisite amount? 

Jun 07, 2020
Shabbat 92 - June 6, 14 Sivan

Rava and Abaye have the same debate as Rabbi Yochanan and Chizkiya. If one carries out an object in an atypical manner, one is not obligated. If one intended it to be carried in one manner and ended up carrying in a different manner, does it matter if the way it ended up being carried was a more protected or a less protected way? 

Jun 05, 2020
Shabbat 91 - June 5, 13 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 91

Today's daf is dedicated by Raie Goodwach in memory of her mother, Rivkah bat Chaim v’Peshka z”l and by Nava Flesh in memory of her father Oriel Pozeilev ben Miriam and Avraham z”l.

How far do we take this issue of obligating one who fulfills one's intent even if it is atypical? Would it help to exempt someone also? If I consider an item important, would others be obligated for carrying it? What if the intent changed between the moment of removing it from one domain and placing it in the other domain? Rava brings various questions regarding this issue. If one brought an item from one's house into the threshold which was a karmelit and then to the public space, is one obligated? On what does it depend? If one brought a basket from a private space to a public space but some of the basket was still in the private domain, is one obligated? Is the basket viewed as one whole or not? On what does it depend? How do Chizkia and Rabbi Yochanan each understand the mishna? 

Jun 05, 2020
Shabbat 91 - June 5, 13 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 91

Today's daf is dedicated by Raie Goodwach in memory of her mother, Rivkah bat Chaim v’Peshka z”l and by Nava Flesh in memory of her father Oriel Pozeilev ben Miriam and Avraham z”l.

How far do we take this issue of obligating one who fulfills one's intent even if it is atypical? Would it help to exempt someone also? If I consider an item important, would others be obligated for carrying it? What if the intent changed between the moment of removing it from one domain and placing it in the other domain? Rava brings various questions regarding this issue. If one brought an item from one's house into the threshold which was a karmelit and then to the public space, is one obligated? On what does it depend? If one brought a basket from a private space to a public space but some of the basket was still in the private domain, is one obligated? Is the basket viewed as one whole or not? On what does it depend? How do Chizkia and Rabbi Yochanan each understand the mishna? 

Jun 05, 2020
Shabbat 90 - June 4, 12 Sivan

Today's daf is dedicated by Nina Black in memory of her mother, Sophia bat Avram v'Esther z"l, who would have appreciatedthat her daughter is learning Daf Yomi.

Do different spices join together for the requisite amount? On what does it depend? There is a difference in the requisite amount for raw materials than for items that are already ready for use or planted vs. not yet planted. The gemara tries to determine what are the cleaning materials mentioned in the mishna. The mishna continues with the requisite amount for items like pepper, tar, sanctified items eaten by worms/bugs, and a debate regarding accessories to idols. Why are each of these items obligated for any amount - what are they used for? A peddler carrying a basket with many different items is only obligated one sin offering. What is the amount for seeds? What about grasshoppers - live or dead - kosher or non kosher? Did you know that kids played with grasshoppers? Hairs from animals tails - how many? What were they used for? If one stored an item, one is obligated even if the amount was smaller than the requisite amount. What if one changed one's mind about it? What if one forgot for what purpose it was stored? 

Jun 04, 2020
Shabbat 89 - June 3, 11 Sivan

Today's shiur is dedicated by Leah Brick in memory of Rabbi Dr. Norman Lamm who was a champion of woman learning Torah. Leah thanks him for all that he has done for the entire Jewish community and for the kindness he has always shown to her family in particular.

Why was the Torah given to humans and not to angels? Why was Moshe worthy to have the Torah called "Moshe's Torah"? How did Satan trick the people into believing that Moshe was not coming down from the mountain and led them to worship the golden calf? Why was it called Sinai? What other names was it called and why? The gemara moves on to the next topic from the mishna of the red wool that was tied around the scapegoat. It is learned out from a verse in Ezekiel. Why is scarlet in plural form? The verse is used to elaborate on a potential conversation between the Jews and God about whether or not our forefathers would go out to bat for us and would rebuke us in a sympathetic manner. Another similar drasha is brought from a different verse showing that Isaac is the only one who would be sympathetic. The next mishna continues with the amount one is obligated for carrying wood, spices, materials used for dying and for cleaning.  

Jun 03, 2020
Shabbat 88 - June 2, 10 Sivan

Today's daf is sponsored by Josh Adler in honor of Dr. Rebecca Eisen's graduation from University of Toronto Medical School. Mazel tov! May our learning merit an end to the violence going on now in America. 

The gemara brings more sources that raise questions on Rabbi Yosi or the rabbis opinion regarding the day the Torah was given. Then drashot regarding the giving of the Torah are brought. Some discuss whether the Jews were forced into acceptance of the Torah. Others discuss the fact that they first said "we will do" and then "let's hear what it says in the Torah." What is the greatness of the Torah and of the commandments that were given at matan Torah? A number of drashot relate to the connection between angels and the Jewish people at the giving of the Torah from a number of different perspectives. A midrash is brought that describes the scene in heaven when Moshe goes up to get the Torah and the angels ask why is God giving the Torah to humans. God tells Moshe to answer. What is Moshe's immediate reaction? 

Jun 02, 2020
Shabbat 87 - June 1, 9 Sivan

Today's daf is sponsored by Sarah Robinson in memory of her father Moshe Nachum ben Chana Leiba v'Yaakov z"l.

The gemara explains how Rabbi Yosi and the rabbis came to different dates regarding when the Torah was given and as a result a different number of days that spouses needed to separate. Several sources are brought either against Rabbi Yosi or against the rabbis and are then explained. According to Rabbi Yosi, one needs to explain that God told Moshe two days of separation but Moshe added a third and God agreed with him. There are two other cases brought where Moshe initiated something and God agreed. What are different opinions regarding what Moshe did the first three days upon arriving at Mount Sinai? Did he first teach them about the punishments, then the rewards or the reverse? What were they commanded about Shabbat in Marah - also techumin or everything except that? This affects whether or not they travelled on shabbat and arrived on Sunday or travelled and arrived on Sunday. The gemara gets into the counts of what day of the week did they leave Egypt and how many days were in Nissan and Iyar of that year and how one can arrive at the different opinions of rabbi Yosi adn the rabbis. Does the days of the week of Rosh Chodesh Sivan according to Rabbi Yosi and the rabbis fit in with a braita that explains the dates in the following year when the tabernacle was put up? 

Jun 01, 2020
Shabbat 86 - May 31, 8 Sivan

Today's daf is sponsored by Ami Plaksin in honor of his wife, Ilana, who despite her busy life, manages to find time to learn daf yomi. 

The mishna lists the sources for the following laws: a women who has semen exit her body within 3 days of having intercourse is considered impure, one can wash an infant within three days of a brit milah even on Shabbat, a red string is tied around the scapegoat on Yom Kippur that turns white as a sign that their sins are forgiven, annointing is forbidden like drinking on Yom Kippur. Several opinions are brought regarding the amount of time semen from intercourse remains live in a woman's body and makes her impure. The opinions are derived from different traditions regarding the days leading up to the receiving of the Torah and how many days the husbands and wives needed to separate before receiving the Torah.

May 31, 2020
Shabbat 85 - May 30, 7 Sivan

Today's daf is dedicated by Shira Merili Mervis in memory of her father, Yitzchak Eliahu ben Aliza and Moshe z"l.

From where do we learn that the area the rabbis determined for planting five different types of seeds is reliable? How much space does one need to leave around each square area of 6x6 handbreaths? Rav and Shmuel disagree regarding the mishna - was it stated in a case where the garden bed was alone or surrounded by others? Rabbi Yochanan explained how one can plant a number of different types in a square of 6x6 - using a circle or circles. There is  debate about whether one can plant in betwteen the circles. 

May 30, 2020
Shabbat 84 - Chag Shavuot - May 29, 6 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 84

Today's shiur is dedicated by Beth Fox for a refuah shleima for her father, Edward Fox, Ezra Chaim ben Slova.  May he have a successful surgery and a refuah shleima! 

According to Chanania, an item needs to be carried both full or empty in order to be susceptible to impurities. Does that include an item that can be pulled by oxen? From where can this be proven? A braita is brought showing a debate between tana kama and Rabbi Yosi regarding a boat. What exactly does each side hold? From where do we derive that an earthenware vessel cannot become impure through sitting on (by a zav, zava, nidda or woman after childbirth)? Three answers are given. The next mishna disucsses the source for how many different types of seed can be planted in one space of 6x6 tefachim without being worried about kilaim, mixing diverse kinds together? 


May 28, 2020
Shabbat 83 - May 28, 5 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 83

This week's learning is sponsored by Joy Benatar in memory of Miriam David, Malka bat Michael and Esther z"l. She would have loved to study in a worldwide, non-denominational, non-gender segregated Jewish community. 

Today's daf is sponsored in honor of Jeff Cohen's 40th birthday. Happy birthday!

Raba and Rabbi Elazar disagree about what type of impurity idols have. The gemara analyzes the different opinions and raises questions from other sources. A few questions are raised regarding parts of idols carrying impurities and the minimum size of an idol required for passing on impurities. From where is it derived that a boat is not susceptible to impurity? Two answers are brought and the gemara discusses in which cases there would be a difference between them. The gemara ends with the importance on not missing a day in the beit midash and the importance of learning Torah.

May 28, 2020
Shabbat 82 - May 27 - 4 Sivan

Study Guide Shabbat 82

Rav Huna teaches his son that learning about issues related to health and particularly going to the bathroom is central to Torah. If one has the option to wipe on Shabbat with a shard or with a rock, which is better? A rock or grass? Other health issues related to constipation are brought up in the gemara. What size shard is one obligated for carrying - 3 opinions. Which is larger? The ninth chapter starts with a question relating to the source for impurity for idols. Rabbi Akiva and the rabbis have a debate in Masechet Avoda Zara what level of impurity they have. Raba and Rabbi Elazar disagree about the details of the debate between Rabbi Akiva and the rabbis. 

May 27, 2020
Shabbat 81 - May 26, Sivan 3

Study Guide Shabbat 81

Today's shiur is dedicated by Joni Brenner in honor of Rabbi Shuli Passow for introducing her to daf yomi. 

What is the size of a bone, a piece of glass, or a rock or stone that one would be obligated for carrying on Shabbat? By which use of these items is the size determined? Even though rocks are generally muktze, the rabbis allowed one to carry them for wiping in the bathroom (in those days rocks were used as toilet paper). What size rocks were permitted to be carried on Shabbat for this purpose? What items can't be used on Shabbat for wiping? If one has a regular place for going to the bathroom or not, does that effect how many rocks one can carry? One can use a small mortar used to crushing spices to wipe with on Shabbat, but according to Rav Sheshet, only if it has signs that it was used in the past to wipe with in the bathroom. Is it really OK to use something that was used in the past to wipe with - isn't that unhealthy and can cause disease? Three answers are brought. What if the rain washed off any dirt from previous uses? Can one carry rocks to the attic to be uses for wiping or is that considered extra work on Shabbat that would be forbidden? It is permitted because of kavod habriot - human dignity. Under what circumstances does human dignity not permit mutzke items to be moved on Shabbat? Why is there a difference? One cannot use a plowed field as a bathroom on Shabbat - why not? Can one use a rock that has grass growing on it for wiping? Can one use an earthenware shard for wiping?

May 26, 2020
Shabbat 80 - May 25, 2 Sivan

Today's shiur is dedicated by Don Nadel in memory of his mother, Zisa Risa bat Aliya HaCohen z"l on her yahrzeit. 

What is the requisitve amount for carrying ink - does it matter if it is in dried form, in a quill or an inkwell? Rava brings a number of laws that deal with combining partial acts that independently would not obligate one but together could. Rabbi Yosi says if one takes a partial amount into one public domain and another part into a different public domain, one is not responsible. What distinguishes one public domain from another - various opinions are brought. Eye shadow for one eye - is that meant for medicinal purposes or for beauty? The gemara briefly discusses a number of the items listed in the mishna. In the beginning of the mishna, Rabbi Yehuda brought a smaller amount than the rabbis - why in the cases of earthenware shards did he bring a larger amount? The gemara delves into the issue of lime - why did they use it on girls? What is the amount that Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Nechemia list in the mishna? Does Rabbi yehuda also here obligate for a smaller amount? Teh mishna continues with amounts for carrying earth, fertilizer, fine sand, coarse sand and reeds. There are some debates between Rabbi Akiva and the rabbis.

May 25, 2020
Shabbat 79 - May 24, Rosh Chodesh Sivan, 1 Sivan

Today's daf is sponsored by Leslie Glassberg Nadel in memory of her mother, Tova Bat Zvi Hirsch z"l and by an anonymous donor in loving memory of Emuna Bracha Esther and in honor of the incredible women in her life (both mentors and students) who are learning daf yomi. 

The gemara brings four explanations regearding the debate between Rabbi Yehuda and Tana Kama about one who takes out a promissory note on Shabbat - if it is after it was paid back, is one obligated? Is it still a useful item? What is the basis for the debate and what exactly are the circumstances? Rava asks Rav Nachman about the requisite amount for taking out the hide of an animal at different stages - before it was processed, once it was processed, etc. Rav Nachman says it is the same for all. The gemara raises several questions on this from other cases where we distinguish between an item before it is processed and after. The mishna gave a size for parchment for tefillin. But in a braita a different amount appears in the context of tefillin and mezuza. The gemara distinguishes between tefillin and mezuza. However it is difficult as tefillin is generally made of klaf and mezuza on duchsustos and the braita mentioned both in relation to tefillin. The gemara rereads the braita to line up each type of parchment with what it can be used for. Rav says that one can use duchtostos for tefillin. The gemara raises several questions on this and also tries to bring a potential proof but ultimately concludes that Rav's statement was the reverse -that one can use klaf for mezuza. 

May 24, 2020
Shabbat 78 - May 23, 29 Iyar

The gemara continues to discuss the requisite amount needed for carrying items such as liquids, paper, ropes, reeds, etc. 

May 22, 2020
Shabbat 77 - May 22, 28 Iyar, Yom Yerushalayim

Study Guide Shabbat 77

Today's daf is sponsored by Danielle Barta in honor of her mother - "she inspired me to start learning Daf Yomi with Hadran and insipires me to always be the best me! 

What is the ratio of water to wine used to make wine? How does this effect the requisite amount required for carrying out wine? What is the requisite amount of congealed wne that one would be responsible for carrying? Since the mishna used the words "gemia" the gemara wants to know if it was written with an ayin or an aleph. The gemara then asks that same question regarding a number of other words.  The gemara asks questions regarding the requisite amounts mentioned in the mishna and are left without answers (teiku). Nothing is creating in this world without a purpose. Several creatures are listed and their purpose is explained. There are small creatures that can scare larger creatures. Rabbi Zeira finds Rav Yehuda in a good mood one day and asks him all sorts of questions regarding things in nature and why they were created in that way. He also asked him the etymology of a number of words in Aramaic. The mishna says the amount of oil to put on a small limb - a small limb of a small person or of a grown person?

May 22, 2020
Shabbat 76 - May 21, 27 Iyar

If one takes out an object from one domain to another, one is obligated only if it is an item that is important. How is significance of an item determined? Is it subjective? Does it depend on what use you are intending for it? Does past behavior play a role? The mishna lists food for animals - what amount of each food item would obligated you? Each food is intended for different animals who each eat different amounts so the amount depends on the particular food. What if you take food for one animal to feed a different type of animal - what amount would be needed to obligate one? Can different food items combine to get to a requisite amount? For food for humans, what is the amount? Can different foods combine? What about parts of the food that are inedible? What is the requisite amount for drinks? 

May 21, 2020
Shabbat 75 - May 20, 26 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 75

The gemara continues discussing the 39 melachot. Rav Zutra says three halakhot - one connected to sewing and two forbidden learning or associating with a Persian amgosh/priest (two different interpretations what that is) and a Jew who knows how to understand weather and constellations and doesn't use that knowledge. If one catches snails and opens them up to remove the gland to make techelet dye, for what is one obligated? Is threshing forbidden only in items that grow from the ground? Why wasn't killing the snail mentioned? Is one who slaughters obligated also by coloring the animal with the blood? Why are both tanning and salting listed - isn't salting part of the tanning process? Is salting meat an outgrowth of tanning or does tanning not apply to foods? What are outgrowths of smoothing, cutting and the final blow (make be'patish).  Is one obligated tfor writing or erasing a large letter that takes up the space of two? The next mishna delves into carrying - for what type/size items is one obligated - is it objective criteria that determine it is an item of importance or is it subjective? 

May 20, 2020
Shabbat 74 - May 19, 25 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 74

Today's daf is dedicated in memory of Harriet Sommer, Hindel bat Zissel z"l,  by Eric Sommer and by Francine Shraga in honor of her daughter Sarah on earning her PhD. Congratulations! We are all so proud! Love, Mom, Dad, Rose and Dov.

Why are certain actions perfomred in the Tabernacle (mishkan) on the list of 39 melachot and others are not? Laws of selection (separating good from bad or bad from good) are discussed in a braita but in a very unclear manner. The gemara bring five explanations. The gemara tries to assess if really one is allowed to select good from bad. What are toladot of grinding? Why did the mishna write baking instead of cooking? Rav Acha says that one can be olbigated for cooking by putting object/utensils in an oven or pot like a peg or tar to prepare it. One who crafts a barrel, oven or wicker basket is obligated many sacrifices - for what actions? Rashi and Rav Hai Gaon disagree about which ones, partially based on a debate about whether one can be obligated in building for crafting a utensil. When in the Tabernacle did they do the acts of tying, untying and tearing?

May 19, 2020
Shabbat 73 - May 18, 24 Iyar

oday's shiur is dedicated to celebrating International Women's Talmud Day that took place yesterday and to all those learning and teaching by Adam Dicker and Carolyn Hochstadter and family.

The gemara continues to bring more cases where Rava and Abaye argue about whether or not one would be exempt because of mitasek. The mishna finally gets to the list of the 39 melachot. The gemara explains why the mishna specifies a number. The gemara begins to discuss different toladot of each of the melachot. They also bring cases where one can do one act and be obligated a number of sacrifices as the act can be classified under different melachot

May 18, 2020
Shabbat 72 - May 17, 23 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 72

Today's shiur is dedicated for a refuah shleima to Leah Naomi bat Rachel by Deborah Dickson. We are pleased to be part of International Women's Talmud Day that is taking place today with Talmud learning events throughout the day. 

What is the law regarding the guilt offering for one who has relations with a designated maidservant numerous times - does one bring a separate guilt offering for each time if he was made aware of his sin in between each act? On what does it depend? If someone intends to perform a permitted act on Shabbat and ends up doing a forbidden act instead - like for example, one wanted to pick up something off the ground that was detached but instead lifted up and detached something from the ground, one is not obligated - this is called mitasek. What if one intended to cut something that was detached and in the end cut something that was attached (or according to Tosafot - one thought it was detached but it was attached)., Rava and Abaye disagree as to whether this person is obligated or not. Rava brings proof from a braita comparing Shabbat to other mitzvot and explaining that Shabbat is both more lenient and more stringent than other mitzvot. What is the "other mitzvot" referring to in these comparisons?


May 17, 2020
Shabbat 71 - May 16, 22 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 71

Today's shiur is dedicated in memory of Yosef ben Tzvi HaCohen z"l by Aviva and Benny Adler. 

Can one combine an act where one forgot it was Shabbat and another where one forgot melachot were forbidden, and bring one sacrifice for both? There are varying opinions. If one cannot combine them and one needs to bring separate sacrifices, does that mean one cannot combine a half shiur of each to obligated one in sacrifices? Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish disagree regarding one who ate two olive bulks of forbidden fats without realizing it was forbidden but with separate moments of realization of the sin - can one bring one sacrifice to cover both? There is a discussion regarding in what cases they disagree. 

May 15, 2020
Shabbat 70 - May 15, 21 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 70

Today's shiur is dedicated for a refuah shleima for Netanel Ilan ben Shayna Tzipora and by Judy Shapiro in honor of all her children. 

Why is there a difference between if one forgot it was Shabbat one brings one sacrifice and if one forgot melachot one brings a sacrifice for each? From where do we derive that one brings a separate sacrficie for each melacha that one performed? Shmuel brings a source and the gemara assesses why he did not bring one of the two sources offered by the tannaim Rabbi Natan and Rabbi Yosi. Rabbi Natan and Rabbi Yosi debate why the verse regarding fire was singled out - was it to create a paradigm for all the melachot or was it singled out because it is different (less stringent than all the others)? What does Rabbi Yosi derive from the words "from one from these?" How many sacrifices does one bring if one forgot it was Shabbat and forgot that melachot were forbidden? If one did two melachot two times - once forgetting it was Shabbat and once forgetting melachot and finds out about one before the other, can one sacrifice cover all the actions? Different permutations are brought. 

May 15, 2020
Shabbat 69 - May 14, Iyar 20

Study Guide Shabbat 69

Today's shiur is dedicated for a refuah shleima for Netanel Ilan ben Shayna Tzipora.

What are the different approaches to one who sins unwittingly - what about the prohibition was forgotten? Munbaz holds that one knew it was forbidden and knew the punishment for doing it on purpose but didn't know that one is obligated to bring a sacrifice for performing it unwittingly. The rabbis disagree and rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish disagree about whether one was unwitting about the prohibition or about the punishment for the prohibition (karet). Abaye compares two other cases where one is also obligated if one did it unwittingly but there is no punishment of karet if it was performed intentionally. He says that all agree in those cases (swearing falsely and a non priest who ate truma). Who is all - the rabbis and Munbaz or Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish. Rava disagrees with Abaye in the case of truma. If one is in the desert and lost track of days, how does one keep Shabbat? 

May 14, 2020
Shabbat 68 - May 13, 19 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 68

Today's daf is sponsored by Natalie Taylor in memory of Rabbanit Rachel Taylor z"l whose 90th birthday would have been on Lag Baomer and for all her descendants to continue learning Torah. It is also sponsored by Ruti Amal for a refuah shleima for Rachel Permouth who is ungergoing a serious surgery today.

How many sin offerings is one obligated in the case where one forgot that there was a concept of Shabbat and did "work" on Shabbat over a course of many weeks/years? What if one forgot that today was Shabbat? What if one knew it was Shabbat but forgot that one cannot do melacha? The mishna details the laws in each case and calls it "a big rule." Why does it use that language? Where else is that language used? Rav anf Shmuel disagree with Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish regarding the case of a tinok shenishba (a young child taken captive by non Jews) or a convert who lived only among non Jews (or possibly converted among non Jews) and never knew abotu the concept of Shabbat. The gemara grapples with each opinion. Basic issues underly the discussion such as where is the border between shogeg (unwitting) and ones (entirely not responsible)? Why is knowledge so important? 

May 13, 2020
Shabbat 67 - May 12, 18 Iyar, Lag Baomer

Today's shiur is dedicated for a refuah shleima for Ilana Leah bat Esther and David Binyamin ben Duba Feiga by Candace Plotsker-Herman.

The gemara continues to list incantations for various diseases or to protect from evil spirits. The mishna deals with carrying out objects that are used as segulot for protection. Rabbi Meir allows them and the rabbis forbid using them even on a weekday, as they are methods used by the Emorim, non Jews whose ways we are forbidden to follow. Abaye and Rava says that if they are used for medicinal purposes one is allowed to follow ways of non Jews. There is a debate whether or not some of these things are actually idol worship. Can we use any incantations or other methods mentioned in the gemara nowadays? Where does one draw the line between incantations and prayer? 

May 12, 2020
Shabbat 66 - May 11, 17 Iyar

Today's shiur is dedicated for a refuah shleima for Netanel Ilan ben Shayna Tzipora who is undergoing surgery today.

Can one go out on Shabbat with a prosthetic leg. The mishna discusses a number of different types of things that one who doesn't have a leg might be using and can they go out with it on Shabbat, are they susceptible to impurity of midras (an item one sits/leans on), are they consdiered a shoe as regards various laws that relate to shoes (forbidden to wear them in the azara of the temple, chalitza needs to be performed with a shoe). If a prosthetic leg has a concave space to put pads, would it be susceptible to impurity because it has a receptacle? Rava and Abaye disagree regarding whether this is referring to regular impurity or impurity of midras. Each brings support for his opinion. Male children (and others) can go out with knots. Apparently they were used for sick people or even to prevent people from getting sick. The gemara explains that the mishna spoke about boys because it was known to help boys who had issues separating from their father (there are different explanations as to what this means). The gemara discusses other things that are allowed for medicinal purposes as well as commonly used segulot.

May 11, 2020
Shabbat 65 - May 10, Iyar 16

Today’s daf and this week’s learning is sponsored in memory of Betty Minsk, Batsheva Rut bat Shalom and Faige z”l, by her daughter, Elisa Hartstein.

Today's shiur is sponsored in memory of Rhonda Mlodinoff by Becca Nagorsky. And in honor of Mother's Day, in honor of Debbie Pine - Happy Mother's Day from your children. We are so proud of your dedication to Torah and Am Yisrael. Love, Sarah, Danielle & Zachary Orenshein. And by Karolyn Benger in honor of all the mothers who are learning and teaching.

Are things that are forbidden for concern about marit ayin, because of what others may see and misunderstand, also forbidden in private spaces? The gemara explains more in details about allowing to go out with cotton in ones ears, one's shoe and to protect from menstrual blood. Does it need to be tied to the body? Some rabbis did not and what was the reaction of others? Shmuel's father forbade his daughters a number of things - one of them permitted by the mishna. Why? The gemara suggests that another one was possibly connected to his approach to two females rubbing against each other in a sexual manner - however this is rejected. The gemara deals with a contradiction in the mishna regarding prerifa, fastening a cloak using a rock, coin or nut.   

May 10, 2020
Shabbat 64 - May 9, 15 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 64

The gemara discusses different items that are susceptible to impurity even if they don't have a minimum size. With what items are women allowed to go out on Shabbat? Certain items that are forbidden to go out with in public are permitted in a courtyard and others are forbidden - although there is a debate regarding this. Why do women go out with jewelry even when it is clear that the rabbis forbade it? 

May 08, 2020
Shabbat 63 - May 8, 14 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 63

Today's shiur is sponsored in memory of Edwin Gilberg, Issur Ben Menachem Mendel v’Shenka Sarah z"l by Judy and David Gilberg and Yosef Flesh ben Miriam and Yitzchak z"l by Nava Flesh.

Men are not allowed to go out on Shabbat wearing certain items and if they do, it is forbidden by Torah law. Which items? Are weapons considered like jewelry and are permitted or not? Ifin the times of the messiah there will no longer be weapons, does this prove the weapons are not considered like jewelry as they are only worn when needed? The gemara brings various drashot regarding Torah scholars who learn in the "right" way will be rewarded. Other statements are brought - what is the best way to give charity, why is someone who has a bad dog in one's house considered to be preventing chesed, and what is the verse in Kohelet "one should be happy in one's youth..." referring to? What is a "birit" mentioned in the mishna. How is it different from "kevalim"? From where do we derive that an item that is woven is suscpetible to impurities at a very small size? And the same for jewelry.


May 08, 2020
Shabbat 62 - May 7, 13 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 62

The mishna mentions items that are forbidden by Torah law for a woman to carry in the public domain. Ulla explans that laws of what can and cannot be carried are opposite for men and women. The gemara brings two different explanations for his opinions. If a woman can't wear a signet ring, why is it forbidden by Torah law if she is wearing it and not carrying it in a normal manner, which would make it only rabbinic. There is a debate regarding weearing a satchel of herbs and a flask of balsam oil. The gemara brings verses from Amos relating to balsam oil and from there to verses in Yeshayahu, both discussing sins of the people and of the women's inappropriate behavior. 

May 07, 2020
Shabbat 61 - May 6, 12 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 61

If one has an injured foot, one can go out on Shabbat with one shoe on. On which foot - the injured one or the other one? Are shoes meant to prevent pain or for pleasure? Which shoe should one put on first - right or left? Why can't one walk out in tefillin - is the mishna within the opinion that people can or cannot wear tefillin on Shabbat? The gemara brings different possibilities regarding how to determine whether or not an amulet has proven successful? Does an amulet have sanctity - does one need to remove it before going to the bathroom?

May 06, 2020
Shabbat 60 - May 5, 11 Iyar

Study Guide Shabbat 60

The gemara brings three resolutions to the contradiction between our mishna and the mishna in kelim  regarding a signet ring - is it considered jewelry. What items did the rabbis forbid a man to go out with wearing in public. Why did they forbid a hobnailed sandal? It seems to have been to remember a particular incident relating to fear of the Romans, likely during the Bar Kochva rebellion. The gemara discusses exactly which type of sandal is forbidden and under what conditions would it be permitted.

May 05, 2020
Shabbat 59 - May 4

Study Guide Shabbat 59

Why is a bell once the clapper is removed still susceptible to impurities - what can it be used for? Several answers are brought. Rabbi Yochanan says it can be used as a cup for a young child. But doesn't Rabbi Yochanan hold elsewhere that if a utensil can no longer be used for its original purpose, it is no longer susceptible to impurities? The gemara goes through the jewelry mentioned in the mishna and explains what they are, raises arguments regarding each case (if there are) and cases where women may be allowed to where jewelry according to some opinions. For example, prominent women are unlikely to remove jewelry so jewels that are only worn by prominent women may be allowed according to some.

May 04, 2020
Shabbat 58 - May 3

Study Guide Shabbat 58

The gemara questions Shmuel's explanation on the previous page that kavul in the mishna (that one cannot go out with on Shabbat) is a kavla of slaves. If so, Shmuel himself says elsewhere that a slave can go out on Shabbat with that. The gemara resolves the contradiction by distinguishing between one that the owner gave him and one that he made for himself. There is a difference between one worn around the neck and one one his clothing - why? In a different braita there is no distinction made between the neck and the clothing. How is this reconciled? The braita quoted mentioned also a bell worn by the slave and distinguished between a bell around his neck and one on his clothing. Why? Another contradictory source is brought regarding whether or not the bell is susceptible to impurity and to resolve it, they distinguish between a bell with a clapper and one without. If the clapper is removed, the braita says it is still susceptible to impurity - why?

May 03, 2020
Shabbat 57 - May 2

Study Guide Shabbat 57

Today’s shiur, as well as the whole month of Iyar, is dedicated in memory of Yehuda Aryeh Leib ben Yisachar Dov Barash, Ari Adler, z”l whose yahrzeit is today.

And two birthday dedications - Happy birthday to Deborah Kovsky from Yoni Apap and to Bill Abraham from his wife Malka Abraham who thanks you for all of your support in her Jewish learning.

With which items can a woman not go out with on Shabbat into the public domain? Accoridng to Troah law she can walk out with clothing or ornaments but the rabbis forbade items where there was a concern they would fall off or the women would remove them to show thier friends. The mishna lists items that cannot be worn for the reaosn mentioned above and also some that would be considered a barrier for the mikveh in which case she would take them off to dip and may then come to carry them. Which materials of strings are problematic if worn in the women's hair? Which are permissible? On what does it depend?

May 01, 2020
Shabbat 56 - May 1

Today's shiur is sponsored in Rabbi Fredda Cohen for her courageous and compassionate work as a Chaplain and director of Pastoral Care at White Plains Hospital in Westchester, New York, during this pandemic by Rabbi Julie Danan. 

Today's daf continues to mention others who are mentioned in the Torah as having sinned and Rabbi Yonatan says that they didn't really sin according to what it says in the verse, however they did something wrong on account of which the sin is attrubuted to them. People mentioned are the sons of Shmuel, David, Solomon and Yoshiayahu (Josiah). 

May 01, 2020
Shabbat 55

The gemara explains the importance of trying to prevent others from sinning, even if you know they won't listen to you. We have a communal responsibility to others - both leaders and individuals are responsible for others. Rav Ami says that people only die or are punished for their own sins, not the sins of others. The gemara brings several braitot that seem to contradict. Rav Shmuel bar Nachmani saya in the name of Rabbi Yonatan that Reuven did not actually sleep with Bilhah - if so, why does it say he did? The sons of Ely didn't really sleep with other women - if so, why does it say they did? 

Apr 30, 2020
Shabbat 54 - Yom Haazmaut - April 29

The mishna and gemara deal with items that animals are not allowed to go out with in public on Shabbat. Different items are forbidden for different reasons. The gemara explains the reality of each of the cases mentioned in the mishna. The mishna says that the cow of Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria would go out with a strap between its horns and the rabbis were not pleased. The gemara explains that this wasn't his cow but his neighbor's cow and it was considered his since he could have rebuked her, but didn't. The gemara begins to discuss the importance of rebuking others and the issue of communal responsibility. 

Apr 29, 2020
Shabbat 53 - April 28

Study Guide Shabbat 53

In honor of Yom Hazikaron, we will dedicate our learning to all those who have given their lives to the State of Israel. Today's shiur is also dedicated by Cliff and Minna Felig in memory of their aunt Laura Tretin z”l who recently passed away.

Can an animal walk out with an item that is used to help the animal to prevent discomfort such as a saddlecloth to warm a donkey? This is only allowed if the animal is wearing it from before Shabbat. If the animal is staying in a private domain, can one even place thesaddlecloth on Shabbat? Is a basket meant for food allowed? Or a saddle? How do each of these cases differ? Can animals walk around in the public thoroughfare on Shabbat with amulets? How are amulet's different for humans and for animals? Can  a she-goat go out with bound udders? Some stories are brought regarding a man whose breasts filled up with milk and a woman without a hand whose husband was unaware of it until her death. What is the meaning of "levuvim" in the mishna that is permitted for males to go out wearing? Three explanations are brought. 

Apr 28, 2020
Shabbat 52 - April 27

Are animals allowed to carry items that are used for decorative purposes? The mishna discusses the purification of the implements worn on the animal but are they susceptible to impurities? Aren't only items used by humans susceptible to impurities? How can these items be purified by the animal while wearing it around one's neck? Isn't the animal considered a barrier for the water since the water can't fully surround the item? Rabbi Eliezer tells a student that all rings and all needles are the same when it comes to laws of impurity. The gemara questions this by bringing various sources that indicate otherwise. 

Apr 27, 2020
Shabbat 51

Study Guide Shabbat 51

Today’s shiur is dedicated by the Raye and Cohen families in memory of Elisabeth Maybaum,  Elisheva bat Yehuda z”l and by Fredda Cohen in honor of Dr. Gary Zeitlin, infectious disease doctor at White Plains Hospital, who has saved many lives over the past few months, and whose spirit has been lifted by the study of Talmud and this podcast.

What situations are allowed regarding insulation on Shabbat? Can one uncover and recover and insulated pot on Shabbat? Can one insulate cold items? Can one swap an insulated item with a different material even if it may keep in the heat better? Can one insulate something that was moved out of the utensil it was cooking in (a kli sheni)? Do leaders need to hold themselves to a higher standard to set an example for others? In what way can one melt ice or snow on Shabbat to use? In what way is it forbidden? The fifth chapter discusses items that an animal is or is not allowed to carry from one domain to another. Why is it an issue for animals to carry and what criteria are used in determining whether or not this is permitted?

Apr 26, 2020
Shabbat 50

The month of Iyar is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in memory of their fathers Yosef ben Zvi HaKohen, Dr. Joseph Kahane and Yehuda Aryeh Leib ben Yisachar Dov Barash, Ari Adler zichronam l'vracha.

Today's daf is sponsored by Susan Handelman in loving memory of her mother Miriam bat Shmuel HaCohen. A friend wrote when she was niftar: "You were blessed to have  a mother whose love you always felt , and about whom him you can can truly say 'Immi Morati' ["my Mother, my Teacher"]. She was indeed  my best teacher, and epitomized the verse, "She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the Torah of kindness is on her tongue." And by David & Judy Gilberg in memory of Judy's mother, Elsie Cohn - Eshka Bat Aryeh Leib v’Chaya Zissel z"l, by Francine Shraga in memory of her father Dov Ber ben Yosef HaCohen z"l and by Ilene Strauss in memory of Leah bat Yaakov v'Yittel z"l.

Muktze is dependent on intent of the owner of the item. Is one's intent viewed as stronger if showed by actions or if one had intent in one's mind? If actions, what type of action is needed? The gemara brings several opinions. What if no action would be revelant for a given item? The gemara gets off on a tangent regarding the prohibition of smoothing something on Shabbat during the process of washing or also causing hair to fall out by washing with certain substances. The gemara explains the debate at the end of mishna regarding removing items that were insulated in a basket - how can one do it if it is insulated in soemthing muktze? Some other issues relating to muktze are discussed. 

Apr 24, 2020
Shabbat 49

Study Guide Shabbat 49

Today's shiur is sponsored in memory of Shlomo Chaim Asher ben Luna Sol z"l by Yael Asher. 

Items that can be used to insulating foods when dry but not moist - do we mean moist from something external or from within the item? Which items can be used for insulation? Due to a mention of dove's wings, the gemara tells the story of Elisha ba'al knafayim (wings) who wore tefillin even though the Roman decreed against wearing them and he was saved via a miracle having to do with dove's wings. From him we learn that tefillin require a "clean body." The mishna describes items that one can use for insulating and discusses if they can be moved or are they muktze? If they can't be moved, hwo can one remove the food? Hides of animals are permitted to be moved - but do they mean a regular person or even a tanner who uses them for business purposes? From where do we derive that there are 39 forbidden melachot on Shabbat? Two answers are brought. Rava teaches about wool that was used for insulating that it is not muktze. A student on his first day in the yeshiva questions Rava from the mishna and Rava corrects his teaching. 

Apr 24, 2020
Shabbat 48

Study Guide Shabbat 48

Today's daf is dedicated in honor of a number of birthdays. In honor of Akiva Blander's birthday by his parents, Peri Rosenfeld and Stuart Blander. He lights up our lives with his wry humor and his ongoing support of our learning the daf. In honor of Rivka Greenstone’s birthday from her parents David and Shira. And in honor of my son, Moshe’s birthday. 

Two events happened in the house of the Exilarch in which Raba was critical of the behavior of a servant - one regarding hatmana/warming water on Shabbat and one regarding covering a barrel with a kerchief. If one uses pieces of wool generally used for making clothing, but one time it was used for hatmana, would the wool be allowed to be carried on a different Shabbat as it was at some point useful on Shabbat? Can one refill the wool stuffing of a pillow if it falls out on Shabbat? Can one put the stuffing in to make the pillow? What about cutting out the part for the neck of clothing or untying the neck that was sewn together by the launderer? The gemara then talks about uncovering a sealed barrel - is that the same as cutting out the part for the neck in a new shirt? The gemara then discusses different issues regarding items that are temporarily connected - are they considered connecting for purity/impurity issues? On what does it depend? 

Apr 23, 2020
Shabbat 47

Study Guide Shabbat 47

Today's daf is sponsored by Elana Storch in appreciation of Hadran. Thank you for giving us the chizuk and continuing to inspire us, the women of Hadran daily with a love of learning.

Rebbi allowed carrying a coal pan with ashes. Why? Isn't it a utensil that is used for something forbidden? Three answers are brought - two of which are rejected. Is muktze subjective? Can something be muktze for someone and permitted for someone else? Can one put together a collapsible weaving loom or other collapsible item? There seem to be different opinions about this. On what might it depend? One can put something under the lamp to catch sparks - why? However one can't fill it with water as that will extinguish the sparks. Is that true only if one holds like Rabbi Yosi who thinks that indirect extinguishing is forbidden? Rav Ashi thinks that this is actually considered directly extinguishing. What materials can one not use for wrapping food - hatmana - even before Shabbat?

Apr 22, 2020
Shabbat 47

Study Guide Shabbat 47

Today's daf is sponsored by Elana Storch in appreciation of Hadran. Thank you for giving us the chizuk and continuing to inspire us, the women of Hadran daily with a love of learning.

Rebbi allowed carrying a coal pan with ashes. Why? Isn't it a utensil that is used for something forbidden? Three answers are brought - two of which are rejected. Is muktze subjective? Can something be muktze for someone and permitted for someone else? Can one put together a collapsible weaving loom or other collapsible item? There seem to be different opinions about this. On what might it depend? One can put something under the lamp to catch sparks - why? However one can't fill it with water as that will extinguish the sparks. Is that true only if one holds like Rabbi Yosi who thinks that indirect extinguishing is forbidden? Rav Ashi thinks that this is actually considered directly extinguishing. What materials can one not use for wrapping food - hatmana - even before Shabbat?

Apr 22, 2020
Shabbat 46

Study Guide Shabbat 46

This week’s shiurim are sponsored by Eva Schwartz in memory of her mother Hilde Schwartz z"l who still is a daily inspiration to her family.

Today’s shiur is sponsored by Carolyn Ben-Ari in memory of her father Ivor Rhodes, Yisrael ben Meir and Sarah z"l on his tenth yarzheit. And by Yael Asher in memory of Miriam Pesia Flesh bat Malka z”l. And as today is Yom HaShoah, in memory of all those who perished in the Holocaust.

Rav Yosef originally thought that Rabbi Yochanan held like Rabbi Shimon. Abaye questions this based on a story with Rabbi Yochanan's student who didn't move a candelabra. Rav Yosef explains that a candelabra is different and that case wasn't reflective of Rabbi Yochanan's position regarding the Rabbi Yehuda/Rabbi Shimon debate on muktze. Rebbi gave a ruling about a candelabra, however it was unclear what he ruled - to be lenient or stringent? There were different opinions among amoraim regarding wether to hold like Rabbi Shimon or Rabbi Yehuda regarding moving a lamp after it burned out. Would Rabbi Shimon hold in a case of a lamp with naphtha since it has a terrible odor that it would also be forbidden after it burned out? Several contradictions are brought regarding Rabbi Shimon's opinion - a firstborn animal that became blemished on Yom Tov that cannot be slaughtered because one did not assume it would become blemished. Why is that case different? Rabbi Shimon forbade moving a lamp while lit, presumably because it would extinguish, however, Rabbi Shimon himself would not think that was an issue as it was a davar sheino mitkaven - one did not intend to extinguish it. This is resolved by saying that the reason Rabbi Shimon forbids is because it serves as a base for a forbidden item. 

Apr 21, 2020
Shabbat 45

Study Guide Shabbat 45

Today's shiur is dedicated by Di Gittel Kuchar on her father, Michael Neuhauser, Moshe ben Avraham and Rivka z"l's first yahrzeit. He had a love of learning which his family continues. And for the birth of a grandson on Israel who was given his name at the brit on Friday. 

The gemara concluded that Rav held like Rabbi Yehuda regarding muktze. After bringing a proof for this, the gemara questions this assumption from a different source. But it is resolved. There are various discussions and opinions regarding cases where even Rabbi Shimon would hold there is a law of muktze. Is it only in a candle while it is lit - mutzke because it is designated for a mitzvah? Or only figs and dates that are clearly set aside not to be eaten? Animals in the wild? There is also a debate regarding whether Rabbis like Rebbi and Rabbi Yochanan held like Rabbi Shimon or not? 

Apr 20, 2020
Shabbat 44

Study Guide Shabbat 44

The mishna and gemara delve into the different types of muktze and different tannaitic opinions about what is considered muktze and what isn't. According to Rabbi Yehuda, something that is disgusting like an earthenware vessel that was used for lighting a candle. According to Rabbi Meir, if something is designated not for use at twilight Friday afternoon (bein hashmashot), then it can't be used all Shabbat, like candles lit for Shabbat. Rabbi Shimon only forbids moving candles that are lit, lest one may extinguish them. Accroding to the gemara Rabbi Shimon also forbids it while it is lit because he holds that while it is designated for a forbidden use, it is muktze however not for all of Shabbat - just for the time it was designated. How is a metal candelabra different from eathenware? Rav brings a halacha regarding a bed with money on it. A mishna is brought to contradict and the gemara resolves it by saying the mishna holds by Rabbi Shimon and Rav holds by Rabbi Yehuda on muktze issues. 

Apr 19, 2020
Shabbat 43

Study Guide Shabbat 43

Today's shiur is dedicated in memory of the yahrzeit of Devorah Waiman of London, who was a huge fan and supporter of women's participation in Jewishe life and would have really enjoyed participating in the daf learning, from her granddaughter Sarah Waiman. 

The gemara brings two different undertandings (Raba and Rav Yosef) of Rav Chisda's opinion regarding in which situations one can protect an egg from breaking on Shabbat. The answers reflect two different approaches to the mishna - why is it forbidden for one to place a utensil under the candle in order to catch oil that is dripping. Is it because one cannot move a utensil for the purposes of something that cannot be moved on Shabbat or is it because one cannot render a utensil unable to be used on Shabbat. Abaye raises questions from tannaitic sources against each position and they are all answered. Rabbi Yitzchak brings a different approach to Rav Chisda forbidding all cases of protecting eggs unless one moved the utensil for a permitted purpose initially. The reasoning follows Raba's position. The gemara raises questions on Rabbi Yitzchak also from tannaitic sources and resolves them. How can one move a dead body to protect it from rotting in the sun? 

Apr 17, 2020
Shabbat 42

Study Guide Shabbat 42

Today's shiur is dedicated in memory of Natan Zvi ben Moshe Yehuda Leib Zeiger z|l by his daughter Dr. Robin Zeiger and his son-in-law Prof. Jonathan ben Ezra.

How can we say that Shmuel holds like Rabbi Shimon who permits performing a melacha in a case where one had no intention to do the melacha if in another case, he doesn't hold like Rabbi Shimon - if there is burning metal on the street one can extinguish it but not if it is a burning wood coal. The gemara answers that it is not the same category. The issue with the coals is what we call a melacha sheaina tzricha legufa - it is not done for the purpose that it was donein the tabernacle. Shmuel held like Rabbi Yehuda in that debate and like Rabbi Shimon in the other debate. There is an argument between Beit Hillel and Beit Shamai and Rabbi Shimon ben Menasia regarding whether one can put hot water into cold or cold water into hot. Does it depend on what type of utensil - cup or bathtub? What about a basin?On what issue does Rabbi Shimon ben Mensai disagree with them or is he actually disagreeing about their debate? Spices cannot be put in a kli rishon - a utensil that was on the fire but can be put in a kli sheni. Is sal;t the same as spices or do they cook in less time? In more time? Laws of muktze are discussed - can one put a utensil under the oil that one set up for candles - in order to catch the oil that spills? Is it allowed if it was set up before Shabbat? In what way is one allowed to protect eggs that hatch on Shabbat (which are muktze) from being stepped on by people? The gemara distinguishes between common cases (one is allowed to) and less common cases (one is not permitted). The gemara questions that premise. 

Apr 17, 2020
Shabbat 41

Study Guide Shabbat 41

Today's shiur is sponsored in honor of Chana Rivka Bracha's birthday by her mother, Malka Abraham.

The gemara brings two stories of Rabbi Zeira where he was with other rabbis while they were bathing and learned or tried to learn halachot from what he observed. The mishna describes different types of hot water boilers and can they be used on Shabbat. The mishna describes a case of a hot water boiler where one added cold water to it after it was removed from the fire or emptied. It is a subject of debate which case the mishna was referring to - removed from the fire or emptied? Does the mishna follow Rabbi Yehuda or Rabbi Shimon regarding one who does an act of Shabbat by which a melacha is performed - however one had no intention to perform that melacha.

Apr 16, 2020
Shabbat 40

Study Guide Shabbat 40

**This is the daf for Wednesday, Seventh day of Pesach.

Rav and Shmuel debate what type of washing can be done on Shabbat with water that was heated up before Shabbat? Raba has a different, more lenient version of Rav. Rav Yosef watned to know if he actually held that way. A few braitot are brought which deal with issues in the bathhouse with water heated up before Shabbat and also explain the stages of the ordinance instituted forbidden bathing and steaming with water heated up before Shabbat and Yom Tov. Can oil be warmed? Is there an issue of cooking oil? Is warming it to take out the chill the same as cooking it? Various opinions are brought. How are laws regarding bathing in hot springs different from water heated before Shabbat? 

Apr 14, 2020
Shabbat 39

Study Guide Shabbat 39

Today's shiur is dedicated in memory of Rabbi Gershon Schwartz, Harav Gershon ben Shmuel V'Sarah z"l on his 17th yahrzeit by Moshe Schwartz and by Rabbi Seth Phillips in honor of the Daf Yomi learners of Allentown, PA.

It is forbidden according to everyone to cook with something heated up by a fire (toldot ha'or) but there is a debate between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yosi regarding cooking with an item heated up by the sun. What is allowed to be placed in hot water on Shabbat and on what is one allowed to pour water that was heated up? Is the pouring referring to a kli rishon or a kli sheni? If Rabbi Yosi permits items cooked by the heat of the sun, why does he agree with the rabbis that one cannot place an egg in the sand to cook? Why is the story of the people of Tiberias brought? Is it telling us the Rabbi Yosi agrees with the rabbis in that case also or does Rabbi Yosi side with the people of Tiberias, against the rabbis. Are the hot springs of Tiberias considered toldot ha'or (fire) or toldot hachama (sun)? When the rabbis said that the water that was heated through the acqueduct in Tiberias was forbidden to use for washing, what washing was he referring to? The whole body or one's face, hands and feet? Each interpretation is difficult and the gemara suggests that the mishna is not referring to washing but to pouring water on oneself and holds like the most lenient of the opinions on the topic - Rabbi Shimon. Rabba bar bar Chana holds that Rabbi Yochanan held like the middle opinion - Rabbi Yehuda. Did he infer that from something that Rabbi Yochanan said or did he hear it stated explicitly? Why does it matter?

Apr 14, 2020
Shabbat 38

Study Guide Shabbat 38

This week's shiurim are dedicated by Caroline Ben-Ari in appreciation of the Hadran community of Rabbanit Farber in particular and for a refuah shleima for all who need it.

If one forgot and left the pot on an open fire from before Shabbat, can one eat the food on Shabbat? Is there a difference if it was done on purpose or by accident? A braita is brought with opinions of Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda and they seem to be different than what was brought in the previous daf regarding the difference between foods that improve if left on the fire and foods that don't improve. Which foods are in the category of "if they stay on the flame longer and shrivel, it is good for them"?  The gemara discusses returning food on Shabbat - it is unclear whether they are referring to food that was taken off the fire before Shabbat and one wants to return it on Shabbat or to return Shabbat morning? Under what conditions can one return items to the fire on Shabbat? There are a number of debates regarding requirements - does it still need to be in one's hands and can't be put on the ground?Does one need to have intent to return it? Does one need both? Until now, we have been discussing a type of oven/burner called a kira. What about an oven (wide at the bottom, narrow at the top) or a kupach. What is a kupach? How does it differ from a kira? Can one place items near an oven just not on top of it or inside it? Can one cook using something that was heated by the sun or by a fire? 



Apr 13, 2020
Shabbat 37

Study Guide Shabbat 37

This week's shiurim are sponsored by Talia Kaplan Rubin in honor of her husband, Benjamin Rubin, who has been learning the daf. She's very proud of you - keep up the good work! Today's shiur is sponsored by Tracee Rosen in honor of all her friends and colleagues who are studying daf yomi this cycle and by Betsy Mehlman for a refuah shleima for Sarah Sally bat Carrie, mother of Shoshana Nissan.

The gemara tries to find an asnswer to the question - is the beginning of our mishna talking about leaving an item on the flame from before Shabbat or retunring something to the fire on Shabbat? Does the mishna ohld like Chananiya or not? Is one allowed to put a pot next to the fire to warm up even the coals are not swpet to the side or covered up with ashes? The gemara brings the opinion of Rabbi Oshaya and three versions of Rabbi Yochanan regarding the issue of putting something on the fire before Shabbat - do the ashes need to be swept to the side or covered? Does it matter if the food is fully cooked or is it sufficient if it is partially cooked (maachal ben drosai)? Does it matter if the food will be imporved with more cooking or is it only allowed if it will get worse if one cooks it too long? The gemara then brings different opinions that were practiced in different places. 

Apr 12, 2020
Shabbat 36

Study Guide Shabbat 36

Today's shiur is dedicated by Naomi Ferziger and Minna Felig in memory of their Aunt Helene Aylon z"l who passed away on Monday. A matriarch of female Jewish artists, Aunt Helene would have been thrilled to be a part of Hadran and probably would have thoroughly enjoyed learning the daf each day with us. 

How can one reconcile various sources regarding whether or not a shofar or a trumpet is muktze? The terms shofar and trumpet changed after the destruction of the temple as did various other words. What are the halachic mplications of each name change? The third chapter discusses alws of cooking. Upon what type of flame can one leave food before Shabbat and return food on Shabbat? Does it depend on what type of food and how cooked it was before Shabbat? Is the mishna referring to placing before Shabbat or only to returning food to the flame on Shabbat.

Apr 10, 2020
Shabbat 33

Study Guide Shabbat 33

Today's daf is sponsored in memory of Shoshana Chaya bat Shlomo and Mazal z"l by her daughter Nava Flesh and by Rabbi Fredda Cohen and Eric Nussbaum in honor of the sstaff of White Plains Hospital. To the most dedicated and wonderful colleagues. 

The gemara mentions all sorts of sins that cause particular punishments. Despite these connections, the gemara in the end seems to qualify this by saying that sometimes these diseases can happen for natural causes and not because of sins. Regarding a discussion about askara , the gemara gets off on a tangent and brings in the story of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai and his son who end up hiding in a cave for thirteen years from the Romans because of something Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai said against the Romans which was leaked to them by Yehuda son of converts who was careless and recounted the comment to others.

Apr 08, 2020
Shabbat 32

Study Guide Shabbat 32

Today’s shiur is dedicated by Mona and David Schwartz and family in memory of Mary Horowitz, Miriam Etel bat Aharon Halevi z”l, on her 26th yahrzeit.

The mishna cites are three reasons why women die in childbirth - for not being careful about nidda, challa and lighting Shabbat candles. Why specifically these three? How can one relate to this troubling source? The gemara focuses on the vulnerability of women at the time of childbirth and stresses that when people are vulnerable that is when they are most likely to be punished. Adages are brought to prove that. When is the parallel time for men - when are they most vulnerable? The rabbis also offer opinions about what sins cause one's children to die young. Is it vows, not learning Torah, mezuza, tzitzit? The rabbis used these difficult, unfortunately common, phenomenon (women dying in cihldbirth and children dying young) as an oppportunity to encourage people to be careful about keeping mitzvot. 

Apr 07, 2020
Shabbat 35 - ** Daf for second day of Pesach

Study Guide Shabbat 35

Today's shiur is dedicated by Aliza Avshalom in loving memory of her mother, Sara Bellehsen z"l, who lived and loved Torah and for a refuah shleima for all those worldwide who need it. This week's shiurim are dedicated in celebration of the birthday of Rabbi Fredda Cohen with love from her family.

The opinions of Rabba and Rav Yosef regarding bein hashmashhot are flipped regarding the size of a basket that is considered mukze on Shabbat and cannot be carried. Rabba has the larger size for bein hashmashot and the smaller one for the basket. The rabbis provide methods by which one could determine when exactly bein hashmashot starts and ends. They also mention where to go if one wants to see the well of Miriam that provided water for the Jews when they were in the dessert. Since rabbi Yehuda says bein hashmashot begins when the east side begins to redden - does one look for that in the East or in the West? They would blow 6 shofar blasts before Shabbat - first one for the workers in the fields, then for the workers in the city then for lighting candles or to remind people to remove their tefillin and then 3 blasts together to signal the beginning of Shabbat. A more detailed description is brought also from another braita.

Apr 06, 2020
Shabbat 31

Hillel was known to be incredibly patient and answered silly questions on Erev Shabbat from someone who was just trying to get him angry. A number of people came to convert before Shamai and Hillel and had preconditions, like only wanting to accept the written Torah or wanted to convert to become the high priest. Shamai was impatient with them and kicked them out but Hillel accepted them and ultimately through learning, they came to accept all of Judaism. One came and asked to know all the Torah while standing on one leg - Shamai kicked him out but Hillel told him "What is hated by you, do not do to your friend. And the rest is all commentary." Fear of God is the most important thing and one who learns without having it is considered missing something very basic - like getting keys to an inner room without getting the keys to the main room that leads to that inner room. Various verses are brought showing the importance of fearing God. How do all these stories/statements connect to the topic of Shabbat and the mishna that we are learning regarding situations when one can or cannot extinguish a candle of Shabbat? The opinion of Rabbi Yossi in the mishna that one can extinguish for all the reasons other than one who wants to save the wick, is it according to Rabbi Shimon or Rabbi Yehuda regarding melacha sheina tzricha legufa? Two approaches are brought - one explaining it according to Rabbi Yehuda and one according to Rabbi Shimon.

Apr 06, 2020
Shabbat 34 - Daf for the First Day of Pesach

דף נלווה שבת לד

The mishna recommends that a husband should ask his wife before Shabbat starts if she tithed the produce and set up an eiruv and if so, she should light the candles. What things cannot be done once the time of twilight (bein hashmashot) has arrived? What things can still be done during this time period? The gemara resolves a potential contradiction in the mishna regarding eiruv. What is hatmana? What type is forbidden even before Shabbat and what type is permitted even during twilight. Why? Twilight is considered a time that is maybe day, maybe night or maybe both. What is the tannatic debate regarding when exactly is twilight? What is the relevance for this time of doubt regarding impurity of a zav? Raba and Rav Yosef have a disagreement about how to understand the time of twilight according to Rabbi Yehuda, as his words seem to include contradictory statements and each resolves it in a different way. This disagreement is consistent with their opinion regarding the length of time that twilight spans. 

Apr 05, 2020
Shabbat 30

Study Guide Shabbat 30

Are there certain circumstances in which we allow one to extinguish a candle on Shabbat? In what circumstances and why? The gemara brings a long drasha that begins with contradictions between statements of Shlomo's in Kohelet and statements of David in Tehillim regarding the importance of dead people as compared to live people. This was brought as an intro to answer the question of whether one can extinguish a candle for a sick person on Shabbat. The gemara brings other contradicitions in Kohelet and Mishlei on account of which they wanted to suppress those books, however the gemara found ways to resolve the contradictions.

Apr 05, 2020
Shabbat 29

Study Guide Shabbat 29

Another explanation is brought for explaining Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Akiva's debate regarding the wicks made from a cloth and are not yet singed for purposes of impurities and another explanation is brought regarding their debate for lighting candles using it. The debate between Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yehuda regarding laws of nolad is discussed more in depth. Can one make a contraption with an eggshell or something else that allows extra oil to drip into the utensil where the candle is burning? Or does one have to be concerned that people may use the oil from there for other uses and will then be obligated for extinguishing? Can one make exceptions to the rule if people there are known to be careful or is that a tricky thing to start allowing some people and not others as it may lead to confusion.

Apr 03, 2020
Shabbat 28

Study Guide Shabbat 28

Today's shiur is dedicated in memory of Freidl bat Meir and Rivka z"l, Frieda Carlin, by Rikki and Alan Zibitt on her 4th yahrzeit, and by Rachel Sabbath beit Halachmi in honor of her husband Ofer her ezer imadi and forever chevruta. 

From where do we learn that from natural materials, only flax can create impurity of a tent over a dead body? It is learned out from the mishkan (Tabernacle). Does a tent/covering made from non kosher animals also create impurity of a tent? Is the tachash that Moshe used to make a covering for the mishkan a domesticated or not domesticated animal? Kosher or not kosher? If one takes a cloth and folds it into a wick but doesn't yet singe it, is it susceptible to impurities? Can one light with it for Shabbat? There is a debate between Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Akiva. The first explanation of each opinion is brought. 

Apr 03, 2020
Shabbat 27

Study Guide Shabbat 27

Today's shiur is dedicated by Chanah and Michael Piotrkowski in memory of Chanah's beloved father Avigdor Yosef ben Zvi Hirsh z"l and by Allison Ickovic for a refuah shleima for her little girl Zoe Arielle bat Rachel Yael.

From where does Rava derive that according to Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar all cloths that are 3x3 tefachim are susceptible to impurities? How does Abaye respond to this proof? There is a back and forth discussion between Rava and Abaye to match the berses according to each one's interpretation. Abaye brings a braita from the school of Rabbi Yishmael that contradicts the braita in the previous daf from the school of Rabbi Yishmael. One says that all materials other than linen are not susceptible to impurities at any size and the other one says that all materials are susceptible to impurities are 3x3 tefachim (handsbreaths). Three answers are brought (Rava, Rav Papa and Rav Nachman) to resolve this contradiction and for each one, the gemara raises questions. The mishna talks about all items that come from the tree itself - one cannot light with them and a covering made from something that comes from a tree would not create a tent for purposes of impurity of a dead body if it was used as a covering. The only expception to this rule is flax. Does flax come from a tree?

Apr 02, 2020
Shabbat 26

Study Guide Shabbat 26

Today's daf is sponsored by the Vega/Gordon Family in Philadelphia in honor of Hadran for helping them to be "kove'a itim" with the daily daf and by Judy Shapiro in honor of Hadran for making Torah learning so accessible and engaging, and by Ruti Amal for a refuah shleima to her grandmother Anna Smirnova. 

The gemara continues to discuss the nature of sap and oil of the balsam tree, regarding its flammability by bringing a story of a mother-in-law who used this to help kill her daughter-in-law whom she did not like. What can be learned from this seemingly strange story? One cannot light using untithed produce that became impure. From where is this derived? Another reason is given as to why one cannot light with sap from a balsam tree. Several other opinions are brought regarding oils that can or can't be used for lighting Shabbat candles. Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri is not pleased that others forbade so many types of oil as various types of oils were limited in certain areas and this made it difficult for people to find oil with which to light. A braita is brought regarding susceptibility to impurity of a cloth made from items that come from trees - are they susceptible to impurities? Does it matter which type of material the cloth is made from? What is the minimum size if they are susceptible?

Apr 01, 2020
Shabbat 25

Study Guide Shabbat 25

Today's daf is dedicated l'ilui nishmat Moshe ben Betzalel and Sprintze Pessel z"l by his daughter Rachel Levy and by Matt Nelson in honor of Liz Kershner's birthday. Happy birthday!

From where in the Torah do we learn that one can benefit from teruma that became impure while one is burning it? Three answers are brought. One is derived from ma'aser - one can't benefit from burning impure ma'aser but it is implied that in another case one would be allowed to. This case is attributed to teruma. However, the gemara questions - why teruma and not sanctified items? Why can't one light using tar? One is concerned since it smells bad, one won't eat by light of the candles - why is this a problem? Shabbat candles are an obligation so that there will be light in the house on Shabbat. Washing one's body before Shabbat is optional. A verse from Eicha is brought regarding a lamentation for the good things that they are missing when they went into exile. The beginning of the verse is explained as a reference to lighting Shabbat candles. For the end of the verse several explanations are brought regarding what is a sign of prosperity that they were missing and then the gemara brings a braita with four tannaitic opinions about "Who is considered wealthy?" An opinion is brought that one cannot light with sap from a balsam tree. Two reasons for this are brought. 

Mar 31, 2020
Shabbat 24

Today's shiur is sponsored by the Mitchell family of New York City in honor of the b'nai mitzvah of their twins, Aaron and Joshua, and by Rachel and Oren Seliger in memory of Reuven ben Yehuda and Devora z"l, Saba Reuven, who lived his life by Torah ve'avoda and was a founding member of Kibbutz Tirat Zvi. 

Does one mention of Chanuka in birkhat hamazon? If so, where and why there and not in the usual place for additions? Should one add mention of Rosh Chodesh in birkhat hamazon? It is the same as Chanuka or different - why? Does one mention Chanuka in mussaf on Shabbat? Does one mention Rosh Chodesh in the blessing for the haftorah if Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbat? The gemara suggests various comparisons. The mishna raises different opinions about what oils one can or cannot use on Shabbat. Oil of truma that became impure cannot be used on Yom Tov because one cannot burn sanctified items on Yom Tov. From where is this derived? Four different answers are brought.

Mar 30, 2020
Shabbat 23

Study Guide Shabbat 23

Today's shiur is dedicated by Heather Stone in memory of Debbie bat Shirley z"l, the best friend of her Aunt, Debbie Stone, who passed away before Shabbat from COVID19. 

The gemara concludes that the mitzva is the lighting of the Chanika candles and not placing them down. Women are obligated in the mitzva of the Chanuka candles as they too were part of the miracle. In what way? Best to use olive oil for lighting Chanuka candles, even though all other oils can also be used. Same with preparing ink. How many blessings does one make on Chanuka candles? Which ones? What about a person who sees Chanuka candles? Do they make blessings? Which ones? How can be say the blessing "who commanded us" if Chanuka is not a Torah obligation? What is the determining factor for which rabbinic commandments we make blessings and on which do we not? If one has two different entraceways for one's courtyard, does one need to light in both entrances? On what does it depend? Why are we concerned about what others will think - where is there precendent for that? It is learned from pe'ah - the mitzva of leaving the corner of one's field for the poor. How? What has precedence (if one can't afford all) Shabbat candles, Chanuka candles and woine for kiddush? The gemara relates good things that will happen to people who light Shabbat and Chanuka candles (and some other mitzvot). The gemara explains what is "sereifa" oil mentioned in the mishna gives two different explanations as to why it is forbidden.  

Mar 29, 2020
Shabbat 22

This week's shiurim are sponsored in memory of Zalman Leib ben Moshe and by Talia Kaplan in honor of her sister, Talia Kaplan for doing daf yomi - she's very proud of you and keep up the good work - and by Adam and Sharron Cohen for a refuah shleima for Daphna Chaya bat Sara. 

What is the maximum height one can put Chanuka candles? Can one count money using the light of Chanuka candles? Is this different from what Rav said regarding Chanuka candles - that one cannot use the light from them? Rav and Shmuel disagree regarding can one light from one Chanuka candle to another. Two reasons are given for Rav's opinion and in exactly which situations they disagree. Is it the lighting that is the mitzva or placing the candles down? 

Mar 27, 2020
Shabbat 21

Study Guide Shabbat 21

Today's shiur is dedicated by Tova Taragin in memory of her father,Rabbi Jerome Fishman, HaRav Yirmia ben Yaakov Yosef, z"l who taught his granddaughter, Esther Korman, gemara at a young age and would be thrilled that his daughter is now learning gemara, and by Sandra Rubin in honor of her aunt Alba Rubin's 81st birthday. Mazel tov!

What is the issue with the materials that can't be used for making wicks and the oils that can't be used for lighting Shabbat candles. The gemara continues to identify the meaning of the words in the mishna. Can one light with one of those oils if it were mixed with a small amount of oil that does light well? The oils that can't be used on Shabbat also can't be used in the Temple for lighting the menora. Can they be used for Chanuka? Does it matter if it is Shabbat or a weekday? Three different opinions are brought. What is the reasoning behind each opinion? The mitzva of lighting candles on Chanuka is from sunset until the last people leave the marketplace. What is the meaning of this statement and does it contradict one of the opinions mentioned just before? How many candles should one light? There are three options brought - regular mitzva, for those who want to beautify the mitzva (mehadrin) and for those who want to do even more (mehadrin min hamehadrin). Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel disagree regarding the last one. Two different explanations are brought for the reasoning behind this debate. Where does one put the Chanuka candles? What does one do if it is dangerous to put them outside? Why do we celebrate eight days of Chanuka? The mishna in Bava Kama says that if one's camel is carrying flax and it lights on fire from Chanuka candles that a storekeeper put outside and it burns down something else, the owner of the camel is responsible as he should have expected there would be candles there. Can one learn from here laws regarding the height of where Chanuka candles should be placed?

Mar 27, 2020
Shabbat 21

Study Guide Shabbat 21

Today's shiur is dedicated by Tova Taragin in memory of her father,Rabbi Jerome Fishman, HaRav Yirmia ben Yaakov Yosef, z"l who taught his granddaughter, Esther Korman, gemara at a young age and would be thrilled that his daughter is now learning gemara, and by Sandra Rubin in honor of her aunt Alba Rubin's 81st birthday. Mazel tov!

What is the issue with the materials that can't be used for making wicks and the oils that can't be used for lighting Shabbat candles. The gemara continues to identify the meaning of the words in the mishna. Can one light with one of those oils if it were mixed with a small amount of oil that does light well? The oils that can't be used on Shabbat also can't be used in the Temple for lighting the menora. Can they be used for Chanuka? Does it matter if it is Shabbat or a weekday? Three different opinions are brought. What is the reasoning behind each opinion? The mitzva of lighting candles on Chanuka is from sunset until the last people leave the marketplace. What is the meaning of this statement and does it contradict one of the opinions mentioned just before? How many candles should one light? There are three options brought - regular mitzva, for those who want to beautify the mitzva (mehadrin) and for those who want to do even more (mehadrin min hamehadrin). Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel disagree regarding the last one. Two different explanations are brought for the reasoning behind this debate. Where does one put the Chanuka candles? What does one do if it is dangerous to put them outside? Why do we celebrate eight days of Chanuka? The mishna in Bava Kama says that if one's camel is carrying flax and it lights on fire from Chanuka candles that a storekeeper put outside and it burns down something else, the owner of the camel is responsible as he should have expected there would be candles there. Can one learn from here laws regarding the height of where Chanuka candles should be placed?

Mar 27, 2020
Shabbat 20

Study Guide Shabbat 20

Today's shiur is sponsored by Susie Handelman (Shayna Sara bat Miriam) in honor of all the brave and wonderful medical personnel taking care of coronavirus patients in Israel and around the world. May the learning be in their merit, give them divine asistance and protection. May HaKadosh Baruch Hu strengthen their hands in healing and help the scientists find a cure - and by Onnie Schiffmiller for a refuah shleima of Tzvi ben Frieda. 

How much does an item need to be cooked in order to be able leave it on the fire before Shabbat? Like maachal ben drosai - what is that and where else does it appear in halacha? The gemara explain what part of the bread needs to be browned before Shabbat. Why is there a special dispensation for roasting the Pesach sacrifice and for the bonfire in the Beit Hamoked in the temple? How much does a regular bonfire need to be lit before Shabbat? The second chapter begins with a discussion of what cannot be used as wicks or oil for Shabbat candles since people need to use the light for seeing, it needs to be a good light. The gemara explains what each of  the items in the mishna are. 

Mar 26, 2020
Shabbat 19

Study Guide Shabbat 19

Today's daf is sponsored by Margie Zwiebel in memory of her father Yitzchak ben Yechiel Eliezer z"l and for a refuach shleima to Yaakov Yehuda ben Chana and Esther Roisa bat Sara Mindel by Debbie and Ben Zion Niderberg and for Elimelech ben Malka by his daughter, Jeanne Klempner and for Amalia Sigal bat Faigel Rut and Chaim by Rabbi Shosh Dworsky - wishing Amalie a full and speedy recovery and refuat hanefesh to her loving family.  

Does one have to sell one's chametz with enough time for the non Jew to eat it before Pesach? Can one send letters to be delivered for a  non Jew if he might deliver them on Shabbat? Does it make a different if a price was agreed upon in advance? Why? Can one travel in a boat within a few days before Shabbat? Can one besiege a city? One can learn how to not get taken advantage of by store owners from the rabbis - see how through a story told of Abaye. Why do Beit Shamai allow placing the beam in the olive and wine press before Shabbat, even though they don't allow anything else? Rav and Shmuel disagreed regarding whether certain items are muktze or not, based on an earlier debate between Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yehuda. There are also two different opinions regarding what one can do in case of a fire to save one's items from burning - can one only carry out items in one basket or can one carry out items in multiple baskets. 

Mar 25, 2020
Shabbat 18

Study Guide Shabbat 18

Today's shiur is dedicated by Leah Brick in memory of her father-in-law, Murray Brick, Mordechai ben Chaim Yosef Gershon z"l and by Jonathan, Kenny and Danny Sadinoff in memory of their father, Frank Sadinoff, Efraim Mordechai ben Menachem Mendel z"l and for a refuah sheleima to Pesach Yehoshua ben Tova Chaya. 

The gemara asks according to which approach regarding kneading does the mishna hold - by which one can be obligated for kneading by putting something in water that will thicken without actually kneading with one's hands or a utensil? The gemara bring various braitot with cases similar to our mishna - where an act is done before Shabbat that will continue through Shabbat - and tries to figure out if the source is authored by Beit Shamai or Beit Hillel. It is complicated as there seem to be many exceptions to the rule. Once the gemara explains the reasons for the exceptions, they bring relevant halachot that can be derived from the reasons given for the exceptions.

Mar 24, 2020
Shabbat 17

Today's shiur is dedicated for a refuah shleima for Eliezer Yehuda ben Chaya and Rivka Chaya bat Leah and by Elizabeth Kirshner in honor of the Hadran community and in honor of her inspiring and strong mother, Debbie Kirshner-Devries and for a refuah shleima for Avigayil bat Dina. A special mazel tov to David Schwartz who is celebrating his bar mitzva this morning (virtually) and this coming Shabbat.  

The gemara discusses more of the 18 ordinances. 1. Moveable items bring impurity if they are thickness of an ox goad. What exactly is this? There is a difference of opinion. 2. One who harvest grapes - the liquid that seeps out of them renders the grapes susceptible to impurities. Several explanations are brought to explain why they instituted this. 3. If teruma is replanted, what grows is also teruma. 4. If one was carrying a wallet and Shabbat started, one should give it to a non Jew rather than carry it in increments less than 4 cubits. 5. The bread, oil wine and daughters of non Jews are forbidden. If one adds the previous list - 10 relating to impurities mentioned in daf 13 and one who leaves water under a pipe/gutter and the Kutim are considered nidda from birth and one can't take lice off clothing or read by candlelight, the count becomes 19, not 18. How is this reconciled? (Others get to 19 from a different count. 10 from daf 13, 4 mentioned above, bread, oil, wine and daughers of non Jews are counted as 4, gentiles are all considered zavim, numbers 1-4 mentinoed above and water under the gutter). The mishna brings a debate between Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel regarding shvitat keilim. Can one start a melacha before Shabbat if the melacha will continue after Shabbat starts even if it is done on its own, without human intervention?

Mar 23, 2020
Shabbat 16

Study Guide Shabbat 16

Today's daf is sponsored in memory of the soldier, Yaakov Proyev ben Rachel Victoria z"l  by Yael Asher and by Valerie Adler in memory of her baby Simona Michaela chasya Bluma bat Zahava z"l.

The rabbis determined that glass utensils would be susceptible to impurities because of their similarity to earthenware vessels since they are made from sand. However, if that is the case, why are all the laws not the same? Is it because they are also similar to metal utensils that if broken, they can be melted down and welded back together? If so, why are certain laws of metal utensils not true for glass utensils? A story is brought regarding Shlomtzion the queen at her son's wedding when all the utensils became inpure due to impurity of a dead body and she broke them all and had them fixed but the rabbis forbade their use lest people come to forget laws of purification of vessels. Another of the 18 ordinances was that water collected in a utensils left by a gutter, even if unintentionally left there is considered water that is collected in a utensil that can disqualify a mikveh that doesn't yet have 40 seah of water. Rabbi Yossi doesn't think this is one of the ordinances and instead adds that even from birth, Kutim (Shomronim) are considered to be in nidda.

Mar 22, 2020
Shabbat 15

Study Guide Shabbat 15

What are the three cases in which Hillel and Shamai disagreed? Are there no other cases? Who exactly instituted the decree regarding the impurity of other countries? There are varying sources that attribute it to different time periods. How can all these sources be reconciled? Why did they institute that glass vessels can become impure.

Mar 21, 2020
Shabbat 14

Study Guide Shabbat 14

Which tannaitic opinion is reflected in the mishna in Zavim quoted by the gemara which listed that one who eats food that is a rishon/first degree or a sheni/second degree would disqualify teruma, but the teruma itself would not be able to pass on impurities (it would make the teruma a shlishi/third degree). Why does one who eats these impurites disqualify teruma? The gemara proceeds to go through the list of the other ordinances related to impurities and explain why the rabbis instituted each ordinance. The gemara then questions the fact that the students of Shamai and Hillel decreed that if one's hands touch food, it disqualifies teruma - wasn't this instituted by Shamai and Hillel themselves? After answering this question, the gemara then suggests that King Solomon decreed this - how can that be explained?

Mar 20, 2020
Shabbat 13

Study Guide Shabbat 13

Today's daf is sponsored by Karolyn Benger in memory of her father Bernhard Benger, Dov ben Tzvi z"l and by Rena Septee Goldstein and Mark Goldstein in memory of Moe Septee, Moshe Ben Elazar Shmuel z"l and by Irine Schweitzer in memory of her grandmother Hasya bat Rachel and by Sharona and Binyamin Aranoff in memory of their grandmother, Mollie Chideckell, Esther Malka bat Zeev Wolf z"l who inspired them with her dedication to Limud Torah. 

The gemara deals with the case of the chazan - what is permitted and what is forbidden for him to do? Why? The zav can't eat with a zava at the same table lest they come to sin. What can we learn from the fact that they didn't say a pure person can't eat with an impure person? Can a nidda sleep with her husband in the same bed each fully clothed? The gemara brings several sources to try to answer this question. Is being fully clothed enough of a distinction to remind them? What is required for one to assume that people will remember or remind each other - whether it relates to eating milk and meat together or a couple having sexual relations together when the wife is a nidda? A woman whose husband died young tries to figure out why. Eliyahu asks her details and discovers that during her seven clean days they were more leninent regarding certain things and that must be why he was punished. The mishna talks about the day the rabbis sat in the attic of Chananiya ben Chizkiya and there were more people from Beith Shamai than Beit Hillel and they determined halachot llike Beit Shamai and instituted 18 ordinances. The gemara tells us a few things about Chananya that he wrote Megilat Taanit and also resolved the contradictions in Yechezkel and saved the book from being "taken out." THe gemara starts to list some of the 19 ordinances, all relating to purity and impurity and items that can disqualify teruma. 


Mar 19, 2020
Shabbat 12

Today's shiur is dedicated by Gitta Neufeld in honor of the daf yomi learners of Long Island and as a zechut for all the sick people. 

The gemaara continues to resolve the contradiction between two sources relating to a zav going out into the public domain wearing a pouch tied on to him - one says it is forbidden by Torah law and one by rabbinic. Does it matter if he is wearing it to keep his clothes from getting dirty? The gemara concludes that whether or not it is forbidden by rabbinic or Torah law is dependent on the debate Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon regarding a melacha she'aina tzricha l'egufa. Can one walk out wearing one's tefillin close to Shabbat? Why is it forbidden to remove lice from clothing on Shabbat- is it because one may kill them or because one needs good light and may come to move the candle (and then it would only be forbidden at night). Can one visit sick people on Shabbat? Can one ask for one's needs in Aramaic? Can one pray for sick people in Aramaic? Why would it matter? Are there circumstances where one is allowed to read by candlelight on Shabbat? 

Mar 18, 2020
Shabbat 11

Study Guide Shabbat 11

Today's shiur is dedicated in memory of Sima bat Alter Avraham and Rachel z"l by her niece Debbie Schreiber. 

The gemara continues to bring a number of different statements made by Rava bar Mechasia in the name of Rav. The gemara then goes back to our mishna - does someone who learns Torah need to stop learning for prayer? For Shema? The mishna lists things that one can't do before Shabbat, like a tailor carrying his needles, lest he come to also do it after Shabbat. The gemara brings the mishna in Eruvin regarding domains and asks if it also relates to a karmelit - Abaye says yes and Rava says no - since a karmelit is already only rabbinic and the rabbis wouldn't make a rabbinic decree on a rabbinic decree. Several questions including one from our mishna are brought to question Rava. 

Mar 17, 2020
Shabbat 10

Today's shiur is dedicated in memory of Emanuel Plotker - Menachem Mendel ben Yechiel and Henya z"l by Candace Plotzker-Herman.

How should one dress for prayer? Does it depend on the situation? If one prays for a long time, is it a problem that it detracts from the time one should be learning? When is it considered that one started judgement and does not need to stop to pray mincha? Should one judge all day long? What time of day was the first meal eaten? Different categories of people ate at different specific times. Can one pray in a bathhouse? Under what circumstances? Why can't one greet a friend in the inner room of the bathhouse? Can one say the word "emunah" in a bathhouse? If one gives a gift to another, one should tell the friend. From where is this derived? One should not favor one child over another - learned out from Jacob who favored Joseph. One should settle in a newer developed city as there are less sins there- this is learned out from Tzoar and S'dom.

Mar 15, 2020
Shabbat 9

Study Guide Shabbat 9

The Tosefta brings the opinion of Acherim, Rabbi Meir, who holds that the status of the threshold depends on whether the door os open or closed. The gemara asks how this could be even without a lechi? The gemara brings two answers - in each answer there is some sort of beam above and it is either for an alley or for a house. It is based upon a law that explains that one can view a beam as if it comes down and creates an imaginary wall. However that will only work upon certain conditions. If the threshold itself is private, one cannot carry from the house to there as the rabbis forbade carrying from one private domain to another. The next mishna discusses things one cannot do just before the time for mincha arrives as one may get distracted and forget to daven mincha. Which mincha are we referring to - gedola or ketana? If one started, one doesn't need to stop - what is considered "started"?

Mar 15, 2020
Shabbat 8

If one threw an object from a public domain to a pole in a private domain, even if the pole is very tall, one is obligated for passing from a public to a private domain. Does this match Rebbi's opinion regarding one who throw an item onto a protrusion? Abaye says they are not the same as the details of the case are different and the debate between Rebbi and the rabbis is on a different topic. Abaye brings a case where one throws a rounded basket from a private domain to a public domain. Does it depend on the size? Upon what else does it depend? Does it matter if it is thrown right size up or upside down (because of laws of levud)? How does one calculate the 4x4 width in a circular item? Ulla brings a case of a pole nine tefachim tall and says that since people use it to readjust their loads, it is considered public space. Would the same be true for a hole nine tefachim deep? There is a disagreement. Rava thinks it is not the same as using a hole to store things is not so convenient. Several questions are brought against Rava. What is the law regarding a threshold - does it depend on its size? 

Mar 13, 2020
Shabbat 7

Study Guide Shabbat 7

Shoshana (Rhoda) bat Yehuda Leib Polachek z"l. 

Why is a valley mentioned in the Tosefta like a carmelit but in the mishna is Taharot, it is listed a a private domain? Gwo answers are brought. What is a karpaf and what are the laws relating to carrying in it? If there is a brick standing up in a public domain and it's 3 tefachim tall, if one throws something 4 amot in public and it lands there, is one obligated? What about other spaces in the public space that people don't generally walk through - ar they considered public or not? A karmelit is until 10. What is the meaning of that? What law of karmelit are like a public space and what are like a private space? If a space has walls 9 tefachim tall but the ceiling is one tefach thick, what are the laws regarding that space? What if one dug a whole one tefach deep and 4x4 wide in that space? This is called chorei reshut hayachid. What are the laws regarding chorei reshut harabim - holes in public areas. Rava and Abaye disagree and Abaye's opinion is questioned. 

Mar 13, 2020
Shabbat 6

Study Guide Shabbat 6

Today's shiur is sponsored by Meryl and Harold Sasnowitz in memory of Malka bat Chaya Ettel and Mordechai and Toba Raizel bat Rochel and Zvi. Refuah Sheleima to Zvi ben Freida.  

If one removes an item from the public domain to the private domain (or the reverse) through a collonade (status of karmelit), is one obligated or not? Debate between Ben Azai and the rabbis. The gemara questions the rabbis opinion who obligates - where do we have a precedent for obligated in a case like this? The gemara brings three answers - the first two are rejected as they are not similar enough. Rabbi Yochanan narrows Ben Azai's opinion and said he agrees with the rabbis that one would be obligated if one threw it and it only passed through the airspace of the collonade. The gemara quotes the Tosefta which defines each of the four domains and what is allowed or not by Torah and rabbinic law. The gemara then analyzes the wording - questions and then provides answers.

Mar 12, 2020
Shabbat 5

Study Guide Shabbat 5

Today's shiur is sponsored by Betsy Mehlman and the Mehlman family in memory of their father and grandfather z"l.

The gemara continues to bring answers and challenge them to the question: how did the minsha bring cases where one is obligated if the item was uprooted and placed in someone's hand and not from/in a space of four by four handsbreaths? The gemara brings six answers and rejects them all, other than the last - of Rava - that a person's hand is significant like a space of 4x4. The gemara brings various laws stated by Rabbi Yochanan regarding similar cases - throwing items in the public domain to someone else, throwing and catching it oneself in a different place than one intended originally, taking rainwater from someone else's domain and bringing it into the public domain, taking food that one intended to move around the house but then took them outside. In all these cases - is one obligated or not? On what circumstances does it depend?  

Mar 11, 2020
Shabbat 4

Study Guide Shabbat 4

Today's shiur is sponsored by in honor of her beloved grandmother Frances Rabitz Brauner, Fruma Malka bat Avraham v'Penina z"l.

Why in our mishna are they obligating even if the space where the object is placed and also uprooted from is not 4x4 tefachim? Rabba suggests that the mishna is authored by Rabbi Akiva who does not need it to rest in a place that is 4x4 tefachim as Rabbi Akiva holds if one throws and object from a private domain to another private domain through the public domain, one is obligated since going through airspace is as if it rested there. From here one can say he does not hold that it needs to rest on a space of 4x4. Two questions are raised against this answer. Rav Yosef suggests the mishna is authored by Rebbi and the gemara tries to figure out which opinion of Rebbi is he referring to. They bring two suggestinos but each is rejected. 

Mar 10, 2020
Shabbat 3

Study Guide Shabbat 3

Today's shiur is sponsored by Eva Schweber and Rabbi Daniel Schweber in memory of their father, Ken Schweber, Yaakov Kapel ben Moshe and Rivka, z"l. 

The mishna says there are eight cases - but there seem to be twelve or sixteen, depending on how you count. Which were the eight that the mishna meant - why were only those counted? Shmuel says that whenever the rabbis say exempt (patur) regarding Shabbat issues and it means exempt by the Torah but prohibited by the rabbis, other than three cases. Are there other exceptions? Why if two people do a melacha together, are they each exempt from bringing a sin offering? Abaye asks if when one's hand is in the airspace of another domain while carrying something, is one's hand considered in a karmelit and one would be forbidden by rabbinic law to return one's hand to the original domain? Two contradictory braitot are brought to suggest that perhaps the tannaim debated exactly this issue - however several other possibilities are brought - all of which would not be able to be used to answer the question.

Mar 09, 2020
Shabbat 2

Study Guide Shabbat 2

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan in memory of/lilui nishmato of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l. Today's shiur is sponsored for a refuah sheleima for Chaim Yeshayahu ben Shprintze Faygel.

The masechet starts out with laws of moving things from one domain to another - why? In order to be obligated by Torah law for this, one needs to both uproot the item from one domain and place it an another. If one did the uprooting and another person did the placing, neither is obligated by Torah law, but the rabbis forbade it. The mishna mentions eight possible situations that can occur with one person passing something to another in a different domain and specifies in each case whether each person is obligated or not. The gemara asks why our mishna mentions eight cases when the mishna in Shevuot that mentions our issue in a list of other issues, only mentions four. Which four and why only those four? Two answers are brought but one is rejected.


Mar 08, 2020
Berakhot 64

Today's shiur is sponsored by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun in memory of/lilui nishmato of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi.

One should not force the moment. Is it better to have a Rosh Yeshiva who has lots of knowledge or one who has good analytical skills? Several statements of Rabbi Avin are brought regarding behavior, hosting Torah scholars, the proper wording to use when parting with someone. Torah scholars do not have rest in this world or the world to come. How can that be viewed positiviely? Torah scholars bring peace to the world.

Mar 06, 2020
Berakhot 63

Why does one bless one's friend using God's name? Why are so many verses brought to prove this? Know the neesd of the generation and whether teachers are needed or not. That should determine whether one should learn or teach. The rabbis give meaning to the juxtaposition of nazir and sotah and also for gifts to the priest and sotah. A story was told about Rabbi Chanina that when he went to Babylonia to teach, he determined when the months would be. The rabbis in Israel were not please and sent messengers to threaten him. When the rabbis came to "the vineyard in Yavne" - the Sanhedrin - they began with drashot about the importance of learning Torah and of of the importance of hosting others. 

Mar 05, 2020
Berakhot 62

There were rabbis who would follow their teachers into the bathroom or hide under their beds to learn from their rabbis how to act in the bathroom or when having sex. Some were critical of this behavior to which they retorted, "It is Torah and I need to learn it!" People were sacred of demons in the outhouses. What did they do to protect themselves? One needs to be act modestly in the bathroom also. It is told of King Saul that acted modestly in the bathroom and that is why David didn't kill him when he came upon him in the cave. The gemara extrapolates other verses in that story and from there gets to the story of when David did a census by counting the people and not by using money (as commanded in the Torah) and explains why David made a mistake why when God brought the plague, he stopped it soon after. What is forbidden to do on the Temple Mount? What from that list can be done in a synogogue? Why is there a difference? Instead of saying amen in the Temple, they would say the verse "baruch shem kevod..." 

Mar 05, 2020
Berakhot 62

There were rabbis who would follow their teachers into the bathroom or hide under their beds to learn from their rabbis how to act in the bathroom or when having sex. Some were critical of this behavior to which they retorted, "It is Torah and I need to learn it!" People were sacred of demons in the outhouses. What did they do to protect themselves? One needs to be act modestly in the bathroom also. It is told of King Saul that acted modestly in the bathroom and that is why David didn't kill him when he came upon him in the cave. The gemara extrapolates other verses in that story and from there gets to the story of when David did a census by counting the people and not by using money (as commanded in the Torah) and explains why David made a mistake why when God brought the plague, he stopped it soon after. What is forbidden to do on the Temple Mount? What from that list can be done in a synogogue? Why is there a difference? Instead of saying amen in the Temple, they would say the verse "baruch shem kevod..." 

Mar 05, 2020
Berakhot 61

Today's daf is sponsored by the Tannenbaum family in memory of Miriam's father, Mr. Jack Zemsky who championed womens learning - לעילוי נשמת יעקב יצחק בן משה נחום הלוי ז"ל.

Everything that happens is for the good. What does one derive from the word "vayitzer" and God created - why does it have 2 yuds? How was woman created - did God create at first two images - male and female together - or was woman created from an appendage of man? One should love God with all his/her soul and money. Why are both mentioned? How did Rabbi Akiva die ? Even though he was torutured, he was happy to be able to fulfill the verse to love God and accept the yoke of God with all of one's soul. Laws of respect of the Temple are discussed. How far away can one be and still be obligated? When one goes to the bathroom, one needs to make sure not to face the Temple. Is this everywhere and at all times or only when the Temple is standing? 

Mar 04, 2020
Berakhot 60

Today's shiur is sponsored by Shlomit Metz-Poolat in memory of her father HaRav Moshe Meiri Ben Tzvi Hirsch haLevi. May his neshama have an aliyah. His favorite masechet was Berakhot. And in honor of his granddaughter Joely Metz of whom he was so proud and who is currently serving in the IDF as a combat medic. May Hashem watch over her and all her fellow soldiers!

Does one say shehechiyani on items or a house that one already has in one's house? Does it matter if one had inherited them or purchased the original ones? Is it possible to change the sex of a fetus? Can one who trusts in God be confident that no trouble will befall them? What are the prayers said when entering or exiting the city, when entering and exiting the bathhouse, before and after bloodletting, before and after going to the bathroom, when going to sleep and waking up? What are the blessings one says in the morning - birkhot hashachar? How is a doctor permitted to be a doctor if we believe that God is the one who heals?

Mar 03, 2020
Berakhot 59

What causes earthqakes to happen? Lightening? Thunder? What blessing do we say on them? On what type of wind do we say a blessing? What do we do/say when we see a rainbow? In what situations do we make a blessing on the sun, moon, constellations? What blessing is said on rain? Is there a debate regarding this? On what basis do we determine whether to say in cretain situations shehechiyanu or hatov v'hameitiv? What blessing does one make on the birth of a son? On the birth of a daughter?

Mar 02, 2020
Berakhot 58

The gemara discusses all sorts of blessings that one says, for example, on seeing many Jewish people at once, a king, a smart person, even if they are not Jewish. The gemara tells a story of Rav Sheshet who was blind and was still able to tell when the king was coming and made a blessing, even though he  couldn't see him. There are blessings for one who sees Jewish people and idol worshippers living in their settlements, and also seeing them destroyed, burial places of Jews and idol worshippers, one who sees a friend after 30 days or a year, one who sees strange looking people or animals. What is the word "zikin" mentioned in the mishna? The gemara starts a discussion of the constellations. 

Mar 01, 2020
Berakhot 57

Today's daf is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in memory of her father HaRav Pesach Zecharia HaLevi ben HaRav Reuven and Leah z"l and in honor of his granddaughter Shoshana Baker of who he would be very proud. 

The gemara lists all sorts of items that one may see in a dream and explains the meaning. The gemara also lists other things like three things that go into the body but the body does not benefit from, three things that do not go into the body but the body benefits from, six things that are considered one sixtieth of something else. What blessing does one say when seeing a place where idol worship was uprooted? What blessing does one say on seeing specific places in Babylonia? 

Feb 29, 2020
Berakhot 56

The gemara continues to discuss dreams and the power of the interpreter to affect the outcome of the dream. Bar Hedya would intepret dreams positively to those who paid him and negatively to those who didn't. Abaye and Rava saw the same dreams but because Abaye paid and Rava didn't, he interpreted Abaye's positively and Rava's negatively and caused Rava great suffering including his wife's death. How did the story end? Did his fraud get revealed? Did he get punished? The gemara brings a list of various things that if one sees they can be viewed positively or negatively and recommends that one read a verse that says something postivie about it in order to effect a positive outcome. Psychology and the importance of positive thinking is a central theme in today's daf.

Feb 28, 2020
Berakhot 55

Today's shiur is sponsored by David and Eve Farber in honor of Olivia and Dov's birthdays.

What things should one spent a lot of time on? Why? The gemara proceeds to list all differnt types of things - three things that cut short one's life, three things that require mercy from God, three things that God directly brings. Sicne dreams were mentioned in the context of things that require mercy, the gemara delves into the issue of dreams and brings many differnt statements regarding dreams.

Feb 27, 2020
Berakhot 54

Today's shiur is dedicated for a refuah shleima for Miriam Rifka bat Leah and Yitzchak Zev.

The mishna lists blessings that are recited on particular things - if one passes a place where a miracle happened or mountains, the Mediterranean Sea, etc. It also lists blessings on natural and other occurences like thunder, lightening, earthquakes, building a new house, buying new clothing, hearing good/bad news. What is considered a meaningless prayer? What can't one bring/wear into the Temple Mount? When one greets a friend, one should greet using God's name - even though one may see this as a non respectful manner of using God's name, the rabbis permitted it in order to strengthen people's connection to God. We learn from Yitro that one should bless on a miracle. A braita lists places where miracles happened. There are four situations in which one makes a blessing of thanks (birkhat hagomel). what are they? From where is this derived? 

Feb 26, 2020
Berakhot 53

The gemara discusses the candle and spices for havdala. One can't use a candle from a non-Jew because it needs to be a candle that was not lit on Shabbat. The candle needs to be one that is used for light, not oone used for cooking or heating. One can only light on spices that were used for smell and not to take away bad odors. Does one need to actually benefit from the light in order to make the blessing or can it just be light that potentially one could use. If one forgot to say birkhat hamazon in the place where one ate, does one need to return? On what does it depend? Beit Shamai say you need to retunr no matter what and give an analogy to one who would leave one's wallet who would clearly go back. How much time after eating, can one still say birkhat hamazon? Is it better to be the one saying the blessing or the one answering 'amen'? The chapter ends with a drasha from a verse commanding to be holy and connects it to rituals surrounding meal. Why? 

Feb 25, 2020
Berakhot 52

The gemara explains the reasons for the debates between Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel regarding customs at meals and at kiddush and havdala. 

Feb 24, 2020
Berakhot 51

Study Guide Berakhot 51

What does one do if one ate without making a blessing - does make the blessing in the middle of the meal? What if one finished, can one make the blessing before the meal after one finished eating? The gemara discusses whether a drink made with wine or beer called 'asparagus' is healthy or not. Contradictory sounrces are brought and resolved. Two rabbis mention a number of things that were taught to them by angels regarding behavior and foods. There is a debate regarding laws that apply to a cup used for a blessing. This leads into a story with Yalta, wife of Rav Nachman who is insulted by Ula's behavior and breaks 400 barrels of wine. On what issues relating to meals do Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel disagree?

Feb 19, 2020
Berakhot 50

Study Guide Berakhot 50

What is the proper wording for a zimun? What wording is not appropriate to use? Can a group that ate together split up into a smaller group? On what does it depend? Can one throw bread? What other things must one do to treat bread with respect? Is it true only for bread or for all foods? What if one started eating without making a blessing? 

Feb 19, 2020
Berakhot 49

Today's shiur is sponsored by the Freedman family in memory of their Abba and Saba Zvi Stein, Zvi ben HaRav Mordechai David.

Study Guide Berakhot 49

What concepts are essential to mention in birkhat hamazon? How does the blessing of rebuilding Jerusalem end? Why is the structure of the fourth blessing different? how many times does malchut need to be mentioned in that blessing? Why? What if one forgets to add additions for special days in birkhat hamazon? How much does one need to eat to require a zimun? There is a debate. Does this match a debate between the same people somehwere else or does it contradict? How can it be explained? Is the text for zimun different depending on how many people there are? How?

Feb 19, 2020
Berakhot 48

Study Guide Berakhot 48

At what age/stage can a minor join the zimun? Can you join a zimun if you only ate vegetables? If so, how many of the participants can be those who only ate vegetables (in a case where we have ten and can add God's name)? A story is told of King Yannai who after having killed all the rabbis finds one rabbi still alive who can lead the zimun so he summons him, Shimon ben Shetach. However, he doesn't offer him food so how can he lead the zimun? Is there a difference between the foods one needs to eat to allow one to join a zimun and leading a zimun. What are the blessings of birkhat hamazon? Is the fourth blessing inherently different from the others? Was it instituted by the rabbis? If so, why? From where is it derived that birkhat hamazon is from the Torah?

Feb 19, 2020
Berakhot 47

The shiurim for the next month are sponsored for the refuah shleima of Ofer Yair ben Yaara.

In what scenarios is it not appropriate to give respect to important people? Why? The gemara goes over each of the cases in the mishna whereby one eats certain foods and either can or cannot join a zimmun. What is each one adding that we didn't already know? What makes someone an am haaretz? A braita is brought with many different opinions. Rami bar Hama dies and it is believed that it is because he didn't offer Rav Menashia to ever lead the zimun. Why did he not allow him to? And why was he punished for it? What caused him to be mistaken? In order to get to ten, can one use a child as a tenth? Or a Caananite slave? An aron kodesh? Shabbat? How can these be options?

Feb 19, 2020
Berakhot 46

Who is the preferred person to make hamotzi on the bread on behalf of everyone - the host/ess or the most respected person? What about for leading the zimun? What is the text that one adds for the host in birkhat hamazon? Where does the blessing on the zimun end - at the end of the actual zimun or at the end of the first blessing? What are the ramifications of the debate regarding this issue? A mourner has a special text that one says in the fourth blessing of birkhat hamazon. A discusssion ensues between the Exilarch and Rav Sheshet where the Exilarch praises the Persian customs regarding eating and rav Sheshet tries to prove that the rabbis also had smart customs regarding eating practices.

Feb 18, 2020
Berakhot 45

Three people who eat together are obligated to do a "zimun" - to say birkhat hamazon together - and one blesses on behalf of all. In which case would the three not be obligated? What is the source for it? Can two people also do a zimun if they want? Can women do a zimun? Are they obligated to or is it optional? Why can they not join together with slaves to get to three? What happens when three people eat together and one leaves early? Someone who walks into the room while they are saying the zimun, what does he answer? Why do we add the word amen to the end of the third blessing in birkhat hamazon?

Feb 17, 2020
Berakhot 44

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Study Guide Berakhot 44

Today's shiur is sponsored in memory of the Hon. Judge Miriam Altman z"l by Gabrielle and Daniel Altman. If one eats a bread secondary to a salty dish, one only makes a blessing on the salt dish. In what kind of situation would one's bread be secondary? The gemara explains that one who ate fruits from Ginosar would eat a lot of salt and would then need bread to wash away the salt. The gemara brings several statements about the special nature of the fruits of Ginosar and other praises of Israel. What blessing does one make after eating the seven species? What blessing does one make before drinking water? The details regarding the blessing after grains and fruit of the seven species are discussed. After eating which foods does one say "boreh nefashot"? Are there food upon which one does not make a blessing after eating? In Israel people would make a blessing after removing their tefillin. The gemara talks about more foods that are healthy or unhealthy. One should not eat vegetables early in the day because it causes bad breath. Eggs are very healthy. Can one eat turnips?

Feb 16, 2020
Berakhot 43

Study Guide Berakhot 43

Can one set a meal over wine and then one person can say a blessing on behalf of others if they are all reclining? Rav and Rabbi Yochanan disagree - however there is a disagreement regarding what exactly they disagree about. What is the difference between wine during the meal and after? Why during the meal does each person make the blessing on wine by themselves? If one does one blessing for others, that gives one precendence for making another. What blessings do we make on smelling spices good frangrances? Why do we bless on this? Balsam oil has a special blessing. Laws regarding precedence of blessings is brought up regarding frangrances.  A braita lists 6 things that a Torah scholar should not do.

Feb 15, 2020
Berakhot 42

Today's shiur is sponsored in memory of Gavriel ben Noach z"l by Chanah and Michael Piotrkowski.

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Study Guide Berakhot 42

What blessing does one make on bread "that comes with kisnin" - generally understood to be some kind of sweet bread or sweet dough? What is considered the end of one's meal which would mean that if one wanted to eat more food at that point, one would need to make a new blessing. Is it different if one is a guest at someone else's table? Does a blessing on the wine before the meal exempt one from a blessing on wine after the meal (before saying birkhat hamazon)? Would it be the same for one who blessed on wine in the middle of the meal? Does it matter if it is a weekday or holiday/Shabbat? Does a blessing on bread cover foods that are eaten before the meal? Does a blessing on those foods exempt bread? If people are eating together does one bless for everyone or each person for themselves? Is the law different if they are sitting or reclining?

Feb 14, 2020
Berakhot 41

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Study Guide Berakhot 41

The rabbis and Rabbi Yehuda disagree in the mishna regarding what does one do if one has a number of foods to make a blessing on - does one choose to bless on one of the seven species that Israel is known for or what one likes best? In whcih case are they arguing - when all the foods are of one type of blessing or also if there are different types? If one blesses on a vegetable and there were also fruits there, does the blessing on vegetables exempt the fruit? The laws regarding which blessing to do first comes from the verse about the seven species. Others learn requisite amounts for various laws from that verse. How exactly is the order learned from that verse - is it the order in the verse or the proximity of the species to the word "land" in the verse, which appears twice. If one eats fruits or dessert, does one need to make a separate blessing before and after? Does bread exmapt all foods and wine exempt all drinks from a separate blessing? Why doesn't the blessing on bread exempt wine?

Feb 13, 2020
Berakhot 40

Study Guide Berakhot 40

What is considered an interruption between making the blessing on bread and eating bread? One should feed one's animal before one eats. The gemara brings other advice about foods that are healthy and with what frequency should they be eaten. Why does Rabbi Yehuda think one should be specific in the blessing over legumes? If one says the wrong blessing, does it count? On what does it depend? Why type of tree was the Tree of Knowledge - 3 opinions. On what do we say "Shehakol"? What if something is spoiled? Can one word the blessing in one's own words? Can one say it in any language? One needs to use God's name in a blessing but does one also need to mention the kingship of God? What blessing does one make on mushrooms?

Feb 12, 2020
Berakhot 39

Study Guide Berakhot 39

Is the question what blessing one makes on cooked vegetables also a tannaitic debate? What does one bless on turnip? On what does it depend? If one adds flour to help the food stick together, what blessing does one make? What blessing is made on hard bread that is in pieces and is soaked? The issue connects to a debate regarding how one makes a blessing on a loaf of bread - at what point does one slice it? This connects with the issue of how we do the breaking of the bread on Shabbat. If one has smaller whole loaf and a larger slice of bread, what does one make the blessing on? Is the issue here connected to a similar issue regarding teruma (small whole onion or half of a larger one)? On seder night on Passover, how many matzot do we use and are they whole or not? Why do we use two loaves on Shabbat and how do we do it? 

Feb 11, 2020
Berakhot 38

The gemara continues to bring various foods to discuss what blessings we make on them. Is dough baked in the ground under the burner considered bread or not? Does it depend on whether you eat it for a meal? What does one say of silan, date honey? What about "trima"? What is "trima"? Shetota that they made thick and thin - what blessing does one make? The thin was used for medicinal purposes. What does one say "the one who takes out" or "who takes out"? What does one bless on cooked vegetables - some say "boreh pri haadama" and some say "shehakol".  Is the tradition about the debate accurate?

Feb 10, 2020
Berakhot 37

Study Guide Berakhot 37

What blessing does one make on rice and a dish made with rice? What blessing does one make on chavitaza - a dish with flour and honey - does it depend on how much honey is in there? What blessing is said on bread crumbs that are cooked or fried - does it depend on the size of the crumb? The question is also asked regarding other foods that are made with flour and are somewhat breadlike but made differently than bread.

Feb 09, 2020
Berakhot 36

Study Guide Berakhot 36

Why does one make a blessing on oil? In what cimcumstances? The gemara brings various items that are part of trees but aren't the fruit of the tree and questions what blessing one should make on them? Is something that protects the fruit considered like the fruit itself? if so, is it true even if it's at the early stage of growth? 

Feb 08, 2020
Berakhot 35

Study Guide Berakhot 35

What blessing does one make on fruits from trees, fruits from the ground (legumes)? What are the exceptions to the rule? There is a debate regarding the blessing on vegetables. How specific does the blessing need to be? What is the reason/source for making blessings on foods before we eat them? The gemara tries to derive it from a verse about fruit trees in the fourth year after they are planted, but is unsuccessful. In the end they say it is based on reason - one cannot benefit from anything in this world without making a blessing. There is a debate between Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai regarding whether one should work or spend all of one's time learning. Rabbi Yochanan compares the early generations with the later generations and mentions a few ways the earlier generations were better. Why is there a unique blessing for wine? The gemara suggests various suggestions until it finds the answer. 

Feb 07, 2020
Berakhot 34

Study Guide Berakhot 34

The mishna mentions other words that if the chazan used them in prayer, he would be removed. What do we do when the chazan makes a mistake? A number of laws are mentioned regarding laws of a chazan. Can one answer to the blessing of the kohen? Can he bless the people if he is the only kohen? How should one respond when asked tobe a chazan? What does one do when one makes a msitake in his prayer? We learn from Moshe that short or long prayers are always accepted. When in shmone esreh does one bow? Is it a good thing to bow or not? Does it depend on who you are? Is it different for leaders? Why? One who makes a mistake in prayer, it's a bad sign. It was known that Rabbi Chanina ben Dosa would pray for people and would know based on his prayer whether or not the person would be healed.  

Feb 06, 2020
Berakhot 33

Study Guide Berakhot 33

Can one stop in the middle of shmone esreh? And if yes, for what types of things? In which blessings of shmone esreh does one add praise of God for bringing rain, request for rain and havdala on Saturday night? Is the main havdala on a cup of wine or in prayer? How did this develop? Is the addition of havdala different on Yom Tov that falls on motzai Shabbat both in content and location in prayer? There are certain things that a prayer leader (chazan) would say that we would not allow - like saying modim (prayer thanking God) two times, thanking for the good and not the bad, and one who says that God's mercy is on the birds (relating to the commandment of sending away the mother bird before taking its young). Why? 

Feb 05, 2020
Berakhot 32

Study Guide Berakhot 32

Chana, Eliahu and Moshe all spoke to God impertinently. Even though it was frowned upon, God answered their prayers. How did Moshe get up the courage to stand before God and ask for forgiveness for the nation? The gemara brings several different options. What is the meaning of the phrase used for Moshe’s prayer “and Moshe beseeched (vayechal).” Six different explanations of the root of the word are brought. One should first praise God and then request – from where is this derived? What is more important – prayer or good deeds? Fasting or giving charity? Prayer or sacrifices? A priest who kills someone is not allowed to say the preistly blessing. Once there was no longer a temple, the doors to prayers being accepted were somewhat closed.Is it permissible to pray for an extended period of time. What is the risk? If one’s prayers aren’t answered, one should try again. The early pious people would sit an hour before and an hour after prayer. From where is this derived? If they spent also an hour praying, then most of the their day was spent in prayer – how did they learn well and work? For what is one allowed/not allowed to stop in the middle of prayer?

Feb 04, 2020
Berakhot 31

The gemara brings situations where people were too happy at a wedding and the father of the groom (a rabbi) broke an expensive item to cause people to be sad. Tosafot say that this is the source for the custom to break a glass at a wedding. One must judge or learn before prayer as it will be distracting but one should learn a simple clear cut halacha like the chumra of women to wait seven clean days after seeing any blood or a leniency for tithes in order to feed one's animals without having to tithe the food or a law regarding misuse of consecrated property regarding blood of a sanctified animal.  One should part with a friend with words of Torah. When Rabbi Akiva prayed with the community, he shortened his prayer so as not to inconvenience people and when he prayed alone, he bows many times. Many things are learned regarding prayer from Daniel, Shlomo and Chana. The gemara derives all sorts of laws about behavior and prayer from Chana. They also teach about sensitivity to barren women and how difficult their struggles are. According to one explanation, Chana thretened God that she would become suspecte dof being a Sotah in order to get the reward given to an excused woman who is innocent of bearing children. 

Feb 03, 2020
Berakhot 30

When do we say tefillat haderech - the wayfarer's prayer? What are the differences between the prayer havinenu and the short prayer one says in place of shmone esreh if one is in a place of danger. In what direction does one pray? One who is leaving early in the morning - what does one do regarding prayer and shema if it is before the time that one can say those prayers? Does one pray musaf if one in not part of a community? What are the different opinions? If one forgot to add yaale v'yavo - the prayer for Rosh Chodesh - does one have to repeat shmone esreh? On what does it depend? One needs to pray with the proper frame of mind. The early chassidim would meditate an hour before prayer for this reason. From where can we derive the importance of prayer with the proper frame of mind? What is the meaning of the phrase "be happy with trepidation"?


Feb 02, 2020
Berakhot 29

When was the blessing against the Saducees instituted - by who and why? Once Shimon HaKatan was davening and forgot the words for that plessing and they waited for him a few hours - why didn't they remove him from being the chazan? Why weren't they concerned maybe he was a Saducee? Can good people turn bad? Where can we find references in the texts to the number of blessings in different shmone esrehs? What is the shortened version on shmone esreh that Rabbi Yehoshua says one can say? Are there days where one can't use the shortened version? Why? What does Rabbi Eliezer mean when he discourages people from making their prayer "set"? One who is in a dangerous place can say a short prayer instead of shmone esreh. What is that? One who goes on a journey shoudl say a prayer. What is the text? 

Feb 01, 2020
Berakhot 28

The story continues with Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria being chosen - he consults with his wife who warns against taking the job for two reasons. The second one (of being too young and may not be resopected) is no longer an issue when he magically grows 18 rows of white hairs. He accepts the job. He opens the doors to the Beit Midrash as Rabban Gamliel had a guard who would only let in people whose insides wewre like their outsides. On that day, so much Torah was learned, include masechet eduyot, and many halachic issues were resolved. Rabban Gamliel feels like he may ahve been wrong, especially after he loses and argument to Rabbi Yehoshua regarding accepting a convert from Amon. He makes peace with Rabib Yehoshua and then they need to convince the rabbis to take Rabban Gamliele back adn they eventually agree to let him be in charge three weeks and keep Rabib Elazar ben Azaria for one week so as not to demote him entirely. If one needs to pray mincha and musaf, which comes first? What is said about one who doesn't pray within the timeframe alloted by Rabbi Yehuda? Can one eat before musaf? Before mincha? Rabbi Nechunia ben Hakane would say a prayer on entering and on leaving the beit midrash - what would he say? The gemara tells of the last words of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai before their deaths. What does one say daily - all 18 blessings of shmone esreh or a shortened version or does it depend (on what?)? There is a debate regarding this issue. Rabbi Eliezer says that one must make sure not to make prayer too set and static. In which direction does one face? What if one is traveling and can't? Why 18 blessings? One needs to bow in prayer- how far down? Why 18 - isn't it 19?


Jan 31, 2020
Berakhot 27

What does it mean "until four hours" - until and not including the fourth hour or until and including? Who do we hold like regarding times for the morning prayer and for the afternoon prayer? Can one pray arvit, the nighttime prayer, on Friday afternoon before sunset? And if one does this, is it considered Shabbat for them? If they accidentally accepted Shabbat early, thinking it was nighttime (i.e. gray rainy day), when they realize their mistake, is it Shabbat for them? Is arvit obligatory or optional? Rabban Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua disagree regarding this and Rabban Gamliel embarassed Rabbi Yehoshua in the biet midrash because of their disagreement. The people got angry at Rabban Gamliel and removed him from his position of being head of the beit midrash. There was a discussion about whether to replace him with Rabbi Yehoshua, Rabbi Akiva or Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria. The latter was chosen and he went to colsult with his wife about whether to take the job.

Jan 30, 2020
Berakhot 26

What do you do if a sefer Torah is in a room where one is planning to have sex? How far does one need to distance oneself from feces or urine in order to say shema? On what does it depend? Can one say shema in a place where there is a bathroom that had never been used? A zav that had a seminal emission or a woman who was a nidda and then semen discharged from her body or a woman who has sex with her husband and then becomes a nidda - all these need several days before they can become pure - but can they and should they go to the mikveh before learning Torah? Or since they can't become pure yet, they can't go to the mikveh and therefore maybe Ezra's ordinance did not include these cases? Is the order in which the events happened important (first baal keri and then zav or the reverse)? Until what time can one pray the morning, afternoon, evening and additional (on holidays) prayer? Is there a contradiction between what it says in the minsha regarding the times and other sources?  How does this connect with laws of additional prayers that one can say if one forgot to pray - as one can make up the morning prayer in the afteronon? Were the prayers instituted by the fathers or were they set up as a replacement (or to correspond) to sacrifices?

Jan 29, 2020
Berakhot 25

Can one recite shema if there is feces one's body or in the area? What if the feces is being passed by? It there a different if the feces is not moving? If there is a foul odor from feces, does one need to move away from the feces or also from the odor? Until when is urine problematic - what if it is dry? How dry does it need to be to not be an issue for reciting shema? How can one say shema in the mikveh? Does one need to cloudy up the water? What types of foul smelling water can be fixed up by adding more water to it? How much water needs to be added? One cannot say shema in the vicinity of a utenstil used for collecting feces or urine. What does one do in order to allow one to say shema if there is a utensil there - three opinions are brought.

Jan 28, 2020
Berakhot 24

Can you sleep with tefillin under your pillow? Can a man do that if he is in bed with his wife? If two people are sleeping naked in a bed, can they each turn the other way and say shema? Is there a difference if it is one's qwife or someone else? What if it is one's young children? A handsbreath of a woman in a place that is usually covered is considered nakedness - to what is this referring and in what situation? What else is considered nakedness? Is it problematic of one yawns, sneezes or spits during prayer? There are contradictory sources regarding this - how are they resolved? Can one recite shema in a dirty place where there is feces or urine?

Jan 27, 2020
Berakhot 23

If one needs to go to the bathroom during shmone esreh, what does one do? Can one pray when one needs to go to the bathroom? Can one bring tefillin into the bathroom? Can one bring them in by carrying them in one's hand or wrapped in something? There are dangers if one leaves them outside and therefore Beit Hillel permits bringing them into a permanent bathroom in one's hand. Would he allow it also in a temporary bathroom? It was also believed that there were spirits in the bathroom and some brought tefillin there to protect them from the spirits. Why would there be a difference? Before sitting down to a meal, one should try to use the bathroom. Also one should not wear one's tefillin when eating, in case one gets drunk? Can one put money in a head covering that is being used to wrap one's tefillin? Can one sleep with tefillin under one's pillow? Is it allowed even if his wife is in bed with him?

Jan 26, 2020
Berakhot 22

There is a debate regarding whether one who experienced a seminal emission can learn some types of Torah, none at all, or all kinds? Was the takana of Ezra entirely cancelled? Does he need to go in a mikveh with 40 se'ah or can one pour nine kav of water. What does one do if one is in the middle of tefilla or reading from the Torah and one remembers that one has impurity from a seminal emission? 

Jan 25, 2020
Berakhot 21

From where do we derive that one needs to make a blessing after eating and before learning Torah? Can we say that the reverse also applies? The gemara brings various cases where one is unsure if one already said shema or the blessing after shema or shmone esreh? What does one do? Is shema a Torah obligation or from the rabbis? If one says the everyday blessing on Shabbat, does one continue or stop immediately? If one remebers one has already davened when one is in the middle of a blessing of shmone esreh, does one stop in the middle or finish? If one enters a shul and has already prayed, does one pray again with them? If one entrers shul and they are already saying shmone esreh, does one wait until they finish kedusha or modim, or does one start one’s own shmone esreh – on what does it depend? Does one say kedusha as part of their silent shmone esreh? Does one answer to kadish if one is in the middle of shmone esreh? Rabbi Yehuda says that one who has a seminal emission can says blessings of shema – it seems to imply one can also learn Torah. How can that be? A contradition to Rabbi Yehuda is brought from a mishna further on. How is it resolved?

Jan 24, 2020
Berakhot 20

Rav Papa asked Abaye why miracles happened in previous generations but do not happen to them? Women, Canaanite slaves and children are exempt from shema and tefillin but are obligated in prayer, mezuza and blessings after the meal. Why? Why does each case need specifying? Why is it not obvious that they are exempt from time bound commandments and there is no need to specify? Why are women obligated in prayer - is it not a time bound commandment? Is women's obligation to make a blessing after the meal the same as men's in which case they can say it on behalf of a man and help him fulfill his obligation? Erza instituted that one who has a seminal emission cannot learn Torah until he goes to a mikveh. What should he do regarding saying shema and blessing after the meal? If one thinks something in his heart, is it as if he said it?

Jan 23, 2020
Berakhot 19

The court excommunicates those who mock the rabbis or don’t listen to the words of the rabbis. According to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, this is found 24 times in the mishna. The gemara tries to figure out where are these 24 occurences. the gemara delves into the issues regarding the exemptions of those attending the burial and making up the rows for the mourners. In what situations are the exempt or not exempt? Does human dignity override Torah or rabbinic law?

Jan 22, 2020
Berakhot 18

One whose close relative died is considered an ‘onen’ and is exempt from commandments. Why? What does it mean “if your dead is before you” – is it to be taken literally? What is forbidden to do in a cemetary if one is close to a dead body so that one does not upset the dead? If the dead can’t see then why will it upset them? There is a question whether or not dead people can see what goes on in this world – and verses and stories are brought to try to come to a conclusion regarding this topic.

Jan 21, 2020
Berakhot 17

The gemara lists prayers that rabbis would add at the end of their shmone esreh or at particular moments. What is the root of the debate between the rabbis and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel regarding whether or not a groom can say shema on his wedding night? Is the issue that he not appear arrogant? If so, this seems the exact opposite of their debate regarding working on Tisha B'av. One is exempt from mitzvot on the day a close relative dies before the burial. Also those carrying the body are exempt from certain mitzvot - depending on how needed they are. 

Jan 20, 2020
Berakhot 16

Rabbi Elazar explains what to do when one gets confused at various points in shema. What are the laws regarding workers - can they come down from a tree or a high wall to say shema and shmone esreh? Is there a difference between the two? Why? Does it depend what type of salary the worker receives? A groom is exempt from shema on his wedding night and for a few days until he has sex with his wife for the first time. Why? A few stories are brought regarding Rabban Gamliel where he acted against mainstream halacha. Each time he is challenged by his students and explains to them why he made an exception. Laws regarding canaanite slaves are discussed - can one mourn for them? The gemara brings a list of personal prayers that rabbis added at the end of their shmone esreh. Some are incorporated into our prayers but not immediately following shmone esreh.

Jan 19, 2020
Berakhot 15

What is the order of activities one should do in the morning? Does one need to search far for water to wash one’s hands before shema and shmone esreh? Is it more important for one than the other? Does one need to hear the words one says in shema? Can one just think it in one’s heart? What about other blessings? Is the requirement the same? What exactly are the different opinions? How many different opinions are there? What do we learn from the words “and one should write them” what parts should be written? How careful does one need to be with reciting the words carefully? With which words does one need to be particularly careful?

Jan 18, 2020
Berakhot 14

Can one talk in the middle of hallel or megila? Can one taste food on a fast day? Can one greet someone or deal with things before praying in the morning? Can one stop to greet someone in between the words "is our God" to "truth"? Why? Do we say the entire third paragraph of shema at night or only part? Which part? Why? What is the significance to the order of shema? The gemara quotes a braita that tells a different answer than the one given in the mishna. Does one put on tefillin before or after saying shema? The gemara deals with this question by bringing sources and stories that seem to contradict and tries to resolve the contradiction.

Jan 18, 2020
Berakhot 13

Why is there a difference between the change of name of Yaakov and Avraham's name change? Is it forbidden to call Avraham Avram? Does the mitzva of shema need intent? Why type of intent? Is one allowed to speak at all during shema and its blessings? On what does it depend? What is the significance of the order of the sections of shema? Does one need to say shema in hebrew or can one say it in any language? There is a debate and each brings proof texts. Until what section of shema does one need intent? Can one say shema in one's heart or does one need to say the words? Does one need to hear the words? Can one say only the sentence "shema..." and fulfill one's obligation? It is told of Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi that he did that - why?

Jan 16, 2020
Berakhot 12

It was implied from something Rabbi Zeira said that the blessing the priests said in the temple before shema was "God who created light." But the gemara rejects this and says that one can interpret that statement in a different way and it could be the blessing of "great love that God has for the Jewish people." Why were the ten commandments no longer used as part of the liturgy in the temple and outside the temple? What do the priests who are leaving their watch bless those who are beginning their watch? What does this teach you about priests' behavior in the temple? If someone starts a blessing thinking she is going to drink wine and then remembers that it is beer, and finishes the blessing correctly, does that work? Do we go by the main part of the blessing or the ending? The gemara tries to answer the question from other sources but is unsuccessful.. The gemara brings five statements of Rabba son of  Chinnana Saba in the name of Rav: 1. If one doesn't say emet v'yatziv in the morning or emet v'emuna at night one does not fulfill one's obligation (what obligation?). Why? 2. During prayer, we bow at baruch and stand up at God's name. Why? 3. In the ten days of repentance we say "the holy king" and "the king of judgement". There are those who disagree. What if one forgets to say them? 4. One who can pray for others and doesn't is considered a sinner. 5. One who pray and is then embarrassed by one's sin is pardons from all of one's sins. This is learned from King Saul. The rabbis wanted Parshat Balak to be said daily as part of shema. Why did they want to and why didn't this happen? Parshat tzitzit was chosen for five themes. Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria and the rabbis argue about whether one needs to mention the exodus from Egypt at night. What is the source of their debate?

Jan 15, 2020
Berakhot 11

From the phrase "when you sit in your house and when you walk on your way" one derives that one who is occupied with a mitzvah or a groom on the night of his wedding are exempt from saying shema. The groom is exempt because his mind is preoccupied with the fulfillment of a mitzvah. Can one derived from here that one who is preoccupied for other reasons would be exempt also even if not for a mitzvah? A mourner is obligated in all mitzvot except for tefillin (he is exempt on the first day only). Can one hold like Beit Shamai and lie down for shema at night and stand up in the morning? Vatious opinions are brought. What are the blessings before shema in the morning? On what type of learning does one need to say the blessings on the Torah for? What is the blessing that needs to be said? In Masechet Tamid, there is a description of the prayers of the priests in the Temple. They said only one blessing before shema. Which one? 

Jan 13, 2020
Berakhot 10

Bruria corrects Rabbi Meir, her husband, that one should not pray for the death of evildoers but for their repentance. There is a discussion between Bruria and a heretic and Rabbi Avahu and a heretic regarding verses that are hard to understand. The verse in Proverbs "the her mouth is full of intelligence" is said regarding King David who praised God throughout different stages in his life. The verses of Barchi Nafshi are explained. Why the phrase used five times? The soul is similar to God is five ways. The gemara describes the story in which Yeshayahu visits Chizkiyahu who is dying. How did the story play out? How did Chizkiyahu end up not dying then? What was his sin for which he was supposed to die? Is it better to pray based on one's own merits or to pray baed on the merits of others? Can leaders accept gifts from others? Examples from both directions are brought from Elisha and Shmuel. One should pray from a place of humility. One should not eat before praying. What happens if one doesn't say shema in the first three hours of the day? Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel debate what position one should be in when saying shema. Rabbi Tarfon tried to do like Beit Shamai and was told he was deserving of death!

Jan 13, 2020
Berakhot 9

Can one recite shema right before and right after sunrise and fulfill both the night and day obligations? Why when the mishna lists mitzvot that can be done all night, it doesn't list eating the Pesach sacrifice? Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria and Rabbi Akiva have a debate regarding the time one can eat the Pesach sacrifice - midnight or until the end of the night. Why did the Jews borrow jewelry from the Egyptians before they left? Were they happy to do this or not? From when can one read shema in the mornig and until when? Does one need to juxtapose the blessing after shema of redemption to shmone esreh? If so, how does this effect the time whne one can say shema? 

Jan 12, 2020
Berakhot 8

It is best to pray at the time that the community is praying. Why is that? What type of things is it important to pray for? Is it better to pray in a synogogue or a place where one learns? Why? Is it best to live near one's rabbi or not? One should read the prasha twice and once with a translation before it is read in the synogogue. Is it ok to do a number of weeks at once? The gemara mentions things that rabbis taught there children regarding behaviors that one should be careful about - including some they learned from people of other nations. One should be careful not to sit on a bed of an Armean women - three interpretations are brought regarding the meaning of this. One explanantion includes a story of Rav Papa that was almost framed for killing a baby but was saved because he checked first under the bed and found the dead baby.

Jan 11, 2020
Berakhot 7


Does God pray? Does God get angry? If so, for how long? When? This was a secret that Bilam knew and would use it to curse people at that exact moment. It is more effective for one to realize one's mistakes internally and change their way, rather than to be punished and repent because of the punishment. Did God show his ways to Moshe or not when Moshe asked after the sin of the golden calf? If he didn't was it because of Moshe's behavior at the burning bush? Was his behavior there viewed favorably or not? Avraham was the first to call God master. One should not try to appease someone in their moment of anger. Leah was the first to thank. Why is Reuven called by that name? Why Ruth? It's much harder for a parent when a child deviates from the path, than the battle of Gog and Magog. Is it ok to rebuke wicked people? Under what circumstances? The gemara talks about the importance of have a set place to pray and of serving learned people.  

Jan 10, 2020
Berakhot 6

One should pray facing the wall. One's bed shouold be facing North to South. One who finishes praying earlier, should not leave a friend behind. Is this the case in every situation? Evil spirits (which may just mean anxieties) are all around us. What is the best way to deal with it? Best to pray in a synagogue. If ten people pray together, three people judge together and two (or even one) people learn together, the presence of God is there. God wears (figuratively) tefillin. Just as we declare the God is one, God declares that we are the chosen one. Best to choose a place and always pray there. One should not run away from the synagogue. One gets rewarded for running to learn, for crowing on to hear a shiur, for delving into the text, for being silent in the house of a mourner, for giving charity on a fast day, for praising a bride and groom. One cannot pray while facing a different direction from everyone else. One should be careful always to pray the mincha service (and all the others). One must make the bride and groom happy at their wedding. 

Jan 09, 2020
Berakhot 5

Why do we say Shema at night in bed? How do we view suffering? What is "suffering out of love"? Is there a way to know id the suffering is because you sinned or is it suffering out of love. Why do good things happen to bad people? How can we comfort others who are suffering? Rabbi Yochanan lost 10 children and would show people his faith by carrying the bone of his tenth son. Is it OK to steal from one who stole? 

Jan 08, 2020
Berakhot 4

Did Moshe and King David really not know when it was midnight? It seems that they did know. If so, why did Moshe say "around midnight" and what was the need to David's harp? How was David different from other kings? How did he respond when Mefiboshet corrected him? In what way was his son Kilav special? Why are there dots on the word "lulai" in the verse in Psalms? How can sinning affect something that is supposed to happen? Why did the Rabbis say one can say shema until midnight? One who doesn't keep to the words of the rabbis on this issue are deserving of death. Why so severe? Does one need to mention redemption right before shmone esrei in maariv - meaning does one say shema before or after shmone esrei? What is the basis for each opinion? If one says ashrei 3 times a day, one is guaranteed entry in the World to Come. Why? Why is the letter samech missing from ashrei?

Jan 07, 2020
Berakhot 3

Rabbi Eliezer says one can say shema until the end of the first watch. How many watches were there? Three or four? What are signs of each watch? Rabbi Yosi went into a ruin and prayed. Eliyahu Hanavi rebukes him for doing that. What are the three reasons why people can't go into a ruin? Did King David wake up at midnight? Or before? How did he know even when midnight was if even Moshe Rabeinu didn't know?

Jan 06, 2020
Berakhot 2

What is the time range in which one can say the prayer of Shema at night? Why did the mishna start in mid topic? Why with the night prayer and not the morning prayer of Shema? Why did they describe the time based on an action and not in a time frame connected to the sun (from when three stars come out)? The gemara brings several braitot that deal with the same question but bring different answers and the gemara tries to figure out what the different times are and how these different sources work together.

Jan 05, 2020
Niddah 73

Are the differences between nidda and zava something passed from by an old established tradition (halacha l'Moshe mi Sinai) or from verses? The braita raises all sorts of possibilities in order to understand how we know what the Torah meant the difference to be between nidda and zava and how to determine if blood is seen, which category does it fall into?

Jan 05, 2020
Niddah 72

What is the status of a woman who bleeds on the eleventh day of her zava days? To what extent, on her twelfth day is she similar to a woman who is shomeret yom k'neged yom. Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel disagree about that? After she goes to the mikveh on day 12, if she slept with her husband or dealt with pure items, what is the law? Is it dependent on whether she bleeds or not throughout that day? If a woman sees on day ten, is she considered a shomeret yom k'neged yom - because she cannot become a zava gedola. Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish debate this.

Jan 05, 2020
Niddah 71

A woman who dies – do we treat her clothes as clothes of a niddah (and require purification) or not? Why do Beit Shammai think we do? What is the status of blood that comes out of a woman as she is dying – does it carry impurities of niddah or of blood from a dead person which transfer impurity of a tent? What level of impurity is a woman considered when she is in her pure days following childbirth (after she goes to the mikveh for the first set of either 7 or 14)? What items can she touch and what can’t she touch? What is the status of a woman who sees blood for one day on her last day of being a zava – to what extent is she considered like a woman who normally sees one zava day who needs to wait out the wohle next day to see if she bleeds – as in this case, if she bleeds, she won’t be considered a zava but a niddah! What is she goes to the mikveh that night? Or the next morning and then slept with her husband without waiting out the day?

Jan 02, 2020