Science Friday

By Science Friday and WNYC Studios

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Category: Science & Medicine

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Subscribers: 6119
Reviews: 5

 Apr 25, 2019

Mike Miller
 Jan 20, 2019
not much science. Mostly, climate change lobbying, social justice issues and science politics. Better science podcasts elsewhere.

 Oct 18, 2018

A Podcast Republic user
 Jul 27, 2018

 Jul 16, 2018
Ira Flatow is an excellent host, and they cover a variety of topics. I always come away having learned something.


Brain fun for curious people.

Episode Date
SciFri Extra: About Time
<p><span>The official U.S. time is kept on a cesium fountain clock named NIST-F1, located in Boulder, Colorado. On a recent trip to Boulder, Ira took a trip to see the clock. He spoke with Elizabeth Donley, acting head of the Time and Frequency Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, about keeping the official U.S. time on track—and how NIST is using advanced physics to develop ever more precise and stable ways to measure time.</span></p>
Jun 25, 2019
Smoke Chasers, Colorado Apples, Pikas. June 21, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>When wildfires rage in the West, Colorado State University atmospheric scientist Emily Fischer hops into a plane, and <a href="" target="_blank">flies straight into the smoke</a>. The plane is a flying chemistry lab, studded with instruments, and Fischer’s goal is to uncover the chemical reactions happening in smoke plumes, to determine how wildfire smoke may affect ecosystems and human health.</span></p> <p><span>Pikas—those cute little animals that look like rodents but are actually more closely related to rabbits—used to roam high mountain habitats across the West. But global warming is pushing temperatures up in their high mountain habitats, and pikas are now confined to a few areas. And thanks to those warmer temperatures, which are threatening the pikas’ way of life, <a href="" target="_blank">they may be in danger of disappearing—potentially as early as the end of the century</a>. </span><span>In this segment, recorded as part of Science Friday’s live show at the Chautauqua Auditorium in Boulder, Colorado, Ira speaks with Chris Ray, a population biologist at the University of Colorado in Boulder. Ray is tagging and tracking the pikas to investigate how closely their fate is tied to climate change—and whether there’s a way to save them before it’s too late.</span></p> <p><span>In the late 1800, Colorado was one of the top apple growing states, but the industry was wiped out by drought and the creation of the red delicious apple in Washington state. But even today, apple trees can still be found throughout the area. Plant ecologist Katharine Suding created the <a href="" target="_blank">Boulder Apple Tree Project to map out the historic orchards</a>. She talks about Boulder’s historic orchards, some of the heirloom varieties like the Surprise and Arkansas Black, and a surprising connection to a hit Hollywood franchise. Plus, cider maker Daniel Haykin talks about how he uses the information from the Boulder Apple Tree Project combined with sugar, yeast and apples to make the bubbly beverage.</span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p>
Jun 21, 2019
Cephalopod Week 2019, Climate and Microbes, Puppy Eyes, Wave Energy. June 21, 2019, Part 1
<p>For eight glorious days during the end of June, Science Friday honors the mighty mollusks of the ocean—<a href="" target="_blank">Cephalopod Week returns for the sixth year</a>! And we’re cephalo-brating with a tidal wave of ways for you to participate. This year, we want to know your favorite cephalopod. Is it the charismatic giant Pacific octopus or the long-lived chambered nautilus? Science Friday digital producer Lauren Young and biologist Diana Li add their own favorite cephalopods to the ultimate undersea showdown. They talk about the bizarre defenses of the blanket octopus, speedy squid getaways, and octopuses that play with LEGOs.</p> <p>We may refer to Earth as “our planet,” <a href="" target="_blank">but it really belongs to the microbes</a>. All the plants and animals on Earth are relatively new additions to the planetary ecosystem. But despite living basically everywhere on the planet, and playing a role in many of the processes that affect the climate, the connection between microbes and the climate is often ignored. That needs to change, says a consensus statement published this week by researchers in the journal Nature Reviews: Microbiology. Take the issue of methane emissions from agriculture, particularly beef production. “The methane doesn’t come from the cows,” said David Mark Welch, director of the Division of Research at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole. “It comes from microbes in the cows.” In a similar way, emissions coming from rice paddies aren’t caused by the rice—they are caused by microbes living in stagnant water around the rice. <span>David Mark Welch, one of the co-authors of the consensus statement, joins Ira to discuss the deep connections between microorganisms and the climate, and why scientists and policymakers should pay more attention to microbes in the climate arena.</span></p> <p>If you’ve ever suspected your dog of looking extra cute to get a bite of your steak or pizza, it’s probably because you couldn’t resist their puppy dog eyes. Over time, <a href="" target="_blank">dogs have evolved to make their eyes look bigger and more baby-like</a>. In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, researchers have discovered that dogs have muscles around their eyes that help them make puppy dog eyes at you. They also found that wolves, the wild ancestor of the dog, don’t have these muscles. Anne Burrows, one of the researchers in their study, joins Ira to discuss how dogs have evolved these muscles and why people are so susceptible to their big, sad-looking eyes. Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere also joins to talk about other ways that dogs have evolved to strengthen the human-dog bond.</p> <p>A renewable energy project planned off the coast of Newport <a href="" target="_blank">is taking a step forward</a>. Oregon State University has submitted a final license application for a wave energy testing facility with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. If built, it would be the largest of its kind in the United States. Oregon’s potential to use the motion of the waves to generate electricity is very high. But nationally, the development of wave energy has lagged behind other green energy sources. Part of the delay is the time and expense involved in permitting new technology. Not only do companies have to pay to develop this kind of clean tech, they also have to go through a lengthy and expensive permitting process before being allowed to see if their ideas work in the real world. This is where Oregon State University’s PacWave South Project comes in. The university plans to create a wave energy testing facility about six miles off the Oregon Coast. The idea is that energy developers will be able to by-pass the permitting and just pay the University to test their wave energy converters in the water.</p>
Jun 21, 2019
Degrees Of Change: Urban Heat Islands. June 14, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>We’ve known for more than 200 years that cities are hotter than surrounding rural areas. All that concrete and brick soaks up the sun’s rays, then re-emits them as heat long after night has fallen. On top of that, waste heat from the energy we use to power our buildings, vehicle emissions, and even air conditioning units can cause some cities to be as many as 20 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than their rural surroundings—creating “<a href="" target="_blank">urban heat islands</a>.” Between the toll that heat takes on the body and the concurrent air quality problems that heat exacerbates,<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>heat waves kill more Americans per year than any other weather-related event</span></a><span>. And if enough city residents are using air conditioning to beat the heat, power outages from overworked grids can add to the risk of mortality.</span></p> <p><span>As the globe warms, urban heat islands are projected to become more pronounced, with<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>even hotter temperatures and a more stark urban-rural divide</span></a><span>. But scientists and engineers have been working on solutions to reflect the sun before it can raise temperatures, such as<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>cooler roofing materials</span></a><span><span> </span>and<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>heat-reflecting pigments</span></a><span>,<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>cool pavements</span></a><span>,<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>green roofs</span></a><span>, and<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>neighborhood green space</span></a><span>. Ronnen Levinson of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory joins Ira to describe what we know about cool infrastructure, while Global Cool Cities Alliance executive director Kurt Shickman explains how cities around the world are implementing solutions—and why it may take something as bureaucratic as building codes to see mass adoption of cooling strategies.</span></p> <h2>Los Angeles: Cool Roofs And Fitting The Solution To Landscapes</h2> <p><span>The city of Los Angeles passed the first mandate for<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>residential buildings to have high-reflectivity roofs</span></a><span>, a step up from the past requirements, which only applied to flat, commercial roofs. Los Angeles is also<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>pouring cool pavements</span></a><span><span> </span>to test their effectiveness in lowering temperatures. But</span><span> how do you pick the right intervention for any given neighborhood in a city with as big and varied a landscape as Los Angeles? USC scientist George Ban-Weiss talks about his work <a href="" target="_blank">tailoring cool solutions to individual neighborhoods</a>.</span></p> <h2>New York City: Green Roofs And Community Activists </h2> <p><span>While heat waves are<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>projected to kill thousands</span></a><span><span> </span>of New Yorkers per year by 2080, that pain is not likely to be distributed evenly. </span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>Research has found</span></a><span> hotter urban heat islands are home to higher percentages of poor people and people of color. Meanwhile, while New York City alerts residents of heat events and offers cooling shelters for them to go to, the shelters can be difficult for people to access, or even hear about. </span><span>Community groups in the Bronx, Harlem, and other parts of the city are working<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>both to cool down their neighborhoods, and connect residents to life-saving cooling</span></a><span>. Justine Calma, a reporter for Grist, details the environmental justice problem of the urban heat island, and <a href="" target="_blank">how New York City is responding</a>.</span></p> <h2>Phoenix: The Hottest City In The U.S. Is Trying Everything</h2> <p><span>Phoenix, Arizona, experiences temperatures over 100 degrees in the summer, and researchers are only expecting summers to get hotter and longer. Hot season durations are projected to increase by several weeks on both ends, while the likelihood of temperatures that exceed 115 degrees is only expected to grow. In 2017, an estimated 155 people died of heat-related causes in the Phoenix area.</span></p> <p><span>But the city has been taking the heat seriously. Phoenix has been painting municipal building roofs white since 2006. The city also has ambitious goals to establish shade trees, shelters along public transit routes, and a HeatReady program that would put heat planning on par with disaster preparedness—all with help from scientists like Arizona State University researcher David Hondula. Hondula joins Ira to describe the challenges of getting cities invested in heat preparedness, both short-term and long-term, and <a href="" target="_blank">what’s next for Phoenix</a>.</span></p> <h2 class="cb-title title-serif">What Are The Presidential Candidates’ Climate Plans?</h2> <p><span>The first Democratic presidential debate will take place at the end of the month and climate change is becoming a central issue. Former Vice President Joe Biden, Senator Elizabeth Warren, and other presidential hopefuls have released their versions of a climate plan. The different proposals range from increases in spending to executive action. </span><span>Climate and environment reporter Rebecca Leber of<span> </span></span><em><span>Mother Jones</span></em><span><span> <a href="" target="_blank">outlines the major differences between these plans</a></span>.</span></p>
Jun 14, 2019
The Best Summer Science Books. June 14, 2019, Part 2
<h2 class="cb-title title-serif">The Best Science Books To Read This Summer</h2> <p><span>They say a vacation is only as good as the book you bring with you. And these days it feels like there are as many ways to consume science writing as there are fields of science. Whether you’re a fan of historical nonfiction, graphic novels, poetry or short essays, this year’s panel of summer science books experts has the one you’re looking for to take with you on your journey.</span></p> <p>Alison Gilchrist is a graduate student researcher at CU Boulder and host of the podcast Buff Talk Science, and editor in chief of<span> </span>Science Buffs. Caren Cooper is an associate professor of public science at NC State University and author of <em>Citizen Science: How Ordinary People Are Changing the Face of Discovery. </em>Stephanie Sendaula is associate editor for <em>Library Journal Reviews</em>.<span> </span>They join Ira to talk about <a href="" target="_blank">what they</a><span><a href="" target="_blank"> have chosen for their best summer science reads</a>.</span></p> <h2 class="cb-title title-serif">Chronic Wasting Disease In Wildlife</h2> <div class="cb-desc"> <p><a href="" target="_blank">Chronic wasting disease</a> is a fatal illness affecting the brains of deer, moose, and elk. Since its discovery in 1967, the disease has been detected in at least<span> 26 states, three Canadian provinces, Norway, Sweden, and South Korea. <span>Rae Ellen Bichell, a reporter with the Mountain West News Bureau and KUNC,<span><span> </span>talks about the disease, research into its origin and spread, and what’s known about the possible effects of human exposure.</span></span></span></p> </div>
Jun 14, 2019
Quantum Leaps, Cancer Drugs, Cat Cameras. June 7, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>The “spooky physics” of the quantum world has long been marked by two key ideas: The idea of superposition, meaning that a quantum particle can exist in multiple states simultaneously, and the idea of randomness, meaning that it’s impossible to predict when certain quantum transitions will take place. </span><span>Writing in the journal </span><em><span>Nature</span></em><span>, Zlatko Minev and colleagues report that they may be able to make the quantum behavior slightly less mysterious. <a href="">Minev joins Ira</a></span><span> to talk about the finding, and what new directions it might open up in quantum research.</span></p> <p><span>For patients whose cancer has metastasis, the options can be limited. While new drugs are being developed, they are often only approved for a specific subset or stage of cancer—sometimes even a specific age group. However, researchers are looking <a href="">to expand on a pool of patients that can get these new drugs</a>. </span><span>Dr. Sara Hurvitz, the director of the Breast Cancer Research Program at UCLA, joins Ira to talk about how a drug that was approved for breast cancer in postmenopausal women may soon be available for younger patients. Plus,</span><span> Dr. Neeraj Agarwal, the director of the Genitourinary Oncology Program, to talk about a new treatment option for patients with metastatic prostate cancer.</span></p> <p><span>If you want the real scoop on what your cat is doing while you’re away, researchers are studying that very question, <a href="">using cat cameras</a>. Our feline friends spend quite a lot of time outside of our line of sight, and we imagine them napping, bathing, playing, hunting. But that’s merely speculation. To get the data, researchers need to catch them in the act. Maren Huck, Senior Lecturer at the University of Derby in the UK, recently published a methodological study where she successfully tracked the movements of 16 outdoor domestic cats to find out what they were up to. She joins Ira to discuss the findings, which she published in the journal </span><em><span>Applied Animal Behavior Science. </span></em><span>Plus, cat behavior specialist and University California Davis Veterinary School researcher Mikel Delgado joins the conversation to talk more about catching cat behavior on camera, and what we can learn from recording their secret lives. </span></p> <p><span> </span></p>
Jun 07, 2019
Gender Bias In Research Trials, Antarctica, Tornado Engineering. June 7, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>For half a century, most neuroscience experiments have had one glaring flaw: They've ignored female study subjects. The reason? Researchers claimed, for example, that female rats and mice would skew their data, due to hormonal cycling. </span><span>Writing in the journal </span><em><span>Science</span></em><span>, neuroscientist Rebecca Shansky says that view is out of date—and it's been harming science too. She and <em>Radiolab </em></span><span>producer and co-host Molly Webster join Ira to talk about <a href="">the past, present, and future of laboratory research</a>, and whether science can leave these outdated gender stereotypes behind.</span></p> <p><span>The Onyx River is the longest river in Antarctica, flowing for 19 miles from the coastal Wright Lower Glacier and ending in Lake Vanda. This seasonal stream also has a long scientific record—it has been continuously monitored by scientists for 50 years. Science Friday’s education director Ariel Zych took a trip to the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica to visit scientists in the field who are part of this monitoring project. She and limnologist and biogeochemist Diane McKnight, who has spent decades studying these rivers, <a href="">talk about the frozen desert ecosystem these waterways transect</a>, and how climate change has affected the continent in the last 50 years.</span></p> <p><span>Plus: researchers in Missouri are examining the after-effects of recent tornadoes to engineer stronger homes. Eli Chen of St. Louis Public Radio tells Ira more in <a href="">The State of Science</a>.</span></p> <p><span>And science journalist Annalee Newitz talks about the Trump Administration's recent fetal tissue research ban in <a href="">this week's News Roundup</a>.</span></p>
Jun 07, 2019
SciFri Extra: Remembering Murray Gell-Mann
<p><span>Physicist Murray Gell-Mann died recently at the age of 89. He received the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles, and is credited with giving quarks their name. But he was known for more than just physics—he was a co-founder of the Santa Fe Institute, and a champion of creativity and interdisciplinary research.  </span></p> <p><span>One of his biggest interests was exploring the “chain of relationships”  that connects basic physical laws and the subatomic world to the complex systems that we can see, hear, and experience. He joined Ira in 1994 to discuss those chains, the topic of his book “The Quark and the Jaguar.”</span></p>
Jun 04, 2019
Climate Politics, Football and Math, Ether. May 31, 2019, Part 2
<p><span><span>A green wave is sweeping through Washington, and it’s picking up Republicans who are eager to share their ideas on clean energy and climate change. </span><span>But even as Republican lawmakers turn to shaping climate policy, the White House is doubling down on climate denial, forming a “climate review panel” to vet and discredit the already peer-reviewed science on climate change. </span><span>So where will climate science end up? </span><span>Ira’s joined by marine biologist Ayana Elizabeth Johnson and climate scientist Michael Mann for a round table conversation about <a href="">climate politics, policy, and science activism</a></span><span>.</span></span></p> <p><span>Growing up, John Urschel grew up playing both math puzzles and high school football, and he would follow both of those passions. After playing for the Baltimore Ravens, he is now currently a mathematics Ph.D. candidate at MIT. He joins Ira to discuss <a href="">seeing the world from a mathematical perspective</a> and how he was able to balance the challenges of math and football.</span></p> <p><span>Albert Michelson was a Polish immigrant who grew up in the hard-scrabble atmosphere of the California gold rush. </span><span>In his physics career, Michelson also measured the speed of light to an unprecedented degree of accuracy, and designed one of the most elegant physics experiments in the 19th century, to detect something that ultimately didn’t even exist: the “<a href="">luminiferous ether</a>.” </span><span>Science historian David Kaiser tells the story of how that idea rose and fell in this interview with Ira and Science Friday’s</span><span> </span><span>Annie Minoff.</span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p>
May 31, 2019
Spoiler Alert, Glyphosate, Unisexual Salamanders. May 31, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>How many times has this happened to you? You’re standing in front of an open freezer, wondering what type of mystery meat has been left in there, when you purchased it, and if it’s still safe to eat? If you’re puzzled by sell-by dates, freezer burn, and just how long food can remain edible, you’re not alone. Studies show that more than 80 percent of Americans misinterpret date labels and throw food away prematurely to protect their families’ health. That adds up to $218 billion worth of food each year. </span><span>Janell Goodwin, with the USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service, and Francisco Diez-Gonzales, professor and director of the Center for Food Safety at the University of Georgia, join Ira for <a href="">a master class in food microbiology and safety</a>. Then, Roni Neff of Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health explains how confusion over date labeling is worsening food waste and climate change.</span></p> <p>Plus: A population of mole salamanders in the Midwest is throwing a curveball at our understanding of sex and reproduction. Some populations of this salamander are unisexual—they’re females that can reproduce without males. <span>Katie Greenwald, an associate professor of biology at Eastern Michigan University, <span>joins Ira to explain <a href="">what advantages living a single-sex life</a> may have for the mole salamander.</span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>The herbicide glyphosate, found in products such as Roundup, has become a crucial tool on midwestern farms—but weeds are becoming resistant. What's next? </span></span></span>Chris Walljasper, a reporter from the Midwest<span> Center for Investigative Reporting, tells Ira more on the <a href="">State Of Science</a>.</span></p> <p><span>And <em>The Atlantic</em>'s Sarah Zhang tells us what's whipping up 2019's active tornado season in this week's <a href="">News Roundup</a>.</span></p>
May 31, 2019
SciFri Extra: A Relatively Important Eclipse
<p>This week marks the 100th anniversary of an eclipse that<span> forever changed physics and our understanding of the universe.</span></p> <p><span><span>In May 1919, scientists set out for Sobral, Brazil, and Príncipe, an island off the west coast of Africa, to photograph the momentarily starry sky during a total eclipse. Their scientific aim was to test whether the sun’s gravity would indeed bend light rays from faraway stars, as predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity. After analyzing the data from the brief minutes of darkness, they declared Einstein correct.</span></span></p> <p><span>Carlo Rovelli, physicist and author, tells Ira the story.</span></p>
May 28, 2019
Bees! May 24, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>For the hobby beekeeper, there’s much to consider when homing your first domestic honey bee colonies—what kind of hive to get, where to put them, where to get your bees, and how to help them survive the winter.</span></p> <p><span>But when left to their own devices, what do the bees themselves prefer? From smaller nests to higher openings, wild honey bees seem to prefer very different conditions from the closely clustered square boxes of traditional beekeeping.</span></p> <p><span>But there are ways to adapt! Seeley joins Ira to explain his <a href="" target="_blank">theory of “Darwinian beekeeping” </a>as a way to keep bees healthy even in the age of<span> </span></span><em><span>varroa</span></em><span><span> </span>mites and colony collapse.</span></p> <p><span>Plus, apiculturalist Elina L. Niño of the University of California Davis talks about the microbial world of bees, such as whether probiotics could benefit bee health, and<a href="" target="_blank"> how honey bees and bumblebees could be used to distribute beneficial microbes to plants, an idea called ‘apivectoring.’</a></span></p>
May 24, 2019
Ebola Outbreak, Climate Play, Navajo Energy. May 24, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>What would it take to power a subsea factory of the future? Plus, other stories from <a href="" target="_blank">this week in science news.</a></span></p> <p><span><span>Then, as the last coal-fired power plant plans to shut down at the end of the year, <a href="" target="_blank">the Navajo Tribe is embracing renewables.</a></span><a href="" target="_blank"> </a></span></p> <p><span>Next, i<span>n the Democratic Republic of Congo, distrust of the government and healthcare workers are <a href="" target="_blank">hampering efforts to contain the current outbreak.</a></span></span></p> <p><span><span>Finally, in a new climate change play, a playwright explores <a href="" target="_blank">what kinds of narratives we need to stir action on climate. </a></span></span></p>
May 24, 2019
New Horizons Discovery, Science Fair Finalists, Screams. May 17, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>The most happening New Year’s Party of 2019 wasn’t at Times Square or Paris—it was in the small town of Laurel, Maryland, halfway between Baltimore and Washington, D.C., at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab. There, scientists shared the stage with kids decked out in NASA gear, party hats, and astronaut helmets. They were there to count down not to the new year, but to the New Horizons spacecraft flying by a very distant, very ancient, <a href="" target="_blank">snowman-shaped object</a>: MU69. </span><span>Now, the first haul of data about that mysterious object has returned. They reveal that MU69 is one of the reddest objects we’ve explored in the solar system, built from two skipping-stone-shaped bodies, each the size of small cities. Those details are featured in a cover story in the journal<span> </span></span><em><span>Science</span></em><span>. Lead author Alan Stern joins Ira here to talk about it.</span></p> <p>This week, more than 1,800 student scientists from 80 countries converged in Phoenix to present their projects for Intel’s International Science and Engineering Fair, a competition founded by the Society for Science and the Public. <a href="" target="_blank">Ira chats with two of the finalists</a>. Colorado high school junior Krithik Ramesh came up with an idea for a real-time virtual tool for surgeons doing spinal surgeries, and Arizona high school freshman Ella Wang, along with her partner Breanna Tang, cooked up an innovative use for waste from soybean food products—enriching depleted farm soils.</p> <p>When you hear a scream, you automatically perk up. It catches your attention. <a href="" target="_blank">But scientists are still working to define what exactly makes a scream</a>. People scream when they are scared or happy. It’s not just a humans, either—all types of animals scream, from frogs to macaques. Psychologist Harold Gouzoules and his team measured the acoustic properties of a human scream by actually playing screams for people: Screams of fright, screams of excitement, and even a whistle. He joins Ira to talks about the evolutionary basis of screaming and what it can tell us about how human nonverbal communication.</p>
May 17, 2019
Degrees Of Change: Sea Level Rise, Coal-Use Decline. May 17, 2019, Part 1
<p>As the frequency of tropical storms and droughts increase and sea levels rise with climate change, forested wetlands along the Atlantic coast are <a href="" target="_blank">slowly filling with dead and dying trees</a>. The accelerating spread of these “ghost forests” over the past decade has ecologists alarmed and eager to understand how they are formed and what effect they will have regionally and globally.</p> <p> One interdisciplinary group of researchers from North Carolina State University and Duke University are examining the causes and effects of repeated saltwater exposure to the coastal wetlands of North Carolina. Using soil and sediment sampling, remote hydrological monitoring, vegetation plotting, as well as spatial maps, the research team is determining the tipping point for when a struggling forest will become a ghost forest. According to ecologist Emily Bernhardt, their preliminary findings suggest that climate change is not the only culprit in the region.</p> <p>Agricultural irrigation and wastewater ditches that criss-cross much of the Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula facilitate the flow of saltwater intrusion deep into the landscape, wreaking ecological and economic havoc. Working with Brian Boutin, director of the Nature Conservancy’s Albemarle-Pamlico Program, Dr. Bernhardt and colleagues hope to provide valuable scientific insights to local farmers, wetlands managers, and regional decision-makers to plan for the further intrusions and hopefully mitigate the effects.</p> <p><span>Meanwhile, less than 100 miles up the coast from the Albemarle-Pamlico peninsula, the cities of Hampton Roads, Virginia along the Chesapeake Bay are facing some of the worst flooding due to sea level rise in the country. In Norfolk, home of the United States Navy, tides have increased as much as eight inches since the 1970s, and<span> </span></span><span>roads that lead from the community directly to naval installations are particularly vulnerable to flooding.</span></p> <p><span>But in the last 10 years, Hampton Roads has begun to adapt. “When we first started having these discussions, there was a lot of concern about, should we be having discussions like this in public. What would be the potential impacts on economic development or on the population growth here?” said Ben McFarlane, senior regional planner with the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission. “Now it’s recognized and people know it’s happening. I think the strategy has changed to being more of a ‘Let’s stop talking about how bad it is and how bad it’s going to get. And let’s start talking about solutions.’”</span></p> <p><span>The Planning District Commission supports the use of living shorelines and ordinance changes that discourage developing in flood prone areas. Norfolk has even been named one of the Rockefeller Foundation’s 100 Resilient Cities in part for its efforts <a href="" target="_blank">promoting coastal resiliency in the face of sea level rise</a>.</span></p> <p>Plus, the latest investment report from the International Energy Agency was released this week, and shows that in 2018, final investment decisions were made to support bringing an additional 22GW of coal-fired electric generation online—but in the same year, around 30 GW of coal-burning generating capacity were closed. Of course, coal plants are still under construction, and there are thousands of terawatts of coal-generating capacity worldwide, so the end of coal is nowhere in sight yet—<a href="" target="_blank">but the investment report may indicate a tipping point in the global energy budget</a>.</p> <p>Kendra Pierre-Louis, a reporter on the climate desk at the New York Times, joins Ira to talk about that and other climate news—including the President’s energy policy remarks at a natural gas plant, the discovery of another ocean garbage patch of plastic, and the rise of “climate refuge cities.”</p>
May 17, 2019
Biodiversity Report And The Science Of Parenting. May 10, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>According to a new UN report on global biodiversity, as many as one million species—both plants and animals—are now at risk of extinction, according to a new UN report on global biodiversity. That number includes 40% of all amphibian species, 33% of corals, and around 10% of insects.</span></p> <p><span>One might assume that this type of devastating species loss could only come as a result of one thing—climate change. But in fact, as the report highlights illustrate, it’s deforestation, changes in land and sea use, hunting, poaching, pollution, invasive species—in short, human interventions</span><em><span>—</span></em><span>that are causing species to disappear at a rate tens to hundreds of times higher than what has been seen over the last 10 million years. <span>Walter Jetz,<span> </span></span><span>professor in ecology and evolutionary biology at Yale University, joins Ira to discuss why<span> <a href="" target="_blank">the damage we do to biodiversity in our lifetimes may never be undone</a></span></span><span>.</span></span></p> <p><span><span>Plus, if you're a new parent, <span>you’ve probably had one of these nights. You’re up at 3 a.m., baby screaming, searching the internet for an answer to a question you’ve never thought to ask before: Are pacifiers bad for your baby? What about that weird breathing? Is that normal? Or is it time to head to the emergency room? </span></span></span></p> <p><span>Emily Oster is a health economist and mother of two who had a lot of those same questions as she raised her kids. She dove into the data to find out what the science actually says about sleep training, breastfeeding, introducing solid foods, and lots more in her new book, <em><em><span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Cribsheet: A Data-Driven Guide to Better, More Relaxed Parenting, from Birth to Preschool</a></span></em></em><span>. </span></span></p> <p><span><span><a href="" target="_blank">Ira chats with Oster and </a><span><a href="" target="_blank">Nikita Sood</a> of Cohen Children’s Medical Center, who monitors the underground market for breastmilk and explains why parents should be cautious.</span></span></span> </p>
May 10, 2019
Superconductivity Search, Ride-Share Congestion, Lions Vs. Porcupines. May 10, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>Six decades ago, a group of physicists came up with a theory that described electrons at a low temperature that could attract a second electron. If the electrons were in the right configuration, they could conduct electricity with zero resistance. The<span> </span></span><a href=""><span>Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory</span></a><span>, named after the three physicists, is the basis for how superconductivity works at a quantum level. Superconductivity would allow electricity to flow with no loss of heat from its system.</span></p> <p><span>Since that time, scientists have been trying to find a real-world material that fits that theory. One way to achieve this is by turning hydrogen into a metal. This is accomplished by squeezing hydrogen gas between two diamonds at such a high pressure that it solidifies. That metal then becomes a superconductor at room temperature. Previously, achieving zero resistance had only been possible by cooling the superconductor to near absolute zero.</span></p> <p><span>Ira and<span> </span></span><em><span>Gizmodo</span></em><span><span> </span>science writer Ryan Mandelbaum talk with physicist Maddury Somayazulu and theoretical chemist Eva Zurek about <a href="" target="_blank">the progress towards creating a room-temperature superconductor and how this type of material could be used in quantum computing and other technology</a>.</span></p> <p><span><span>During times of drought or disease, lions have to turn to other sources of food like the East African porcupine. But while the lion may get a quick meal when it attacks a porcupine, the porcupine may win in the long run. <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>Writing in the <em>Journal of East African Natural History</em></span></a><span>, Julian Kerbis Peterhans and colleagues </span><span>found that an untreated porcupine quill wound is often enough to severely injure a lion. If the wound becomes infected or hinders eating, it can lead to death. And, when a lion is injured and has difficulty hunting its usual prey, it can sometimes turn to easier sources of food—like humans.<span> <span>Kerbis joins Ira to talk about the study, and what <a href="" target="_blank">this seemingly mismatched battle can teach us about survival in the animal kingdom</a>.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Plus, a</span></span></span></span></span> new study found that the presence of <a href="" target="_blank">services like Uber and Lyft increased road congestion in San Francisco</a>. And a roundup of the week's science news, including <a href="" target="_blank">a rattling remark about climate change</a> from <span>U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at an Arctic Council meeting.</span></p>
May 10, 2019
Neuroscientists Peer Into The Mind's Eye, Alexander von Humboldt. May 3, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>It sounds like a sci-fi plot: Hook a real brain up to artificial intelligence, and let the two talk to each other. That’s the design of<span> </span></span><span>a new study</span><span><span> </span>in the journal<span> </span></span><em><span>Cell</span></em><span>, in which artificial intelligence networks displayed images to monkeys, and then <a href="" target="_blank">studied how the monkey’s neurons responded to the picture.</a> The computer network could then use that information about the brain’s responses to tweak the image, displaying a new picture that might resonate more with the monkey’s visual processing system.</span></p> <p><span><span>In 1799, the Prussian naturalist Alexander von Humboldt embarked on the most ambitious scientific voyage of his life. On the Spanish ship<span> </span></span><em><span>Pizarro,<span> </span></span></em><span>he set sail for South America with 42 carefully chosen scientific instruments. There, he would climb volcanoes, collect countless plant and animal specimens, and eventually come to the conclusion that the natural world was a unified entity—biology, geology and meteorology all conjoining to determine what life took hold where. In the process, he also described human-induced climate change—and was perhaps the first person to do so. <span>Author Andrea Wulf and illustrator Lillian Melcher retell the voyages of Alexander von Humboldt in <a href="" target="_blank">a new, illustrated book that draws upon Humboldt’s own journal pages.</a></span></span></span></p>
May 03, 2019
Business Planning For Climate Change,The Digital Afterlife. May 3, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>Scientists have built all sorts of models to predict the likelihood of extreme weather events. But it’s not just scientists who are interested in these models. </span><span>Telecomm giant AT&amp;T teamed up with scientists at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois to build a climate map of the Southeastern part of the country, overlaid with a map of AT&amp;T’s infrastructure. Climate scientist Rao Kothamarthi from Argonne Labs discusses the process of <a href="" target="_blank">creating hyperlocal climate change models</a>, and Shannon Carroll, director of environmental sustainability at At&amp;T, talks about how the company can use that information for <a href="" target="_blank">making decisions on how to protect their infrastructure.</a></span></p> <p><span><span>Social media is, in many ways, the record keeper of our lives. It may be time to start thinking about how we preserve that record for the future. How should we think about the online profiles of the deceased? As the person’s property or as their remains? Should they be inherited or passed on? Preserved or deleted? <a href="" target="_blank">We<span> discuss planning for the digital afterlife. </span></a></span></span></p>
May 03, 2019
Measles, Poetry Month, Lemur Hibernation. April 26, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>Back in 1963, before the development of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, there were 4 million cases of measles every year. It took nearly four decades, but by 2000, enough people had become vaccinated that the measles virus was eliminated in the U.S.</span></p> <p><span>But since then, the ranks of unvaccinated people have grown, and the measles virus has been reintroduced into the U.S. This week, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officials<span> </span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">report</a><span> </span>over 600 cases of measles across 22 states. </span><span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dr. Saad Omer</a>, professor of Global Health, Epidemiology, and Pediatrics at Emory University joins Ira to <a href="" target="_blank">answer questions about the current outbreak, including how much worse conditions could get</a>.</span></p> <p><span><span>Every year, hundreds pack Pioneer Works in Brooklyn, New York for “</span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>The Universe In Verse</span></a><span>,” a live celebration of writing that has found inspiration from science and scientists. </span></span><span>This year’s event, which featured readings from guests including Amanda Palmer, David Byrne, and Josh Groban, celebrated the 100th anniversary of Sir Arthur Eddington’s<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>groundbreaking experiment</span></a><span><span> </span>to prove general relativity. The poems also honored Albert Einstein’s legacy in describing the universe as we understand it today.</span></p> <p><span>Maria Popova, founder and editor of<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>Brain Pickings</span></a><span>, and astrophysicist Janna Levin, both writers as well, join Ira for <a href="" target="_blank">a conversation about the enduring link between art and science, and share readings of their favorite works</a>.</span></p> <p><span><span><span>What has big eyes, a bushy tail, and is the only primate to go into hibernation six months out of the year? It’s the fat-tailed dwarf lemur, an endangered species endemic to the island of Madagascar. During their hibernation period, the lemurs enter a state of torpor, which essentially disables the animals’ internal thermostat. It turns out we humans possess the same gene that is activated when the lemur initiates torpor—we just don’t know how to activate it. Science Friday video producer Luke Groskin traveled to the only captive colony of dwarf lemurs in the world outside of Madagascar, the Duke Lemur Center in North Carolina, to <a href="" target="_blank">investigate the sleeping cuties’ hibernation habits—and how they could apply to humans</a>.</span></span></span></p>
Apr 26, 2019
Degrees of Change: Sponge Cities and Pocket Prairies. April 26, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>Climate change is happening—now we need to deal with it.<span> <a href="" target="_blank">Degrees of Change</a>,</span></span><span><span> </span>a new series of hour-long radio specials from<span> </span>Science Friday, explores the problem of climate change and how we as a planet are adapting to it. </span><span>In this first chapter, SciFri looks at how climate change</span><span><span> a</span>ffects water systems. This year, there were<span> </span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">record downpours in the American Midwest</a><span> </span>that washed out levees and caused catastrophic flooding. Meanwhile,<span> </span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">California is recovering</a><span> </span>from a seven year-long drought that led to water shortages across the state.</span></p> <p><span>Cities are starting to rethink their water futures and how they can make their communities more resilient. <span>Here are <a href="" target="_blank">two examples</a> of how cities around the world are adapting to their climate change future.</span></span></p> <h2>The ‘Sponge Cities’ Of China</h2> <p><span>In China, more people are leaving the countryside and moving into big cities. Shenzhen in the south has gone from a city of 50,000 people to over 13 million in just three decades. This rapid urbanization has led to more construction, more concrete, and entire landscapes that have been paved over. Mix that with stronger storms driven to climate change, and the stage is set for future water disasters.</span></p> <p><span>To combat this, the Chinese government started <a href="">the “Sponge Cities” program</a> in 2014, which calls for cities to soak up and reuse 70% of their rainwater.</span></p> <p><span>Journalist Erica Gies and Chris Zevenbergen, flood risk management expert, talks about the pedestrian bridges, green roofs and terraced urban landscapes that architects and engineers are designing to build resiliency and what needs to be done to expand these ideas to the rest of the country.</span></p> <h2>The ‘Pocket Prairies’ Of Houston</h2> <p><span>In 2017, Hurricane Harvey hit some areas of Houston with nearly four feet of rain, causing widespread flooding throughout the city. As the city rebuilds, “pocket prairies” are among the tools being used to manage future flooding. These patches of native prairie grass can be planted anywhere—in front yards, traffic medians, parking lots, vacant lots, and between city buildings—and high quality prairie habitat can hold up to nine inches of rainwater during a storm, reducing the likelihood of catastrophic floods.</span></p> <p><span>“At a neighborhood level, they can manage the ‘flash’ part of ‘flash floods,’” says Laura Huffman, Texas regional director of<span> </span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Nature Conservancy</a>. Plus, pocket prairies provide additional benefits, she says. As rainwater seeps into soil, it pre-treats chemicals in the rain, helping to keep them out of the water supply. In this conversation, Gies and Huffman <a href="" target="_blank">explain the benefits of pocket prairies and other green infrastructure.</a></span></p> <h2 class="cb-title title-serif">The Climate Effects Of A Heated Campaign Season</h2> <div class="cb-desc"> <p>The Democratic presidential primary field is vast—where do the candidates stand on climate issues? <span>Scott Waldman, White House reporter with Climatewire and E&amp;E News, joins Ira <a href="" target="_blank">to talk about how 2020 presidential campaigns are addressing climate change</a>, plus other climate-related stories of the week—from Facebook's plans to fact-check hot button issues like climate change to a new study that attempts to put a price tag on the effects of Arctic melting.  </span><span> </span> </p> </div>
Apr 26, 2019
5G, Pig Brains, Privacy For Nature. April 19, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>Last week, President Trump announced </span><a href=""><span>a new initiative</span></a><span> to push forward the implementation of 5G, the next generation of wireless connectivity for smartphones and other devices. How is this faster speed possible, and how quickly will it become accessible to consumers? Washington Post technology reporter Brian Fung explains the innovations that would enable greater rates of data transmission. Plus: </span><span>Harold Feld, a lawyer and consumer advocate, says not everyone will benefit equally from 5G as plans currently stand—</span><a href=""><span>including rural communities</span></a><span>.</span></p> <p><span>One of the top technology candidates for 5G relies on higher frequencies and bringing more<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span>smaller-signal base stations</span></a><span><span> </span>much closer to the people using them. But what does research say about how it will affect human health? Researchers review what the literature has suggested so far about non-ionizing radiation from 2G and 3G, including a 2018 study from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) that found an increase in tumors for male rats. The NTP’s John Bucher and Jonathan Samet of the Colorado School of Public Health join Ira to discuss the data, and the limitations of research to date. Plus,<span> </span></span><span>toxicologist and epidemiologist Devra Davis of the<span> </span></span><span>Environmental Health Trust</span><span><span> </span>provides a statement on the health concerns of 5G.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span>Plus: Spring is a great time to get out and enjoy the outdoors—and increasingly, people are using citizen science apps like eBird and iNaturalist to record sightings and share data. But the public nature of some citizen science platforms can make them liable for abuse, such as people using location data collected by the apps to disturb—or even poach—threatened species. April Glaser, a technology reporter for Slate, <a href="">tells Ira more</a>.</span></p> <p><span>And Sarah Kaplan, science reporter at the Washington Post, joins Ira to talk about post-death pig brains, Jovian moons, and more in this week's <a href="">News Roundup</a>.</span></p>
Apr 19, 2019
New Human Species, Census, Plankton, Brain Etchings. April 19, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>Last week, researchers announced they’d found the remains of a new species of ancient human on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. It was just a few teeth and bones from toes and hands, but they appeared to have a strange mix of ancient and modern human traits scientists had never seen before. Enter: </span><em><span>Homo luzonesis</span></em><span>. </span><span>However, </span><em><span>Homo luzonesis’ </span></em><span>entry on the hominid family tree is still fuzzy and uncertain. </span><span>Dr. Shara Bailey, associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at New York University, joins Ira to weigh in on the new find and to discuss how we determine <a href="">what makes a species “human.”</a></span></p> <p><span>Next year, the United States Census Bureau will send out its 10-year census to collect demographic data on every person in the country. That survey happens once a decade and asks a handful of questions, but the agency also sends out the yearly American Community Survey, or ACS, which is an ongoing survey that collects more detailed data on smaller populations. How is your data used once you turn in your survey? </span><span>Demographer Catherine Fitch <a href="">talks about how the information surveys are used for research and policies</a></span><span>, why certain questions appear on the forms, and new ways that the census is trying to survey the country.</span></p> <p><span><span>Plus: For half a century, merchant ships have hitched humble metal boxes to their sterns, and towed these robotic passengers across some 6.5 million nautical miles of the world’s oceans. The metal boxes are the “Continuous Plankton Recorder” or CPR, a project conceived, in a more innocent time, to catalogue the diversity of plankton populating the seas. But the first piece of plastic twine got caught up in the device in 1957; the first plastic bag appeared in 1965. In the decades since, the device has picked up more and more plastic pollution. </span></span><span>Clare Ostle, a marine biogeochemist and lead author on<span> </span></span><a href=""><span>a study</span></a><span><span> </span>about the CPR’s plastic finds in the journal<span> </span></span><em><span>Nature Communications</span></em><span>, joins Ira to talk about the treasures and trash the CPR has <a href="">collected over the years</a>.</span></p> <p><span>And back in 2011, after Greg Dunn completed his PhD in neuroscience at the University of Pennsylvania, he didn’t return to the lab. Instead, he decided to focus on art. “The only difference between a landscape of a forest and a landscape of a brain is you need a microscope to see one and not the other,” Dunn told Science Friday. </span><span>Using the techniques of microetching and lithographing, Dunn has created a project called “Self Reflected,” which visualizes what it might look like to see all the neurons of the brain connected and firing. <a href="">He joins Ira to discuss his work</a>, which is also the subject of our latest SciArts video.</span></p>
Apr 19, 2019
Year In Space Results, Citizen Science Day, Cherry Blossoms. April 12, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>To find out what was happening to astronauts over longer periods of space flight, NASA put together a 10-team study of twin astronauts Scott and Mark Kelly. Scott spent a year on International Space Station, while his brother Mark lived a relatively normal life on Earth—though both regularly sent the researchers samples of their blood, urine, cognitive test results, and other data to assess their physiology over time. </span><span>Scott Kelly returned to Earth in 2016, and researchers have been studying and comparing the twins ever since. The conclusion? A year in space caused a cascade of changes in Scott’s gene expression and physiology—<a href="">some of which remained even after he returned to Earth</a>. </span><span>Dr. Susan Bailey, a radiation biologist at Colorado State University, explains one surprising mystery: The average length of Scott’s telomeres, a part of DNA that usually shortens with aging or other kinds of stress, increased. </span><span>And Dr. Christopher Mason at Weill Cornell Medicine explains how spaceflight ramped up genes associated with Scott Kelly’s immune system and what remained different even months after his return to Earth.</span></p> <p><span>Patients with Alzheimer’s disease can experience decreased blood flow in their brains caused by white blood cells sticking to blood vessels that can cause a block. Researchers at Cornell University have found that these stalls happen in the tiniest blood vessels, the capillaries. </span><span>Understanding these capillary blocks could help find new Alzheimer’s treatments—and to do that, the researchers have to look through hundreds of thousands of images of blocked capillaries. Now, you can help. Physicist Chris Shaffer, who is on the Cornell University team, teamed up with Pietro Michelucci to develop a citizen science game called </span><a href=""><span>Stall Catchers</span></a><span> that uses the power of the crowd to help identify these stalls. They talk about how Stall Catchers can help with their data—and the </span><a href=""><span>one-day megathon</span></a><span> when you can participate.</span></p> <p><span>By 1918, the British naturalist and ornithologist Collingwood Ingram had tired of studying birds, but soon became obsessed with two magnificent flowering cherry trees planted on his property. He went to Japan and</span><span> hunted for wild cherries all over the country on foot, horseback, and even from the sea, using binoculars to spot prime specimens. Throughout his travels, he became convinced that Japan was in danger of losing its multitude of cherry varieties, through modernization, development, and neglect, and he went on to evangelize for the wondrous diversity of flowering cherries in Japan, and back home in the western world. </span><span><span>In </span><em><span>The Sakura Obsession</span></em><span>, Japanese journalist Naoko Abe tells Ingram's story, and <a href="">the cultural history of cherry blossoms in Japan</a>.</span></span></p> <p> </p>
Apr 12, 2019
Event Horizon Telescope, Biosphere 2. April 12, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>“As I like to say, it’s never a good idea to bet against Einstein,” astrophysicist Shep Doeleman told Science Friday back in 2016, when the Event Horizon Telescope project was just getting underway. </span><span>At an illuminating press conference on Wednesday, April 10th, <a href="">scientists shared the image for the first time</a>: a slightly blurry lopsided ring of light encircling a dark shadow. But even as the image confirms current ideas about gravity, it also raises new questions about galaxy formation and quantum physics. Event Horizon Telescope Director Shep Doelemen and Feryal </span><span>Ö</span><span>zel, professor of astrophysics at the University of Arizona and EHT study scientist, help us wrap our minds around the image. And Julie Hlavacek-Larrondo, assistant professor of physics and Canada research chair at the University of Montreal joins the conversation to talk about what scientists <a href="">would like to discover next</a>.</span></p> <p><span>Plus: A project aims to use the artificial sea of Biosphere 2 as a testing ground for bringing back coral reefs affected by climate change. Christopher Conover from Arizona Public Media reports in this edition of <a href="">The State Of Science</a>.</span></p> <p><span>And the image of a black hole isn't the only space news that came out this week. <span>Umair Irfan, staff writer at Vox, joins Ira to talk about the crash of the Israeli lunar lander Beresheet and other stories from the week in science <a href="">in this week’s News Roundup</a>.</span></span></p>
Apr 12, 2019
SciFri Extra: Picturing A Black Hole
<p><span>The Event Horizon Telescope is tackling one of the largest cosmological challenges ever undertaken: Take an image of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy, using a telescope the size of the Earth. </span></p> <p>Now, the Event Horizon team has announced they have big news to share about those efforts. On Wednesday April 10th, it’s anticipated they will show a photo of the event horizon. Before they do, we wanted to share this 2016 conversation with Event Horizon project director Shep Doeleman and black hole expert Priya Natarajan, in which they discuss how you image an object as dark and elusive as a black hole.</p>
Apr 06, 2019
Right-To-Repair, Exercise Recovery, Gov. Inslee. April 5, 2019, Part 2
<p>Whenever your smartphone or video game console breaks down, you usually have to go back to the manufacture or a technician affiliated with the company to have your device fixed. Oftentimes, companies don’t release parts or guides to their devices, making it difficult to repair them own your own. 20 different states have introduced <a href="" target="_blank">right-to-repair legislation</a>, which calls for companies to open up the ability for individuals to fix their own devices. Recently, senator Elizabeth Warren called for a national right-to-repair law for farming equipment made by John Deere and other agricultural manufacturers. Jason Koebler from Motherboard and agricultural lawyer Todd Janzen discuss the debate between right-to-repair advocates who want more choice in the hands of consumers and companies who cite security issues and intellectual property rights for keep devices closed.</p> <p>If you’re a runner, hitting the road after a long winter indoors feels invigorating… until you get back home, 10 miles later, and your legs feel like jelly. How do you start to recover? Ibuprofen, ice, lots of water, and stretching might sound like good place to start. But it turns out that following these seemingly logical steps for a faster recovery <a href="" target="_blank">achieves just the opposite</a>. Icing your muscles slows down the process of recovery. Too much water can be harmful. And stretching? You can put that in the same category as compression boots and cupping—they don’t help recovery one bit. Science writer Christie Aschwanden, author of Good To Go: What the Athlete in All of Us Can Learn from the Strange Science of Recovery, a new book on the science of recovery, joins Ira to share what she discovered debunking our most commonly-held beliefs about recovery with science.</p> <p>“Nothing is stronger than an idea whose time has come.” So goes the saying. And for Washington state governor Jay Inslee, <a href="" target="_blank">that idea is climate change</a>. He has staked his run for the White House in 2020 on what he calls “America’s Climate Mission,” and his campaign platform says “defeating climate change is the defining challenge of our time and [it] must be the foremost priority for the next president.” For a little historical perspective, however, consider that climate change was practically a non-issue in the last presidential election. There were no specific questions about climate policy in the debates. And only five minutes and twenty-seven seconds—two percent of total talking time—were spent on climate change across all three presidential debates. In this conversation, Ira discusses Gov. Inslee’s presidential ambitions, and the science issues that have defined his time as governor of Washington.</p>
Apr 05, 2019
Coal Ash, Soil Loss, Sap, Bristlecone Pines. April 5, 2019, Part 1
<p>Maple tapping season is underway in the sugar maple stands of the United States. Warm days and below-freezing nights kick off a cycle of sap flow crucial for maple syrup production. <a href="" target="_blank">But why is the flow of sap so temperature dependent in sugar maples?</a> University of Vermont maple researcher Abby van den Berg explains how ice crystals in the trees’ cells power sap flow, while Yale University’s Craig Brodersen tackles how other trees and plants move gallons of fluid per day from roots to leaves—all without using any energy at all.</p> <p>In mid-March, a late winter storm dumped inches of rain on frozen soil in the Midwest, flooding the Missouri River and tributaries—particularly in agriculture-intensive Iowa, eastern Nebraska, and western Illinois. The storm has submerged farm fields under water, washed-out roads and bridges, caused grain silos to burst from flood damage, and drowned livestock. Many farmers may be unable to plant their fields in time this year, or even at all. But soil experts looking at that same damage will notice another thing: <a href="" target="_blank">erosion of precious topsoil</a>. This first layer of soil is the key to the Midwest’s immense fertility and agricultural strength, but a resource that is slow to rebuild after major losses like farms are currently experiencing. Mahdi Al-Kaisi, a soil scientist at Iowa State University, explains why erosion is bad news for farmers, and how the damage from this flood event could ripple for years to come.</p> <p>Bristlecone pine trees grow in harsh, dry mountain climates and can live up to 5,000 years old. The trees have adapted to these rough habitats by building up dense woody trunks that can hold up against insects, and rely on the wind to disperse their hard seeds. Ecologist Brian Smithers became interested in these species because “they epitomized growing and living on the edge of what is possible.” Smithers talks about the adaptations and competition the species will face as rising temperatures from climate change <a href="" target="_blank">force the trees to move up in elevation</a>.</p> <p>Washington University’s analysis of data from Missouri utility companies shows high levels of toxic coal ash contamination near ponds power plants use to dump waste from coal combustion. <a href="" target="_blank">Will proposed new regulations be enough?</a></p> <p> </p>
Apr 05, 2019
Poetry of Science, The Power of Calculus. March 29, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>April is </span><a href=""><span>National Poetry Month</span></a><span>, a time of readings, outreach programs, and enthusiastic celebration of the craft. And for a special Science Friday celebration, we’ll be looking at where science and poetry meet. Tracy K. Smith, the current U.S. poet laureate, wrote the 2011 book </span><em><span>Life On Mars, </span></em><span>which touches on dark matter, the nature of the universe, and the Hubble Telescope—all as an elegy for her deceased engineer father, Floyd. Rafael Campo, a physician, poet, and editor for the Journal of the American Medical Association’s poetry section, writes poems about illness, the body, and the narratives each patient brings to medical settings. The two talk to Ira about where science fits into their work—and how poetry can inform science and scientists. <a href="">Read some of the poems, and a syllabus of science-related works suggested by SciFri listeners, here.</a></span></p> <p><span>Calculus underpins many of the greatest ideas about how the universe works: Newton's Laws, Maxwell's Equations, quantum theory. It's been used to develop ubiquitous technologies, like GPS. It was even used to model the battle between HIV and the human immune system, which helped researchers fine tune triple-drug therapies to combat the virus. In his book <a href="">Infinite Powers: How Calculus Reveals the Secrets of the Universe</a></span><span>, mathematician Steven Strogatz takes readers on a journey around the world, detailing the bright ideas that contributed to modern calculus and citing the many ways those mathematical ideas have changed the world. <a href="">Learn more here.</a></span></p>
Mar 29, 2019
Growing Glaciers, Expanding Universe, Flu Near You. March 29, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>Once upon a time, everything in the universe was crammed into a very small space. Then came the Big Bang, and the universe has been expanding ever since. But just how fast is it expanding? Calculating that number is a challenge that dates back almost a hundred years, when Edwin Hubble used data from Harvard astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt to try to answer that question. His value came to be called the Hubble constant, H0. </span><span>But the exact value of that constant has been hard to pin down. And now two different approaches to measuring the Hubble constant have come up with close, but different answers—and each team says they're pretty confident in the accuracy of their measurements. Ira speaks to science writer and author Anil Ananthaswamy and Nobel laureate Adam Riess <a href="">to discuss the discrepancy</a>.</span></p> <p><span>This flu season, Science Friday teamed up with Flu Near You to ask listeners to track their symptoms to create a map of influenza-like illness across the country. Nearly three thousand SciFri users participated. </span>Science Friday education director Ariel Zych and biostatician Kristin Baltrusaitis, who was a research assistant for Flu Near You, tells us how the SciFri community results stacked up to the rest of participants. <span>Plus, epidemiologist Karen Martin gives an update on how this season compares to years past and how the Minnesota Department of Health uses Flu Near You data for surveillance on a local level. <a href="">See the results here.</a></span></p> <p><span>It’s become the familiar refrain in this era of climate change: Warmer temperatures, retreating glaciers, and rising sea levels. But when it comes to Greenland’s<span> </span></span><span>Jakobshavn Glacier, it seems the drumbeat of disaster may have halted—for now. Scientists report in the journal<span> </span></span><em><span>Nature Geoscience</span></em><span><span> </span>this week that the once fast-retreating ice sheet has been thickening over the last few years instead. It’s a reversal of a twenty-year trend of thinning and retreating, but perhaps not for long. </span><span>Ala Khazendar, researcher at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, joins Ira to explain why this glacial about-face may not be the cause for celebration that we think it is in <a href="">this week’s Good Thing, Bad Thing</a>.</span></p> <p><span>And Gizmodo writer Ryan Mandelbaum talks about the <a href="">canceled all-female space walk, NASA's lunar ambitions, and more</a> in this week's News Roundup.</span></p> <p> </p>
Mar 29, 2019
A.I. And Doctors, Alzheimer’s. March 22, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>When you go to the doctor’s office, it can sometimes seem like wait times are getting longer while face time with your doctor is getting shorter. In his book, </span><em><span>Deep Medicine: How Artificial Intelligence Can Make Healthcare Human Again</span></em><span>, cardiologist Eric Topol argues that artificial intelligence can make medicine more personal and empathetic. He says that algorithms can free up doctors to focus more time on their patients. Topol also talks about how A.I. is being used for drug discovery, reading scans, and how data from wearables can be integrated into human healthcare. <a href="">Learn more and read an excerpt from <em>Deep Medicine</em> here.</a></span></p> <p><span>Plus: </span><span>Alzheimer’s disease is known for inflicting devastating declines in memory and cognitive function. Researchers are on the hunt for treatments are taking a number of approaches to slowing or preventing the neurodegenerative disease, including immune therapy, lifestyle changes, and targeting sticky buildups of proteins called amyloid beta. </span><span>But at MIT, scientists have been trying something else: a combination of flashing strobe lights and a clicking sound played at 40 times per second, for just an hour a day. </span><span>M</span><span>ice given this treatment for a week showed significant reductions in Alzheimer’s signature brain changes and had marked improvements in cognition, memory, and learning. But could </span><span>an improvements in brains of mice translate to human subjects? Dr. Li-Huei Tsai, an author on the research, talks with Ira, and Wake Forest Medical School neuroscientist Dr. Shannon Macauley, who was not involved in the research, <a href="">discusses how to take promising research of all kinds to the next level</a>.</span></p>
Mar 22, 2019
House Science Committee, Superbloom, Snowpack. March 22, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>There’s been a changing of the guard in the U.S. House of Representatives. In January, <a href="">Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson</a>, a democrat from Texas, took over as chair of the House Committee for Science, Space, and Technology from her predecessor Lamar Smith. Smith was in charge of the House Science Committee for six years—an era that was defined by partisan attacks on climate science, and the issuing of congressional subpoenas to scientists. Chairwoman Johnson is looking to restore credibility to the House Science Committee, listening to the scientific consensus on climate change and aiming for bipartisan oversight of scientific programs. She joins Ira to talk about bringing science back to the committee, changes she plans to make from previous leadership, and how much progress will the new committee make when it’s up against an administration that’s been hostile to many of the agencies that conduct scientific research.</span></p> <p><span>Plus: </span><span>This El Niño year has been dumping rain and snow on California's Sierra Nevada mountains. But water managers don’t just eyeball how much snow they think is up there, tucked away in those high mountain basins. Snow inventories these days are high tech, involving airplanes and lasers. Tom Painter of NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab and Caltech <a href="">joins Ira to explain</a>.</span></p> <p><span>The hills and deserts of the southwest have been putting on quite a show this spring—a superbloom that's better than some areas have seen in generations. <em><span>Science Friday</span></em><span> producer Christopher Intagliata headed down to Walker Canyon in Lake Elsinore, California, to check it out. <a href="">See his photos and learn why superblooms aren't a regular occurrence in California.</a></span></span></p> <p><span><span>The New Mexico state legislature has passed a bill calling for the state to transition entirely to renewable energy by 2050. <span>Laura Paskus, environmental reporter for the New Mexico Political Project, <a href="">joins Ira to explain the details</a>.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>And science journalist Annalee Newitz explains the surprising first results from Japan's Hayabusa2 mission to asteroid Ryugu in <a href="">this week's News Roundup</a>.</span></span></span></p>
Mar 22, 2019
Frans de Waal, Inactive Ingredients, Street View, and Gentrification. March 15, 2019, Part 2
<p>Primatologist Frans de Waal has spent his lifetime studying the lives of animals, especially our closest cousins, the chimpanzees. de Waal has observed their shifting alliances and the structure of their political ranks. He has seen bitter conflicts break out, only to be mended by peaceful, respected mediators. And he has witnessed chimpanzees grieve for, and attempt to comfort, their dead and dying. But one of the most touching reflections in his new book, <em>Mama’s Last Hug: Animal Emotions and What They Tell Us About Ourselves</em>, is the story he tells of a female chimp who didn’t produce enough milk to feed her young. When de Waal taught her to feed her baby with a bottle instead, she repaid him with what most of us would recognize as gratitude: holding both of de Waal’s hands and whimpering sadly if he tried to leave. <a href="" target="_blank">The book explores many stories of animal emotions from across the animal kingdom</a>, and it might leave you wondering how unique humans really are.</p> <p>Gentrification happens when a previously low-income or working class neighborhood sees an influx of well-off new residents. Rents go up, new development sets in, and the neighborhood’s original residents may be displaced by those with more money. Cities who can recognize gentrification in progress can take steps to prevent displacement and funnel resources, or even slow the neighborhood’s changes directly. But while a new yoga studio or fancy coffee shop may be one obvious sign of rising rents, there are earlier indications that might help cities fend off some of the side effects sooner—building improvements like new siding, landscaping, and more go markedly up as new money arrives. Writing in the journal PLOS One this week, a research team at the University of Ottawa describes one new tool in the toolkit: <a href="" target="_blank">they turned to Google’s Street View, and taught an AI system to recognize when an individual house had been upgraded</a>. Putting those upgrades on a map revealed not just areas the researchers already knew were gentrifying, but also other pockets where the process had begun unnoticed. Michael Sawada, a professor of geography, environment, and geomatics at the University of Ottawa, explains the big data approach to catching gentrification in action.</p> <p>Anyone who has glanced at the back of a bottle of aspirin or a box of allergy tablets has seen it: the “Inactive Ingredients” list. All medications include compounds that help stabilize the drug or aid in its absorption. They aren’t given a second thought because they’re “inactive,” which suggests that these ingredients don’t do any harm. But in fact, according to a new study out this week, <a href="" target="_blank">over 90 percent of medications have inactive ingredients that can cause allergic reactions in certain patients</a>, including peanut oil, lactose, and gluten.</p>
Mar 15, 2019
Youth Climate Protest, Science Talent Search Winners, Snowflake Changes. March 15, 2019, Part 1
<p>It all started with 16-year-old environmental activist Greta Thunberg. Last August, Thunberg started skipping school on Fridays to protest outside Sweden’s parliament, insisting her country get behind the Paris Climate Agreement. Her protests have inspired thousands of young people around the world to join the #FridaysForFuture movement, skipping school to demand that their governments take action against climate change. And on Friday March 15th, these young people will take things a step further—<a href="" target="_blank">joining together across more than 90 countries and 1,200 cities in the Youth Climate Strike</a>. Sarah Kaplan, science reporter for the Washington Post, reports live from the scene of one of those stikes in Manhattan’s Columbus Circle. Plus, Ira speaks with Isabella Fallahi, Youth Climate Strike organizer and Varshini Prakash, executive director and co-founder of the Sunrise Movement about what’s inspiring this current moment of youth-led activism.</p> <p>Each year, approximately 1,800 high school science students take part in the Regeneron Science Talent Search (Regeneron STS), a program of Society for Science &amp; the Public. This year’s projects ranged from studying the viscosity of molten lava to investigating more fuel efficient airplane designs to creating a computer model to predict refugee migrations. Senior Samuel Weissman analyzed the genetic makeup of two HIV patients, and senior Ana Humphrey created a math model to look for exoplanets. <a href="" target="_blank">Ira talks with them about their winning projects</a>.</p> <p><span>As we can all attest, climate change is creating more fluctuating temperatures. Normally, snowflakes form high up in the atmosphere, and crystallize into their pretty structures as they pass through cold layers of air. But with warmer temperatures, snowflakes can partially melt on their way down. There’s more water in the air these days, and it acts like a glue that can glom onto the snowflakes, covering them with little ice pellets. Add in the wind and the snowflakes can smash together, turning into mega snowflakes. </span>To add insult to injury, after these snowflakes land they melt faster because they’re less able to reflect light. This has serious implications for flooding and hydrology as well as spring vegetation. When melting occurs normally, the nutrients in the snowpack are absorbed into the soil. Not so when it melts away really fast.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p>
Mar 15, 2019
SciFri Extra: Celebrating The Elements
<p><span>Do you have a favorite chemical element? Neurologist Oliver Sacks did—he was partial to dense, high melting-point metals, especially those metals between hafnium and platinum on the periodic table. </span></p> <p><span>This month marks the 150th anniversary of chemist Dmitri Mendeleev’s design for the periodic table—and we didn’t want to miss out on the party. In this special podcast, we revisit Sacks’ fascination with the elements, and Ira opens up the Science Friday vaults to share two tales of chemical discovery and creation. First, we take a trip back to 2004 for a chat with nuclear chemist Joshua Patin of a scientific team responsible for the creation of two new chemical elements (elements 113 and 115). Then, a voyage to 2010, for a conversation with the late Nobel laureate and buckyball co-discoverer Sir Harry Kroto. </span></p>
Mar 12, 2019
HIV Remission, Bones, Jumping Spiders. March 8, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>Nearly twelve years ago, a cancer patient infected with HIV received two bone marrow transplants to wipe out his leukemia. </span><span>Now, researchers in the United Kingdom </span><span>reported in </span><em><span>Nature</span></em><span> earlier this week</span><span> that their patient, a man known only as “the London patient,” had been in remission and off anti-retroviral therapy for 18 months after undergoing a similar bone marrow transplant, with the same gene mutation involved, to treat leukemia. While the team is hesitant to call their patient cured, </span><span>he is the first adult in twelve years</span><span> to remain in remission for more than a year after stopping medication. But what do these two patients’ recoveries, requiring risky and painful transplants, mean for the millions of others with HIV around the world? Two HIV researchers not involved in this research, Katharine Bar of the University of Pennsylvania and Paula Cannon of the University of Southern California, <a href="">tell us </a></span><span><a href="">about the latest treatments that could someday be more broadly accessible</a>, including gene therapies and immunotherapy, and what hurdles clinical studies still face.</span></p> <p><span>Plus: Over 500 million years of evolution has resulted in the same bony framework underlying all mammal species today. But w</span><span><span>hy is the leg bone connected to the ankle bone, as the song goes? And what can the skeletons of our ancestors tell us about how humans became the walking, talking bag o’ bones we are today? Science writer Brian Switek, author of the new book </span><em><span>Skeleton Keys</span></em><span>, <a href="">joins Ira to explain</a> why our skeletons evolved to look the way they do.</span></span></p> <p><span><span>And jumping spiders are crafty hunters, but sometimes they need their own disguise to avoid their own predators. The <em>Crematogaster </em><span>jumping spider, for example, avoids detection by mimicking ants, and go as far as losing their ability to jump to look more ant-like. Sometimes, predators can be your own mates—male jumping spiders becoming a female’s meal if their courtship displays don’t impress. Biologist Alexis Dodson and  Entomologist Lisa Taylor </span></span></span><span>talk about what jumping spiders can tell us about tell us about the evolution of <a href="">coloration and communication in the natural world</a>. </span></p>
Mar 08, 2019
NASA Administrator, California Wildfires, Lichens. March 8, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>On December 14, 1972, as Apollo 17 astronaut Eugene Cernan prepared to board the lunar module, he gave one last dispatch from the lunar surface. </span><span>And yet, 47 years later, humankind has not set another foot on the lunar surface. But now, NASA’s ready to return, with the Moon to Mars program. NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine joins Ira in this segment to talk about the agency's ambitions beyond Earth, the role of commercial space companies in getting us there, and <a href="">why he thinks plant science is "critical" to NASA</a>.</span></p> <p><span>Plus: There aren’t very many old-growth forest left in North America. And while it would be wonderful to be able to preserve all of them, resources to protect those forest patches are also in limited supply. So if you’re forced to choose between two areas of old-growth forest, how do you prioritize which of these islands of biodiversity to focus on? A new study suggests to look at the lichens. </span><span>Troy McMullin, a research scientist in lichenology at the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa, Ontario, joins Ira <a href="">to talk about the stories lichens can tell</a> about the forest ecosystem.</span><span></span></p> <p><span><span>California has been experiencing its wettest winter in decades. </span></span><span>That’s good news in a state that has chronic water management issues and what feels like only recently recovered from a devastating multi year drought. The bad news? Researchers say that thanks to climate change and forest management practices, a wet winter like this one will no longer make a difference come next year’s wildfire season.</span><span>Valerie Trouet, Associate Professor of Dendrochronology at the University of Arizona, <a href="">tells us more</a>.</span></p> <p><span>And Amy Nordrum of <em>IEEE Spectrum</em> tells Ira about a SpaceX "crew" visiting the International Space Station and other top science headlines in this week's <a href="">News Roundup</a>.</span></p>
Mar 08, 2019
Icefish, Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, Wireless Baby Monitoring. March 1, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>During an electrical system test early in in the morning of April 26, 1986, Reactor 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant exploded. The disaster at the plant was not caused solely by the test, however—a perfect storm of engineering and design missteps, operational errors, and cultural problems all aligned to bring about the catastrophe. In his new book, </span><em><span>Midnight In Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World’s Greatest Nuclear Disaster</span></em><span>, journalist Adam Higginbotham describes the events that led up to the meltdown, the dramatic, heroic, and perhaps futile attempts to lessen the extent of the accident, and the attempts by Soviet officials to contain the political ramifications of the explosion. <a href="">He joins Ira to tell us more.</a></span></p> <p><span>Plus: Every vertebrate has red blood cells—that is, except for a small family of fish from the notothenoid family known collectively as “icefish.” These Antarctic-dwelling fish have translucent blood, white hearts, and </span><a href=""><span>have somehow adapted</span></a><span> to live without red blood cells or hemoglobin. </span><a href=""><span></span></a><span>H. William Detrich, a professor of marine and environmental sciences at Northeastern University, explains how scientists are trying to decipher <a href="">the secrets of the mysterious icefish</a>.</span></p> <p><span>What’s more terrifying than becoming a new parent? Starting out as new parents in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit, where babies spend their first days entangled in wires attached to sensors that monitor their vital signs. </span>But in the digital age, why must wires and sensors take up so much real estate on a tiny baby? That’s the question driving the development of a new monitoring device—a small wireless sensor that takes the scary “science experiment” effect out of the NICU, and gives parents more time to cuddle with their newborn. John Rogers, professor of material science and engineering and director of the Center for Biointegrated Electronics at Northwestern University, joins Ira to discuss <a href="">how the new device could transform neonatal care</a> in the U.S. and in developing nations around the world.</p> <p><span> </span></p>
Mar 01, 2019
Synthetic Genomes, Climate Panel, Local Recycling. March 1, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>DNA is the universal programming language for life, and the specific code to that program are the combination of the base pairs adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. But are those the only base pairs that could be used to create DNA? Scientists looking into this question were able to create 4 different base pairs that don’t exist in nature. Chemist Floyd Romesberg, biologist Jef Boeke, and bioethicist Debra Mathews tell Ira how <a href="">altered genomes could be used for creating novel medicines and fuels</a>—and whether this is considered a new form of life. </span></p> <p><span>Plus: The climate is changing. Globally, of course. But also in Washington, where growing numbers of Republicans are jumping behind policies that would result in meaningful action on climate change. </span><span>And yet, even as Congress appears ready to at least discuss the issue, and the government’s own scientists and military leaders sound louder alarms about the impending dangers of global climate change, the White House is assembling a group of climate change adversaries to counter those mainstream views. </span>David Titley, a retired rear admiral who founded the Navy's task force on climate change, <a href="">explains</a>.</p> <p><span>Last year, China tightened standards for recycled materials it would accept, and now local recyclers nationwide find themselves struggling to find new homes for plastics, cardboard, and other materials that fell below par</span><span>. Dana Bate, health and science reporter for WHYY, tells Ira how Philadelphia and its suburbs are handling the issue <a href="">in the State of Science</a>.</span></p> <p><span>And Sophie Bushwick, technology editor for <em>Scientific American</em>, explains how extreme climate change might cause stratocumulus clouds to disappear for good, and other top science news headlines, <a href="">in this week's News Roundup</a>.</span></p>
Mar 01, 2019
SciFri Extra: A Night Of Volcanoes And Earthquakes With N.K. Jemisin
<p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a><span>The Science Friday Book Club discussion of N.K. Jemisin’s </span><em><span>The Fifth Season</span></em><span> may have stopped erupting for the season, but we have one more piece of volcanic goodness for you. SciFri producer and chief bookworm Christie Taylor got the chance to speak with Jemisin at our book club meet-up, “Voyage To The Volcanoes,” at Caveat in New York City. Listen for Jemisin’s adventures in volcano research, how real-world events inspired her to build an entire society around disaster preparedness, and how knowing your neighbors can be lifesaving.</span></p> <p><span>At the event, we also spoke to volcanologist Dr. Janine Krippner, who helped debunk volcano myths. And SciFri staffers Lauren J. Young and Johanna Mayer explained how history’s volcanic winters have <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">influenced art (and religion) over the centuries</a>. </span></p> <p><span>So, sit back and listen while you ponder what’s percolating deep in our planet—from quakes to shifting plates.</span></p>
Feb 27, 2019
Black Holes, California Megaflood. Feb 22, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>When it floods in California, the culprit is usually what’s known as an atmospheric river—a narrow ribbon of ultra-moist air moving in from over the Pacific Ocean. Atmospheric rivers are also essential sources of moisture for western reservoirs and mountain snowpack, but in 1861, a series of particularly intense and prolonged ones led to the worst disaster in state history: </span><a href=""><span>a flood that swamped the state</span></a><span>. The megaflood turned the Central Valley into an inland sea and washed away an estimated one in eight homes. </span>What would happen if the same weather pattern hit the state again? <span><em>Los Angeles Times</em> reporter Louis Sahagun a<span>nd University of California, Los Angeles climate scientist Daniel Swain join Ira to discuss the storms, its potential impact on local infrastructure, and why disastrous flooding events like the one in 1861 are not only becoming more likely as the planet warms, but may have <a href=""><span>already been a more frequent occurrence</span></a><span> than previously thought.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>Plus: A</span></span></span><span>s a grad student in astrophysics at Cambridge University, Priya Natarajan devised a theory that might explain a mysterious relationship between black holes and nearby stars, proposing that as black holes gobble up nearby material, they “burp,” and the resulting winds affect the formation of nearby stars. Now, 20 years later, the experimental evidence has finally come in: Her theory seems correct. </span><span>This hour, Ira talks with Priya about her theory. And Nergis Mavalvala of MIT joins to talk about why “squeezing light” may be the key to detecting more distant black hole collisions with the gravitational wave detector LIGO. <a href="">Learn more here.</a></span></p>
Feb 22, 2019
Telescope Decisions, Grape Plasma, Israeli Moon Lander. Feb 22, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>The American Astronomical Society meeting is the largest annual gathering of astronomers and astrophysicists. It’s not known for drama. But this year, the buzz in the room wasn’t too different from the nervous energy during an awards night. That’s because there is a competition underway for what will be NASA’s next big space telescope—the next Hubble or James Webb. There are four nominees, and eventually there will be a winner. Science Friday assistant producer Katie Feather reported on the event from the not-quite red carpet. <a href="">Learn more about the nominees here.</a></span></p> <p><span>The painter Georgia O'Keeffe is known for her bold paintings of landscapes and flowers. </span><span>Recently, scientists took a closer look at those paintings and noticed smaller details that O’Keeffe did not intend to include. They found “art acne”—small pock marks—on many of her paintings caused by age and reactions of the pigments. Marc Walton, co-director of the Center for Scientific Studies in the Arts at Northwestern University and Art Institute of Chicago</span>, <a href="">talks about the chemistry</a><span> behind the “art acne,” and how these paintings might be conserved in the future.</span></p> <p><span>From tenured physicists to home experimenters, many researchers have been plagued by a question—why do grapes spark when you microwave them? More than a few microwaves have been destroyed to answer this top physics question. A team of researchers decided to rigorously test this question so you don’t have to. </span><span>Physicist Aaron Slepkov, an author on that study, tells us how grapes are able to harness the energy of these home kitchen waves and <a href="">what this can tell us about the field of photonics</a>.</span></p> <p><span>During the last sixty years, only three countries have sent landers to the moon: the U.S., China and the Soviet Union. Israel may become the fourth. On Thursday, SpaceIL—an Israeli company—launched the Beresheet spacecraft. If the spacecraft does reach the moon, it will be the first mission completed by a private company without the financial backing of one of the big space agencies. </span><span>Jason Davis, digital editor for the Planetary Society, <a href="">talks about what this mission means</a> for lunar science and its implications for nonprofit and commercial companies sending missions to the moon. </span></p> <p><span>This week, talks between California state and federal government officials concerning rules for car fuel efficiency standards broke down. </span><span>Under the Clean Air Act of 1970, California had previously been given special permission to set higher standards for mileage and fuel economy—but now the Trump administration says that only the federal government can set those standards. Lauren Sommer, science and environment reporter at KQED, <a href="">joins Ira to discuss what that decision means</a>, and what might come next in the confrontation.</span></p> <p><span>And finally Ryan Mandelbaum, science writer at Gizmodo, tells Ira about the Japanese mission to shoot a bullet into an asteroid and other top science headlines in <a href="">this week's News Roundup</a>.</span></p>
Feb 22, 2019
SciFri Book Club: ‘The Fifth Season.’ Feb 15, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>In this final installment of the winter Book Club, we wrap up a winter of exploring The Stillness, learning how volcanologists research<span> lava flows </span></span><span>and crater tremors</span><span>, and even diving into the center of the earth<span>.</span></span><span> Ira joins Science Friday SciArts producer Christie Taylor, Caltech seismologist Lucy Jones, and University of Colorado disaster sociologist Lori Peek to talk about the power of earthquakes, volcanoes, and other hazards that shape societies. We also talk about how a natural hazard becomes a human-scale disaster—<a href="" target="_blank">and who suffers most when a community is insufficiently prepared.</a></span></p> <p><span>Plus, a <a href="" target="_blank">roundup of the week's biggest science news</a>, and a story from Arizona about <a href="" target="_blank">dealing with drought. </a></span></p>
Feb 15, 2019
Declining Insects, Sunny Day Flooding, Liquid Rules. Feb 15, 2019, Part 2
<p><span><span> </span>That once vibrant forest has gotten quieter and emptier, as many of the insects</span><span>—</span><span><span> </span>and the animals that depend on them</span><span>—</span><span>have disappeared. In <span>a worldwide report card on the state of insects</span><span> in the journal<span> </span></span><em><span>Biological Conservation,</span></em><span> the conclusion is dire: “This review highlights the dreadful state of insect biodiversity in the world, as almost half of the species are rapidly declining and a third are being threatened with extinction.” We discuss the <a href="" target="_blank">consequences of the "insect apocalypse."</a></span></span></p> <p>By 2035, scientist have predicted that over a hundred U.S. coastal communities could experience more than 26 days of low level floods. Researchers at Stanford University determined the economic impacts of this type of flooding in the tourist area of Annapolis, Maryland. Climate risk scientist Miyuki Hino, an author on the study, talks about the <a href="" target="_blank">impacts of these small-scale effects of climate change.</a></p> <p>Fluids are all around you, of course—but how often do we take a moment to think about how liquids work? What makes one slippery and another sticky? Why does one make a good salad dressing, but another a good rocket fuel? Materials scientist Mark Miodownik <a href="" target="_blank">tackles those questions in his book <em>Liquid Rules. </em></a></p>
Feb 15, 2019
Earth’s Core, Govt Data In The Cloud, Book Club. Feb 8, 2019, Part 1
<p>At the very center of the Earth is a solid lump of iron and nickel that might be as hot as the surface of the Sun. This solid core is thought to be why our magnetic field is as strong as it is. As the core grows, energy is transferred to the outer core to power the “geodynamo,” the magnetic field that protects our atmosphere and deflects most solar wind. But geophysicists think that the core was originally completely liquid, and at one point between 2 billion and 500 million years ago, transitioned from molten metal to a solid. At that time, our magnetic field was much weaker than it is today, according to new research in Nature Geoscience. The scientists looked at new samples of crystals that first cooled from lava 565 million years ago and found evidence in their magnetic signatures that the core must have solidified at the younger end of the previously predicted range—much more recently than expected.</p> <p>Whether we’re aware of it or not, “the cloud” has changed our lives forever. It’s where we watch movies, share documents, and store passwords. It’s quick, efficient, and we wouldn’t be able to live our fast-paced, internet-connected lives without it. Now, federal agencies are storing much of their data in the cloud. For example, NASA is trying to make 20 petabytes of data available to the public for free. But to do that, they need some help from a commercial cloud provider—a company like Amazon or Microsoft or Google. But will the government’s policy of open data clash with the business model of Silicon Valley? Mariel Borowitz, Assistant Professor at Georgia Tech and Katya Abazajian, Open Cities Director with the Sunlight Foundation join guest host John Dankosky to discuss the trade offs to faster, smarter government data in the cloud.</p> <p>The Science Friday Book Club has had three weeks of lively discussion of N.K. Jemisin’s geology-flavored apocalypse, The Fifth Season. Producers Christie Taylor and Johanna Mayer share some of the best listener comments about the story’s science, sociology, and real-world connections—and invite you to add your voice for one final week of literary nerding out.</p> <p>One morning after the next, semi-trailer trucks get off Interstate 70 near Colby in west-central Kansas. They haul parts of giant wind turbines in 150-foot-long sections, the pieces to the Solomon Forks wind farm and the next monumental phase of the Kansas bet on wind energy. The farm will plant 105 turbines in the prairie, each towering 250 feet high. The project is one of a wave of wind farms under construction in Kansas that will add 20 percent more electrical generation to the state’s output. Earlier building surges sprung from tax breaks and from pressure by regulators on utilities to wean themselves off fossil fuels. This time, Fortune 500 companies that are new to the electricity business risk their own money on the straight-up profit potential of prairie breezes. The Solomon Forks project developed by ENGIE North America will crank enough electricity to power more than 50,000 homes. Target and T-Mobile already cut deals to buy hundreds of megawatts from the wind farm. The retailer and cell company will become electricity wholesalers, playing a direct role in generating less-polluting energy and banking that the marketplace can make them money even without the subsidies that drove the industry for decades.</p>
Feb 08, 2019
Buttons, Grand Canyon Maps, Mosquitoes. Feb 8, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>The button is everywhere. It allows us to interact with our computers and technology, alerts us when someone is at the front door, and with a tap, can have dinner delivered to your home.<span> </span></span><span>But buttons also are often associated with feelings of control, panic, and fear. Rachel <span>Plotnick, author of <em><span>Power Button: A History of Pleasure, Panic, and the Politics of Pushing</span></em><span>,</span> discusses the development of buttons and <a href="" target="_blank">what they reveal about our interactions with technology</a>.</span></span></p> <div class="cb-desc"> <p>New research finds that the same pathways in the brain that control human hunger can shut down a mosquito’s interest in biting you. <span>Rockefeller University professor Leslie Vosshall tells us about how this technique can potentially <a href="" target="_blank">inhibit female mosquitoes from seeking out human blood</a>—and stop the spread of disease. </span></p> </div> <p> </p> <p><span>Later this month, the Grand Canyon celebrates the<span> </span></span><a href="" target="_blank"><span>100th anniversary of becoming a national park</span></a><span>. But the natural wonder has way more than 100 years of stories to tell. The millions of years of geologic history, coupled with the massive scale of the canyon, make it challenging to create a comprehensive view of the Grand Canyon. Matthew Toro, <span>director of maps, imagery, and geospatial data for the Arizona State University Libraries, <a href="" target="_blank">tells us about maps of the iconic park to share its geologic and cultural stories</a>. </span></span></p> <p> </p>
Feb 08, 2019
Digital Art, Lava Lab, Desalination. Feb 1, 2019, Part 1
<p><span>A series of lines on a wall, drawn by museum staff, from instructions written by an artist. </span><span>A textile print made from scanning the screen of an Apple IIe computer, printing onto heat transfer material, and ironing the result onto fabric. </span><span>A Java program that displays its source code—plus the roving attention of the programmer writing that code, and the even speedier attention of the computer as it processes it. </span><span>All three are works of art currently on display at the Whitney Museum of Art’s ‘</span><a href=""><span>Programmed</span></a><span>’ exhibition, a retrospective of more than 50 years of art inspired or shaped by coding. Host John Dankosky is joined by Whitney adjunct curator Christiane Paul, plus artists <a href=""><span>Joan Truckenbrod</span></a><span> and </span><a href=""><span>W. Bradford Paley</span></a><span>, to discuss <a href="">the past and future of digital art</a>.</span></span></p> <p><span>If you want to make a lava flow from scratch, the ingredients are fairly simple: one big crucible, and 200 to 700 pounds of 1.2 billion-year-old basalt dug from a quarry in Wisconsin. Combine these two, at 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit, and you have The Lava  Project—a scientific study of the flow of molten lava in an upstate New York parking lot. Syracuse University geology professor Jeffrey Karson <a href="">tells SciFri more</a>.</span></p> <p><span>Plus: Desalination is the process that converts saltwater into water that can used for drinking, agriculture, or industrial uses—but desalination produces brine, a salty byproduct that can contain other chemicals. Journalist Tik Root talks about the trade-offs when it comes to desalination in this week's <a href="">Good Thing, Bad Thing</a>.</span></p> <p><span>Finally, Vox staff writer Umair Irfan joins SciFri for a look at the Midwest's Arctic temperatures, and other top science headlines, in this week's <a href="">News Round-up</a>.</span></p>
Feb 01, 2019
Sleep and the Immune System, Measuring Carbon, Specimens of Hair. Feb 1, 2019, Part 2
<p><span>Some citizen scientists collect minerals or plants. But 19th-century lawyer Peter A. Browne collected hair—lots and lots of hair. His collection started innocently enough. Browne decided to make a scientific study of wool with the hope of jumpstarting American agriculture, but his collector’s impulse took over. By the time of his death, Browne’s hair collection had grown to include elephant chin hair, raccoon whiskers, hair from mummies, hair from humans from all around the world, hair from 13 of the first 14 U.S. presidents, and more. Bob Peck of Drexel University’s Academy of Natural Sciences explains what Browne hoped to learn from all these tufts. <a href="">See more images from Browne's collection.</a></span></p> <p><span>Whether you’re a night owl or an early riser, we all sleep. But for something so universal, we don’t understand much about what makes us sleep. Researchers looking into this question recently found a gene called neumri that triggered sleep in <em>Drosophila</em> flies. That gene produced a protein that is linked to antimicrobial activity, and the results were published in the journal </span><em><span>Science</span></em><span>. Neuroscientist Amita Seghal, who is an author on the study, <a href="">talks about the role sleep might play</a> in sickness and keeping us healthy. </span></p> <p><span>It’s one of the first things you learn in elementary school science class: Trees take in carbon dioxide and breathe out oxygen. That may have satisfied our childhood questions about how trees work, but as adults, we understand the picture to be a lot more complex. Christopher Woodall, project leader with the USDA Forest Service joins guest host John Dankosky to <a href="">crunch the numbers on carbon sequestration</a>. And Christa Anderson, research fellow at the World Wildlife Fund, talks about how forests may be our best weapon for fighting carbon emissions.</span></p>
Feb 01, 2019
Weather Advances, Listening to Volcanoes, Phragmites. Jan 25, 2019, Part 1
<p>Your smartphone gives you up-to-the-minute weather forecast updates at the tap of a button. Every newscast has a weather segment. And outlets like the Weather Channel talk weather all day, every day. But <a href="" target="_blank">how much has the process of predicting the weather changed</a> over the past 100 years? Though many of the basic principles are the same, improvements in data collection, satellite imagery, and computer modeling have greatly improved your local forecast—making a five-day look ahead as accurate as a one-day prediction was 40 years ago. Richard Alley, a professor of geoscience at Penn State, describes the evolution of meteorology, and what roadblocks still lie ahead, from data sharing to shifting weather patterns. And Angela Fritz, lead meteorologist for the Capital Weather Gang blog at the Washington Post, describes the day-to-day work of a meteorologist and the challenges involved in accurately predicting your local weekend weather.</p> <p>When the Chilean volcano Villarrica exploded in 2015, researchers trying to piece together the eruption had a fortuitous piece of extra data to work with: the inaudible infrasound signature of the volcano’s subsurface lava lake rising toward the surface. Volcano forecasters already use seismic data from volcanic vibrations in the ground. <a href="" target="_blank">But these “infrasound” signals are different</a>. They’re low-frequency sound waves generated by vibrations in the air columns within a volcanic crater, can travel many miles from the original source, and can reveal information about the shape and resonance of the crater… and whether it’s changing. And two days before Villarrica erupted, its once-resonant infrasound signals turned thuddy—as if the lava lake had gotten higher, and left only a loudspeaker-shaped crater to vibrate the air.</p> <p>Robert Buchsbaum walks into a salt marsh on Boston’s North Shore. Around him towers a stand of bushy-topped <em>Phragmites australis</em>, an invasive plant commonly known as the common reed. <em>Phragmites</em> is an enemy that this regional scientist with the Massachusetts Audubon Society knows all too well. The plant, which typically grows about 13 feet high, looms over native marsh plants, blocking out their sunlight. When <em>Phragmites</em> sheds its lower leaves, or dies, it creates a thick layer of wrack that keeps native plants from germinating. Its stalks clog waterways, thwarting fish travel. The roots secrete a chemical that prevents other plants from growing, and they grow so deep they are nearly impossible to pull out. <a href="" target="_blank">But this stubborn bully of a plant might have a shot at redemption</a>. A recent study from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center found that the very traits that make <em>Phragmites</em> a tough invader—larger plants, deeper roots, higher density—enable it to store more carbon in marshy peat. And as climate change races forward, carbon storage becomes a bigger part of the ecosystem equation.</p>
Jan 25, 2019
Medical Conflict Of Interest, Saturn’s Rings, Bear Brook Podcast. Jan 25, 2019, Part 2
<p>Most scientific journals go by the honor system when it comes to conflicts of interest: They ask, and the researchers tell. But that system might be due for an overhaul. A recent ProPublica and New York Times investigation found that a top cancer researcher at Sloan Kettering had received millions of dollars in payments from health and drug companies, but failed to disclose his industry ties in more than 100 articles. Within days, the researcher resigned, more conflicts came to light, leading to a moment of reckoning for the institution. But a more recent investigation shows <a href="" target="_blank">the problem goes far beyond Sloan Kettering</a>. New York Times reporter Katie Thomas, a co-author of the recent investigations, and Eric Campbell, a professor of medicine at the University of Colorado, discuss how these conflicts of interests could affect patients, why they aren’t being consistently disclosed, and what’s being done about the problem.</p> <p>Saturn stands out in our solar system because of the rings that circle the planet. But the rings may not have always been there and may disappear in the far future. Researchers using data collected by Cassini’s final plunge into the planet were able to estimate the mass of the rings. From this information they were able to estimate that the rings were between 10 to 100 million years old, <a href="" target="_blank">much younger than the planet itself</a>. The finding were published in the journal Science. Planetary scientist Burkhard Militzer, who was an author on the study, tells us what the rings of Saturn can reveal about the formation of the solar system and universe.</p> <p>Last year’s arrest of Joseph James DeAngelo, better known as the Golden State Killer, drew lots of attention for the clever use of consumer genetic testing websites to identify a suspect—and for all the murky ethical questions that came with it. But this wasn’t the first time law enforcement had used the technique to solve a cold case. Detectives looking for DeAngelo took their inspiration from an earlier case in New Hampshire, known as the “Bear Brook murders.” In that case, police were up against both an unknown killer and unidentified victims, until they relied on the genealogy database GEDmatch to help them with a crack in the case. It was a strategy that would <a href="" target="_blank">change the game for forensic investigations in cold case murders</a>. And the story of how it all got started is now told in a new true crime podcast from New Hampshire Public Radio called Bear Brook. Jason Moon, reporter for New Hampshire Public Radio and host of the podcast joins guest host John Dankosky to discuss. </p>
Jan 25, 2019