Sigma Nutrition Radio

By Danny Lennon

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Reviews: 2

 Nov 16, 2020
best podcast for nutrition science

 Jan 10, 2020
Awesome podcast providing in-depth knowledge and inspiration regarding nutrition and beyond in relation to performance. Well worth listening and subscribing.


Discussions about the science of nutrition, dietetics and health. The podcast that educates through nuanced conversations, exploring evidence and cultivating critical thinking. Hosted by Danny Lennon.

Episode Date
#462: Gyorgy Scrinis, PhD – Ultra-Processed Foods, Nutritionism and Current Food Systems


About this episode:

Over the past decade, the increasing uptake and acceptance of the Nova food processing classification system has placed focus on one of the categories in Nova; ultra-processed foods (UPFs). Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are products created from deconstructed (and recombined) food components, usually with the goal of creating a highly palatable, convenient, and profitable product. This typically means such products are high in nutrients of content (e.g. sugar, sodium, saturated fat, etc.). But in addition, they have other characteristics that may make them detrimental to health, particularly when they replace unprocessed or minimally processed foods in the diet.

There is now clear evidence showing that when such products make up a large proportion of the diet, such a dietary pattern has negative health effects. However, there are still many unanswered questions and many debates within nutrition science about how to best classify UPFs, to what degree they need to be limited, whether some can be beneficial, and what to do with policy going forward.

To offer one perspective on this issue, Associate Professor of Food Politics and Policy at the University of Melbourne, Dr. Gyorgy Scrinis, is on the podcast to discuss his work in the area.

While we have discussed the problem of reductionism in nutrition science previously on the podcast, Dr. Scrinis’ use of the term ‘reductionism’ does differ a bit from the way others use the term. For example, he suggests that nutrition science has been too reductive even at the food-level and dietary-pattern level.

His work on ultra-processed foods and the Nova classification system has attempted to understand the technological and corporate character of ultra-processed foods, the power of food corporations, and how food corporations shape and capture nutrition science for the purposes of promoting and defending their products.

Nov 29, 2022
#461: Prof. Emma Boyland – How Food Marketing Impacts Eating Behaviour

Research has shown that food marketing strongly impacts children’s eating behaviour. Marketing influences food purchase requests, purchases, and preferences.

And the evidence of a relationship between food marketing exposure and obesity meets epidemiological criteria for causality. The evidence suggests that the impact of food marketing is a function of both exposure to the marketing message and its persuasive power.

What does the current evidence tell us about the exact effect of marketing on food choices? And beyond that, what strategies are likely to yield the best results in terms of mitigating the harms of food marketing on eating behaviour, particularly in children and adolescents?

To help answer these questions, subject area expert Prof. Emma Boyland is on the podcast to discuss what is currently known.


Nov 22, 2022
SNP11: The Death of Domain Expertise

Never before has there been greater access to information about nutrition and health. But never before has there been such a low barrier to being seen as an “expert”. There are large numbers of people getting information from, and basing their health decisions on, people who don’t have direct expertise in the field in which they are talking about.

Moreover, some promote the lack of domain expertise as a feature, not a bug. They claim that those that were conventionally seen as domain experts are either brainwashed, lazy in their thinking, or outright corrupt. And the solution is instead to look to those with a fresh perspective that can illuminate us on the “truth”.

In this episode, Alan and Danny discuss this “death of domain expertise”, how it plays out online, and its ramifications for people’s ability to get good information.

This is a Premium-exclusive episode. To listen to the full episode and access the transcript, you must subscribe to Sigma Nutrition Premium.


Nov 15, 2022
#460: Dr. Priya Sumithran – Body Fat Regulation, Pros & Cons of Weight Loss Interventions, and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

Obesity increases the risk of a range of chronic diseases and negative health outcomes. And trials where a sufficient amount of weight loss is achieved show health improvements. However, despite the “straightforward” nature of causing weight loss through a hypocaloric diet, it is clear that most people who lose weight will regain some or all of the weight.

This is a result of both the physiologic control of intake and expenditure (i.e. homeostatic regulation by the body to avoid staying at a lower body or fat mass), and environmental factors. Diet-induced weight loss is followed by a number of hormonal change that encourage weight regain. So how do we tackle this problem?

In this episode, Dr. Priya Sumithran discusses this physiologic control of body mass, in addition to environmental and behavioural factors that make weight loss maintenance difficult. Dr. Sumithran also discusses what this means for setting weight loss targets, choosing the correct intervention, and looking to non-weight-centric approaches for certain individuals. We also discuss the evidence on GLP-1 receptor agonist drugs, such as Semaglutide, as a treatment for obesity.


Nov 08, 2022
#459: Nicky Keay, MB BChir – Hormones & Healthspan: The Endocrine System Across the Life Course

The endocrine system plays a central role in growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and physical well-being throughout life. Hormones interact in complex networks, orchestrating a range of critical functions. Over the life course, we experience various changes in hormone levels, fluctuations, patterns, and actions. Additionally, lifestyle factors and disease processes can impact the levels and functions of hormones.

In this episode, Dr. Nicky Keay, a medical doctor with expertise in the field of exercise endocrinology, is on the podcast to discuss a variety of endocrine-related issues, including: hormone diurnal variation, bone health, amenorrhoea, HRT, perimenopause, and thinking about hormones and aging.


Nov 01, 2022
What Are Stable Isotopes? How Are Tracers Used in Nutrition Research? (Preview)

Stable isotopes have been used as tracers in human nutritional studies for many years. But what are they? Why do we use ‘tracers’ in nutrition studies? And what are some practical examples?

A chemical element can have different forms or ‘isotopes.’ These different isotopes have the same atomic number and position in the periodic table but have different atomic masses and physical properties. An isotope that is not radioactive is said to be ‘stable’.

In physiology and metabolism research, stable isotopes are used as ‘tracers.’ As the name implies, it allows us to ‘trace’ the fate of compounds, thus giving a very detailed insight into the metabolism of nutrients and the regulation of many disease processes.

In this episode, Dr. Alan Flanagan explains what stable isotope tracers are, how they are used to answer nutrition science questions and some examples that you may come across.

This is a ‘Nutrition Science Explained’ episode. These episodes are exclusive to Sigma Nutrition Premium. To listen to the full episode and access the transcript, you must subscribe to Sigma Nutrition Premium.

Oct 25, 2022
#458: How Foods Impact Satiety, Hunger & Appetite

Given the negative consequences of consistent overconsumption of food (leading to a caloric surplus), having a dietary intake that is of appropriate calorie intake is an important aspect of long-term health. Therefore, thinking about which foods and diets can help promote appropriate satiety to keep calorie intake in check is a key focus for many researchers and practitioners.

There is a complex system of human appetite control. This appetite system influences food consumption and associated motivational drives such as hunger, as well as interacting with and being influenced by energy expenditure. Satiety is an important psycho-biological process involved in the expression of human appetite, inhibiting hunger and intake following food or beverage consumption.

In this episode, the Sigma team discusses the human appetite system, how different nutrients and foods impact satiety, and the implications of this research.


Oct 18, 2022
#457: Austin Robinson, PhD – Salt Sensitive vs Salt Resistant, Impacts of Sodium on Health, & Racial Differences in Risk
Hypertension (elevated blood pressure) is a condition that significantly increases the risk of several diseases and is a major cause of premature death worldwide. In the US, recent estimates suggest that about half of the adult population has hypertension.

At a population level, high sodium intake is one of the main dietary risk factors. All population health guidelines recommend keeping sodium intake below certain levels.

While, on average, blood pressure correlates with sodium intake, there is a wide range of responses on an individual level. People who see increasing sodium intake lead to increased blood pressure are termed “salt sensitive”. Others, however, don’t see much change in blood pressure with increased dietary sodium. Such individuals are classed as “salt resistant”.

In this episode, Assistant Professor at Auburn University, Dr. Austin Robinson, is on to discuss whether people who are salt resistant need to keep their sodium intake low or not. And other individual and group differences that exist for hypertension risk and sodium physiology?

Oct 11, 2022
#456: Prof. Glenn McConell – Glucose Uptake During Exercise & Muscle Insulin Sensitivity

Exercise improves metabolic control both via increasing muscle glucose uptake during muscle contractions by insulin-independent mechanisms and by increasing skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity after physical activity. A reduction in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity is an early event in the development of not only prediabetes, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes but is also associated with other conditions such as cardiovascular disease and some cancers.

One of the researchers that has been at the forefront of research in this area for many years is Professor Glenn McConell. In this episode we discuss glucose uptake during and after exercise, looking at both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent mechanisms. In addition we discuss the crucial importance of muscle insulin sensitivity and some important research breakthroughs on the topic.


Oct 04, 2022
#455: Jill Joyce, PhD – Improving the Diets of Tactical Populations

The term ‘tactical populations’ has been applied to those working in law enforcement, fire, first responders, and military. In addition to the importance of their work, the work they do itself presents some challenges for health and nutrition.

Despite the fact that such individuals make up a significant number of the population and their work plays a crucial role in society, there is currently very little research on fire and law enforcement nutrition. Most research is on the prevalence of disease and the occupational risk factors and related pathophysiology. Lifestyle research, descriptive and interventions, is way behind.

Dr. Jill Joyce is the co-director of the OSU Tactical Fitness and Nutrition Lab at Oklahoma State University. She does research looking at real-world interventions in these populations, particularly firefighters, in an attempt to improve their diets and health.

In this episode, we look at both the theoretical and pragmatic realities of improving diet and health in firefighters and some other tactical populations.


Sep 27, 2022
SNP9: AMA – Blood Pressure, LDL Lowering, PCOS & More!
In this Premium-exclusive ‘Ask Me Anything’ episode, Alan & Danny answer a range of listener questions. Topics include obesity rates, lowering blood pressure, cholesterol drugs, PCOS, and what issues they have changed their minds on. See the full list of questions below.

[02.37] Do you feel that there is hope (or an effective way forward) for obesity rates to come down? Based on your response, why/why not?

[11.28] In this field, it seems like so many of us have had positions we’ve held very seriously that we now see as poorly supported by research, or just have a significant paradigm change. It would be great to hear you look back to how your views have evolved over the years.

[30.34] Apart from lowering salt intake and eating foods high in potassium are there other things you can take or do to reduce blood pressure?

[40.34] What is the best ratio of DHA vs EPA to increase my Omega 3 index?

[46.20] Statins v Ezetimibe: Differences between the two? Mechanism of action? Are there situations, conditions, genetic markers where one may work better than the other?

[56.20] I’m starting a PhD in the fall concerning the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases and I’d like to take some courses that would help me in my research. Would you have any recommendations for a beginner scientist?

[59.01] Is astaxanthin a good substitute for algae oil for someone who follows a vegan diet?

[60.45] Do you have any suggestions how to better manage hunger in obese women with PCOS?

[64.33] Do you have any recommendations for anyone wanting to get involved in chrononutrition research?

Sep 20, 2022
#454: Eric Helms, PhD – Plant or Animal Protein: Rethinking Protein & Muscle

When it comes to eating to promote muscle hypertrophy, muscle repair/recovery and maintenance of mass and function, protein has been an obvious focus. Indeed muscle mass and quality are dependent on the continuous remodeling of skeletal muscle proteins. This is related to the amount of muscle protein balance, i.e. the net difference between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Because of this, MPS has long been used as a proxy measure for muscle repair and/or growth of muscle.

Protein feeding increases MPS, with the amino acid leucine having a specifically strong impact on MPS. Therefore both the dose of protein and the amino acid profile of the protein have been looked at to assess which protein sources are “superior” for muscle mass and function. This has typically led to viewing animal proteins as better than plant proteins.

But many assumptions are layered into conversations on the topic. In this episode we explore some important points that are often neglected. Is MPS as reliable as we assume? Does the amino acid profile tell us everything about the anabolic effect of a protein? Does dose and timing matter as much as we think? How does the picture change when we look at whole foods or mixed meals?


Sep 13, 2022
#453: Nick Gant, PhD – Cognitive Performance: Impact of Caffeine, Nicotine & Creatine (Rebroadcast)

The brain plays a central role in both physical and psychological function and performance. The brain also has a very high energy demand. In addition, fatiguing conditions can cause impairment of cognitive performance.

One area of research in neurometabolism related to the potential use of nutrients on improving cognitive function, as well as “rescuing” the fatigue-related declines in performance.

Nick Gant is Director of the Exercise Neurometabolism Laboratory at the University of Auckland. His group uses interdisciplinary approaches from the nutritional sciences and neurosciences to investigate the role of nutrition in brain health and performance. Nick is particularly interested in foods and supplements that prevent brain fatigue and improve physical and cognitive function.

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Sep 06, 2022
#452: Stuart Phillips, PhD - Bacterially Synthesized Whey, Plant vs. Animal Proteins, Muscle & Extended Fasts, & Much More

This episode was oringally published as one of our “Expert – ask me anything” (AMA) episodes, which we published for Premium prescribers. In such bonus episodes, we collect questions from Premium subscribers and ask them direct to a world-class expert and past podcast guest.

If you’re interested in subscribing to Sigma Nutrition Premium, then check all the details here.

In this episode Prof. Stu Phillips takes questions about synethized whey protein, plant proteins, post-exercise MPS, and many other topics related to protein, muscle function and ageing.

Aug 30, 2022
#451: Potassium & Blood Pressure: Influence of Sex & Sodium

It has been consistently shown in research that elevated dietary sodium consumption is associated with high blood pressure and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, low levels of dietary potassium intake are associated with these same risks. However, there is some debate on how to characterize these relationships.

In a study published in European Heart Journal in July 2022, using data from the EPIC-Norfolk study, researchers attempted to answer whether the associations between potassium and both blood pressure and cardiovascular disease: 1) differ between men and women? and 2) depend on daily sodium intake.

In this episode Dr. Alan Flanagan and Danny Lennon discuss the details of this study and then link it to the overall evidence base and what this may mean for potassium (and sodium) intake considerations.

Aug 23, 2022
#450: Megan Rossi, PhD, RD – Diet For a Healthy Gut: Diversity, Fiber Types & Gut Health Pseudoscience
With the advances in understanding the importance of the gut (including its bacterial contents) for human health, much interest and attention has been placed on how to eat to promote positive ‘gut health’. This has led to many exciting research questions and labs doing fascinating work.

However, on the opposite side, it has led to a spike in opportunistic quacks to jump on the wave of enthusiasm and promote diets, supplements, testing kits and products that don’t reflect the current evidence base.

So what do we actually know? What aspects of diet should we focus on to improve gut health? For those with gut symptoms (bloating, pain, irritable bowel, etc.) is it possible to include more vegetables and fiber without the pain?

In this episode, gut health researcher at King’s College London, Dr. Megan Rossi, discusses some simple heuristics to follow that will likely improve overall health, and promote positive gut health.

Access show notes here
Aug 16, 2022
#449: Do Artificial Sweeteners Increase Cancer Risk? (Study Analysis)

A study published in March 2022 suggested that consumption of artificial (non-nutritive) sweeteners is associated with a 13% increase in risk of cancer.

And so in this episode, Dr. Alan Flanagan, Dr. Niamh Aspell, and Danny Lennon discuss this specific study and give their thoughts on what are fair conclusions to come to.

Access show notes here

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Aug 09, 2022
#448: Prof. Norman Temple – Can Science Answer Diet-Health Questions?

While we’ve never known more about diet and health, there remain many unanswered questions in nutrition science. However, there is often disagreements on how best to answer these questions, particularly in relation to informing practical diet advise that meaningfully improves health.

Prof. Norman Temple is one academic who has written on a number of these issues. One issue he highlights is the large discrepency in the practical value we have attained from cohort studies and RCTs, relative to mechanistic research. Another is the limitations of RCTs for nutrition-specific research questions.

In this episode, Prof. Temple discusses these issues, as well as what strategies can actually improve population diet, and thus health.

Access show notes here

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Aug 02, 2022
#447: Does Eating Fish Increase Skin Cancer Risk? Study Analysis

A recent study reported a higher risk of developing melanoma in people who ate a relatively high intake of fish. This study caused headlines and it was picked up by many outlets (including the New York Times, Sky News, etc.).

In this episode, Alan and Danny dig into the nuances of this study to see if the headlines are justified.

Click here for show notes

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Jul 26, 2022
SNP7: Stephan Guyenet, PhD - Ask Me Anything!

This is an “ask me anything” (AMA) episode, which means a world-class expert and past podcast guest comes on the podcast to answer questions submitted by you, our podcast listeners.

Stephan Guyenet spent 12 years in academia studying neurodegenerative disease and obesity neuroscience. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the Univeristy of Washington, studying the neuroscience of obesity and eating behavior. Previous to that he completed a PhD in neuroscience.

Stephan is the author of the popular and well-received book ‘The Hungry Brain‘, which lays out the science behind the brain’s role in obesity.

To subscribe to Premium (and get the full episode) go here.

Questions Answered In Full Episode

  1. “When someone undergoes liposuction or other surgery that removes adipose tissue, is there a sudden reduction in leptin levels? While this may reduce leptin resistance, could the drop in leptin lead to increased hunger over time?”
  2. “What is the current research around how chronic energy restriction (or following crash diets) affects appetite hormones and/ or appetite regulation long term? Is there a physiological mechanism influencing overeating attributable to appetite dysregulation caused by chronic dieting? I ask as this is something I am often tackling in my nutrition consultancy but research in biochemical and physiological mechanisms seems lacking.”
  3. “Can you talk about the conditions of anorexia and morbid obesity and how they essentially defy the rules of metabolic compensation? In other words- I understand anorexia to be a mental health condition where the individual starves themselves with a purpose to control weight. And morbid obesity being excessive consumption despite over fatness, etc. If the body has these numerous mechanisms by which calorie restriction or calorie over- consumption results in these compensatory processes-driving us to eat more/less slow us down/speed us up, and many more; do these individuals not “hear” these signals or are they just adept at ignoring them or is it that their bodies have lost the ability to compensate for their under or over consumption? Additionally, can anyone become anorexic or morbidly obese? Or is it merely genetics?”
  4. “Why do some SDRIs (serotonin–dopamine reuptake inhibitors) and serotonin precursors reduce hunger/appetite? E.g. 5-HTP and Wellbutrin (Bupropion)”
  5. “Question about the ideal weight program: As an iOS developer, my instinct is to assume determinism and quantifiability of the entire universe. I believe this to be fundamentally true. But what is hypothetically possible differs from what we can realistically know. I worry that attempts like yours to quantify some seemingly qualitative measures are doomed. I have similar concerns about happiness research. How do you reassure yourself you can really construct an algorithm that deciphers the “ideal weight program” for any given user – do you rely on averages?”
    a. Quick explanation of the ideal weight program
  6. “In 2018 a poster was presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience titled ‘The human brain microbiome; there are bacteria in our brains!’ which showed bacteria apparently penetrating and inhabiting the cells of healthy human brains. While the work was preliminary, have you heard of any further work in this area? What is your opinion on the possibility that, if bacteria do inhabit the brain, they could play a part in appetite regulation and/or obesity similar to how the gut microbiome can affect our health?”
  7. “It seems like there are significant differences in policies put forth between researchers from biomedical backgrounds and ones from public health policy backgrounds. Dr [David] Allison touched on this during recent interviews, noting that there is very little evidence regarding the efficacy of upstream obesity prevention interventions, such community gardens, combatting food deserts, nutrition education, and cooking classes. On the other hand, governments are increasingly turning to such interventions, as well as policies such as front of pack labelling (Canada, 2022), nutrition facts tables, calorie labelling on menus, as well as the aforementioned ones. Given your research on determinants of health and obesity, what are some of the most promising interventions to prevent NCD morbidity, as well as stones unturned in public health policy? Would you agree with individuals such as Dr Allison that in our current environment, the only efficacious interventions are drugs and bariatric surgery?”
  8. Question based on your debate on JRE with Gary Taubes: “Would the insulinogenic effect of protein, specifically something like whey protein which causes an insulin response, be something that should automatically refute Taubes arguments about insulins inherent role in increasing adiposity? Second, would overeating on any macronutrient increase insulin simply because you are eating more food (i.e. hypercaloric)?”
  9. “Are there best practices for the maximum duration someone should spend in fat loss (or weight gain) phases? Or perhaps an optimal ratio of fat loss phase duration to “maintenance” phase duration? For example, should fat loss phases be for a maximum of 12 weeks followed by maintenance of at least equal duration before resuming a fat loss phase?
  10. “I’m a naturally skinny guy who helps other naturally skinny guys bulk up. I think it largely comes down to a blunted pleasure response to food, smaller stomachs, and/or higher NEAT. A lot of us seem to be taller and more thinly built, too. But why do you think things are things so different for us? Why is it so hard to gain weight? And what can we do about it?”

To subscribe to Premium (and get the full episode) go here.

Jul 19, 2022
#446: How Climate Change Impacts Nutrient Status

Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. These shifts may be natural, such as through variations in the solar cycle. But since the 1800’s, human activities have been the main driver of climate change, primarily due to burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas.

Climate change has the potential to negatively impact the nutrient value of plants, soil organisms, food stuffs, via a variety of ways. Climate change puts food supplies at risk. Floods, droughts, more intense hurricanes, heatwaves and wildfires can drive down crop yields, destroy livestock, and interfere with the transport of food. And rising carbon dioxide levels from human activity can make staple crops like rice and wheat less nutritious.

In this podcast the Sigma team take a look at the evidence on how climate change will impact nutrient status, if left unchecked. There will be also a look at what solutions have been put forward to tackle this issue. This episode will focus more on how climate change impacts nutritional & nutrient status, as opposed to converse (but equally important) issue of how food systems impact climate change.

Access show notes here

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Jul 13, 2022
#445: Dr. Hazel Wallace - Nutrition for Women’s Health

When it comes to specific questions related to diet and health for women, there is often a shortage of consensus answers from research, for a variety of reasons. In addition, there are clearly aspects of biological sex that have implications for health and also the interaction with diet. For example, the impact of the menstural cycle, of menopause, and differences in nutrient requirements.

In this episode, Dr. Hazel Wallace discusses some of these key considerations. Some things covered include: the impact of menstrual cycle phase on cravings, at-risk nutrients in pre-menopausal women, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, interaction of diet and PMS, the physiological changes at menopause and potential role of diet.

Jul 07, 2022
SNP6: GRADE System: What is it? And How Does it Apply to Nutrition? [Preview]

This is a preview of the second episode in a new series called “Nutrition Science Explained”, in which members of the Sigma team will take a concept commonly mentioned in discussions about nutrition science, and explain what it is, give more background context, and highlight important aspects to know. The goal is to aid listeners to have a deeper understanding of other episodes when such concepts are mentioned.

In this episode Alan Flanagan discusses the concept of the GRADE system, and specifially how it applies to evaluating nutrition research and coming to conclusions for practice.

GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations) is a framework for developing and presenting summaries of evidence and provides a systematic approach for grading the quality of evidence and making clinical practice recommendations.

In order to listen to the full episode, you will need to subscribe to Sigma Nutrition Premium.

Jul 04, 2022
#444: Folate – Intake, Genetics & Health Outcomes

Folate (also known as viatmin B9) actually relates to a collection of folates; both natural dietary folates and synthetic forms, primarily folic acid. This folate/folic acid that is consumed via the diet or supplementation is a precursor for the formation of tetrahydrofolate (THF), which is a carbon donor and acts a cofactor for a number of enzymes that play important roles in several processes.

In this episode, Alan and Danny discuss the role of folate in the methlyation cycle, the impact of folate insufficiency/deficiency, genetics variatnts of the MTHFR gene (and other genes) that impact folate metabolism, and the impact of folate on health outcomes; including heart disease, birth defects, cancer, and brain health & cognition.

Detailed study notes and transcript to this episode

Jun 28, 2022
#443: Kevin Klatt, PhD, RD - Can Choline Help Improve DHA Status?
A recently published study by Klatt and colleagues examined the impact of choline supplementation alongside DHA supplementation, versus DHA supplementation alone, on DHA status in pregnancy.

It is known that DHA is a critical nutrient at this time for healthy development of the child. And through a number of mechanisms discussed later, it has been hypothesized that choline could lead to greater DHA status.

We discuss:
  • What is the connection between choline and DHA? What is the PEMT pathway?
  • Study design for the choline + DHA trial
  • Are there risks of high-dose choline?
  • Main findings of the trial
  • How DHA status is not just a function of DHA intake, but also methyl metabolism too
  • Issues with omega-3 trials; e.g. not taking baseline status into account
  • Pragmatic recommendations for health professionals and patients
  • Different forms of choline supplements
  • Choline supplementation vs. food-derived choline
Jun 22, 2022
#442: Are Vegetables Detrimental to Health?

In this episode Alan and Danny aim to address the idea that you shouldn’t eat vegetables, or that they aren’t beneficial. We will specifically look at a number of claims that relate to:

  1. The claim that vegetables aren’t beneficial for health, or that there is no health benefit to high vegetable intake.
  2. The claim that vegetables are actually detrimental to health, and their removal improves health.

This episode was orignally published to Sigma Nutrition Premium. If you wish to get more of these Quack Asylum episodes (and lots of other features, including detailed study notes) then subscribe to Sigma Nutrition Premium.

Click here to access show notes

Jun 15, 2022
SNP5: Prof. Stuart Phillips - Ask Me Anything! [Preview]

This is an "ask me anything" (AMA) episode, with Prof. Stuart Phillips of McMaster University. Prof. Phillips takes questions on protein intake, sources, muscle function, and healthy ageing.

To listen to the full AMA, click here to subscribe to Sigma Nutrition Premium.

Questions answered:


  • [04.28] What is muscle protein balance?
  • [05.32] Why is the focus always on muscle protein synthesis?
  • [07.14] Is MPS a good proxy measure for outcomes we care about (e.g. muscle growth/repair)?
  • [10.37] What's the difference between 'whole body protein synthesis' and 'muscle protein synthesis'?
  • [12.57] We're starting to see commercially available whey that has been produced by bacteria engineered to synthesize whey protein directly from nutritional substrate. It seems like we should expect this to have directly comparable effects given the identical molecular structure. Is there any reason to think this bacterially synthesized whey will have any different effects that whey from dairy?
  • [15.50] Does the literature still show that an additional dose of plant-derived protein is required to equate a similar response from animal protein?
  • [26.39] During post-exercise conditions does protein ingestion stimulate MPS for longer than the usual 2-3 hour period reported in rested conditions?
  • [27.49] Considering the growing interest in fasting protocols (both TRF and longer fasting protocols) - what would you recommend in these circumstances for the preservation / growth of muscle mass. Would it differ between IF/TRF and longer (1-3 day) fasts?
  • [34.58] Is it a waste to take too much protein powder at once because some of it won't get absorbed?
  • [42.50] Does protein powder lose some of its quality if boiling water is added due to protein denaturation?
  • [47.05] Would you please share your opinion about how you evaluate protein status in the body?
  • [50.51] I am now over 60 and lift heavy twice a week. What would be a reasonable body fat % for me to aspire to and how much daily protein should I be targetting in my diet?

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Jun 13, 2022
#441: Julie Abayomi, PhD, RD - Diet During Pregnancy

Consuming a healthy diet during pregnancy is an obvious and accepted recommedation. However, what exactly is a "healthy diet" in this context? In addition, there are specific nutrients which are crucial for the healthy development of the child, including nutrients which may be difficult to consume enough of. In addition there are nutrients and foods that need to limited or avoided during this period.

In this episode, researcher and dietitian Dr. Julie Abayomi discusses important nutrients in pregnancy (e.g. iodine, DHA, and folic acid), as well as potentially problematic nutrients/foods (e.g. high-mercury fish and caffeine). In addition, she discusses the current debates about weight gain/loss during pregnancy, as well as what supports are needed for health professionals supporting pregnant women.

Click here for show notes

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Jun 07, 2022
#440: Are Dietary Guidelines Trying To Kill Us?

It has become common rhetoric for those promoting various types of diets to suggest that dietary guidelines published by government departments are at best, unhealthy, or at worst, causative in driving obesity and chronic disease in the population.

While different countries and organizations produce their own guidelines, with slight differences, most of the conversation has focused on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, that are created by the USDA.

Often the claims is that following these guidelines actually harms health, rather than promote it. And the guidelines are simply a result of industry forces, long-standing bias, and shoddy science.

But do these claims hold up to scrutiny? In this episode Alan and Danny look at some of the arguments put foward, and take a look at the science underpinning dietary guidelines in a number of countries.

In this episode:

  • [0.01.46] Examples of arguments put forward stating that it’s not healthy to follow dietary guidelines
  • [0.12.50] History of the development of guidelines in the US & narratives around Ancel Keys
  • [0.23.50] Misrepresentation of what the guidelines say
  • [0.30.49] What are actually in the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
  • [0.33.10] Changes to guidelines over time
  • [0.36.05] Other countries’ guidelines: UK, Canada, Nordic countries
  • [0.40.50] Investigating the rise in obesity/disease prevalence with the roll out of the guidelines
  • [0.56.34] Do people follow the guidelines?
  • [1.00.01] The negative role of the food industry
  • [1.03.50] Potential issues with dietary guidelines


May 31, 2022
SNP4: Detoxification Protocols [Preview]

There have been many claims made about the benefits of a detoxification "protocol" or "plan", based on specific dietary and supplemental regimens. Many of the arguments propose that many things we come into contact with are toxins and they can accumulate and compound in effect over time, causing a range of issues. Therefore, by removing these toxins (via a “detoxification protocol”), we can have better health.

And indeed it is well known that there are a large number of toxins in the environment, many of which can potentially be deleterious to health. And it also known that many nutrients are involed in processes of the body's detoxification pathways.

However, is there any evidence that a detoxification diet, plan or "protocol" improves health? Is there any reason to suggest targeting certain nutrients or supplements leads to "better detoxification"? And do we need to avoid non-organic food, toothpaste and non-stick frying plans in avoid to avoid these toxins? This Quack Asylum episode evaluates these claims.

Study notes available at

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May 26, 2022
#439: Prof. David Jenkins - Lipid-Lowering Diets

With elevated LDL-cholesterol being a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic heart disease, having interventions to lower blood lipids, and in particular LDL-C, are crucial for population health. A number of drugs are now incredibly effective for this, with statins being the most widely used.

However, for those who do not wish to take a medication and/or have only a mild elevation, there may be potential for dietary intervention to lower LDL-C to a point where a statin (or other drug) is not needed.

A number of aspects of healthy dietary patterns have been known to reduce the liklihood of elevated blood lipids. Most notably perhaps, the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat in the diet (P:S ratio). And an absolute low level of saturated fat in the diet (e.g. < 10% of calories).

However, work by Dr. David Jenkins and collegegues put forward the idea of a “portfolio” of specific nutrients/foods that could additionally lower LDL-C. This became known as the Portfolio Diet. The four primary pillars of this portfolio diet are: soy protein, viscous fibers, nuts, and plant sterols.

In this episode, Danny talks to the originator of this work, Dr. Jenkins.


May 23, 2022
#438: Diet, Brain Health & Cognitive Function

Some cognitive decline is normal with age. However, more significant cognitive decline is primarily due to disease-induced dementias (such as Alzheimer’s Disease). It also results from neurodegenerative disorders and chronic, prolonged degeneration of our neuronal pathways and functions.

Drug discovery for dementias have been largely unsuccessful, leaving no good treatments for this collection of diseases. This had led to research examining areas that may aid in preventing (or more accurately, slowing) cognitive decline.

In this episode the Sigma team look at the published data on a variety of nutrients, foods and dietary patterns, including: vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, caffeine, flavanoids, coffee and green leafy vegetables.

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  • [00:02:01] Definitions
  • [00:08:40] What causes cognitive decline? Dementia? Mechanisms of ND pathogenesis.
  • [00:11:33] Why might nutrition play a role?
  • [00:18:18] Dietary patterns
  • [00:26:30] Diet interaction with APOE genotype
  • [00:31:18] Alcohol
  • [00:36:36] Polyphenols - mechanisms
  • [00:43:05] Coffee & Caffeine
  • [00:45:03] Flavanoids
  • [00:51:04] Vitamin D
  • [01:04:22] Omega 3 fatty acids
  • [01:21:42] B vitamins & green leafy veg
  • [01:30:35] Vitamin E
  • [01:38:24] How to assess cognitive health in ageing intervention studies
  • [01:45:28] Concluding thoughts


Show notes to this episode

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May 17, 2022
#437: GMOs & Genetic Engineering: Harmless or Health-Hazard?
The issue of genetic enginnering in the food system is one that is often charged with emotion and strong opinion. Indeed, there has been much concern voiced over the years about the potential harms to both human health and the environment of genetically-modified (or more accurately, genetically-engineered) crops.

Some concern takes the form of outright hysteria, while other concerns are more nuanced and subtle. Among these concerns, which have good evidence to support them? What regulation is currently in place? Why are their differences between the US and the EU?

On the opposite side, there are clear advantages to GE crops; including disease resistance, herbicide tolerance, and even enhanced nutritional content. But are these advantages possible without harm? Do the pros outweigh the cons?

In this episode, Alan and Danny discuss the current evidence on genetically engineered crops (or GMOs) and their effect on human health, biodiversity, and the economy.
  • 02:02 – Framing of the GMOs debate
  • 13:52 – Key definitions
  • 20:34 – Where do GMOs show up in the food supply? And jurisdiction differences
  • 33:40 – Impacts on human health and nutritional differences
  • 45:16 – Impact on biodiversity
  • 1:01:57 – What’s the deal with glyphosate herbicide?
  • 1:05:34 – Concluding thoughts

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May 10, 2022
#436: Charlene Van Buiten, PhD – Coeliac Disease & the Search for Novel Therapies

Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder stimulated by the ingestion of gluten, a protein found naturally in wheat, barley and rye. The condition affects approximately 1% of the Western world. However, currently the only approved treatment for coeliac disease is adherence to a gluten-free diet for life.

Therefore there is much research underway to develop alternative treatment options that may help these patients. One novel antigen-focused therapy that has been hypothesised is the use of plant bioactives.

Specifially, in vitro work by Dr. Charlene Van Buiten has looked as whether there is a mechanism by which polyphenols from green tea could be of benefit. Her work shows that these polyphenols can mitigate gliadin-mediated inflammation and intestinal permeability in vitro.

Click here for show notes.

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May 03, 2022
#435: Fasting & Longevity – Does the Evidence Match the Hype?

Current discussions relating to health focus on longevity. This may include some who look at lifespan extension, some who talk of delaying or “treating” ageing or those who focus on reducing morbidity within the parameters of normal lifespan.

One propsed intervention that has garnered a lot of excitement, owing to some interesting research, is the potential use of fasting to increase longevity and/or healthspan. Within this broad category, various different dietary interventions have been suggested, including various forms of intermittent fasting, time-restricted eating, dietary restriction of certain nutritients, calorie restriction or a “fasting-mimicking” diet.

But what does the current evidence tell us? Does the evidence actually match the hype? In this episode Dr. Niamh Aspell, Alan Flanagan and Danny Lennon discuss some of the data on fasting and longevity.

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Apr 26, 2022
SNP2: "Fish is Bad For You" [PREVIEW]

While dietary guidelines universally include fish as a food group that can be consumed regularly in a healthy dietary pattern, there are some potential risks of fish consumption that get raised. Some have some legitimacy, for example the frequency of consumption of high-mercury fish. However, other claims can go to extremes ("eating fish is bad for you") that are based in ideology rather than evidence.

In this Quack Asylum episode, we use a video made by a medical doctor as an example of where quackery can raise its head on this topic. Specifically, there are four claims made in the video that we investigate and see if there is any basis to them.

This is a Premium-exclusive episode. In order to listen to the full episode and access the show notes, you will need to subscribe to Sigma Nutrition Premium.

Apr 19, 2022
#434: Is a Vegan Diet Really Best for Diabetes?

Many different diets have been put forward as solutions that treat type 2 diabetes. Some will claim the diet “reverses” diabetes, some say it puts it into “remission”, while others more conservatively recommend a diet to manage diabetes symptoms in a healthy way.

There has been some debate on the use of terms like reversal, cure or resolution. And recently more clarity has been found in defining each.

One of the diets that has been recommended by some for the purposes of “reversing” or treating diabetes is a low-fat, whole food plant-based (WFPB) diet. Specifically, there is a claim that it is superior to other diets in treating diabetes. Some of these claims relate to popular online diet & lifestyle programs that use such a diet. While there is also a number of studies that are commonly cited in support of the claims.

In this episode, we evaluate these claims by looking at the published research in this area, across epidemiology, human intervention trials and mechanistic rationale. We also ponder what it means for something to be the “best” diet to treat a chronic disease.

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Apr 12, 2022
#433: Greg Potter, PhD - The Bidirectional Relationship Between Sleep and Diet
The relationship between our diet and sleep is bi-directional; i.e. sleep impacts diet and diet impacts sleep. Therefore, we can examine the impact of sleep timing, duration and other dimensions on our dietary intake. And then also examine the impat of both overall diet and specific nutrients on improving/worsening sleep.

The is clear evidence of distinct, acute effects of restricted sleep time on food preferences, eating behaviour, energy intake, and our underlying metabolic physiology.

When it comes to the ability of certain foods or nutrients to improve sleep, often many claims are based on weak evidence or mechanistic reasoning. But there is evidence showing some impacts of certain compounds to either positively or negatively impact sleep.

So what is the accurate way to look at this bi-directional relationship? In this episode, Greg Potter, PhD discusses the evidence to date. Dr. Potter received his PhD from the University of Leeds, where his research focused on circadian rhythms, sleep, nutrition, and metabolism.

In this episode:
  • 03:15 - Sleep architecture and dimensions of sleep
  • 10:29 - Influence of sleep on diet
  • 35:11 - Chronotypes
  • 53:26 - Impact of diet/meals on sleep
  • 59:50 - Supplements like melatonin and tryptophan
  • 1:20:27 - Rescuing a poor night's sleep - caffeine and nootropics
  • 1:40:31 - Key Ideas segment (Premium only)
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Apr 06, 2022
#432: Bill Harris, PhD - Omega-3 Fatty Acids & Health

Omega-3 fatty acids have long been associated with various health outcomes. A type of omega-3 called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is found in various plant foods such as flax seeds or chia seeds. Other omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are found typically in marine food sources such as oily fish (e.g. salmon, mackerel) and algae. And while higher intakes of such foods have shown benefit, there has been some confusion over the benefit of such nutrients due to some large omega-3 supplementation trials reporting null findings.

So what should we make of the current evidence base? Does supplementation lead to heart disease risk reduction or not? Do we need direct sources of EPA and DHA in the diet? Does ALA have unique benefits? What is an omega-3 index and why is it important?

In this episode, fatty acid expert Dr. Bill Harris dives into each of these questions and clarifies what the current evidence tells us about the effect of these fatty acids on our health.


  • 04:02 - Fatty acid definitions/subtypes
  • 09:14 - Omega-3 status & the Omega-3 Index (O3I)
  • 20:03 - Omega-3 supplementation trials for CVD
  • 41:15 - DHA, brain health, cognition in later life, development, etc
  • 49:45 - Should we be concerned about omega-6 fatty acids?

Show note available at:

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Mar 30, 2022
#431: Artificial Sweeteners - Health Impacts and ‘Safe’ Levels

There is now widespread use of various "artificial sweeteners" in foods and beverages. Most commonly non-nutritive sweeteners are used to sweeten a products, whilst having less sugar and calories than a traditionally sugar-sweetened version of that product. For example, diet drinks (e.g. diet soda) are most commonly associated with artificial sweeteners. However, they are also in a wide variety of food products and supplements.

For a long-time there has been skepticism and alarm raised about their potential health effects. From claims of them increasing our food intake, all the way to causing cancer. And food safety authorities have conducted rigorous examinations of the safety data on each of these compounds.

In this episode, the Sigma team discuss the initial research that raised alarm bells, the current process of safety evaluation for non-nutritive sweeteners, the amounts they are consumed in, and the studies published thus far examining their health impacts.

Access show notes here.

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Mar 24, 2022
SNP1: "Don’t Eat Vegetables" [Preview]
In this Premium episode Alan and Danny aim to address the idea that you shouldn’t eat vegetables, or that they aren’t beneficial. Two related ideas have been circulated in some nutrition/health communities on the internet:
  1. Vegetables aren’t beneficial for health (or that there is no health benefit to high vegetable intake).
  2. Vegetables are actually detrimental to health, and their removal improves health.
Such advice is usually defended through some combination of the following claims, which we examine in this episode:
  1. Humans are naturally carnivores, or have evolved to thrive on animal foods, and only turn to plants in times of famine.
  2. Certain indigenous populations such as the Inuit or the Masai, eat close to no vegetables, yet have robust health.
  3. Many of the nutrients present in vegetables can be obtained from animal foods. And beyond that, these nutrients are more bioavabilable when coming from animal sources.
  4. Fibre is not an essential nutrient, and high-fibre diets don’t lead to the health benefits that are typically claimed.
  5. Certain compounds in plants are actively harmful to us. Some of these compounds are natural pesticides, aimed to hurt us. Others are anti-nutrients, which decrease absorption of other key nutrients.
  6. Plants/vegetables contain compounds/nutrients exacerbate clinical conditions such as IBS or autoimmune disorders, and removing all plants including veg, leads to improved outcomes in these people.
  7. There is no benefit to a diet high in vegetables compared to a diet with low/no vegetable consumption.
Premium subcribers can access the detailed study notes to this episode here.
Mar 17, 2022
#430: Soy - Yes, No, Maybe?

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The popularity of soy foods and soy-based products has been increasing in recent times. This has been particularly the case as a dairy alternative, with people switching to using soy ‘milk’ and soy-based yogurts and cheese. Additionally, soy has become popular as a meat alternative in a variety of dishes for those looking to reduce meat intake. Soy foods such as tofu can be used in recipes in place of meat, and soy-based ‘meat alternatives’ that are vegetarian and vegan friendly have been developed.

With this increased prevalence, there has been some debate about the health effects of consuming soy foods and products. On one side, there have potential benefits highlighted of inclusion of soy in the diet. It contains phytoestrogens, which may have beneficial effects. Additionally, it is low in saturated fat, and so is potentially beneficial when used in place of saturated fat-rich foods.

However, some have claimed that the phytoestrogens (isoflavones specifically) in soy can be a cause for concern due to the ability of these compounds to mimic the effects of the hormone oestrogen. One common claim is that high soy intake is detrimental for men particularly, as it is “feminizing”; causing gynecomastia, loss of libido and erectile dysfunction.

So what is the truth? Is soy a health food? A harmful endocrine disruptor? Or simply neutral? In this episode we dive into the research and look at the evidence to date tells us about these questions. We consider two big health outcomes in particular; cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. And then final discuss what this means practically for our dietary choices.

Click here for show notes to this episode

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Mar 14, 2022
#429: Kevin Hall, PhD & Stephan Guyenet, PhD - Carbohydrate-Insulin Model vs. Energy Balance Model

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The pathogenesis of obesity is clearly complex. And the need to have a comprehensive model to explain this pathogenesis is important.

One such model, termed the Energy Balance Model, has largely been the consensus paradigm of obesity scientists to this point. Specifically, a recently published paper in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition by Dr. Kevin Hall and his colleagues outlined the various nuances of the model, as well as common misconceptions about the model.

However, there are others who propose that this is not the correct model of obesity, but rather that obesity pathogenesis can be better explained by a model called the Carbohydrate-Insulin Model (CIM) of obesity.

While this model has been proposed in various forms over the past couple of decades, the most recently published revision/update of this model was that put forward by Dr. David Ludwig and colleagues, in a Perspective published also in the AJCN, in December of 2021.

In this episode, Dr. Kevin Hall (lead author of the paper mentioned above) and Dr. Stephan Guyenet are on the podcast to discuss the debate surrounding these two models. Specifically, the discussion will focus in on the Hall et al. (2022) and Ludwig et al. (2021) papers, as well as previous work leading up to both.

Click here to access show notes for this episode

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Mar 08, 2022
#428: Food Environments

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Clearly the food choices one makes over time directly impacts health. However, choices are not made in a vacuum; that is, they are not always concious decisions made for rational reasons based on free will. Rather, the choices we make about food are shaped by the contexts within which they are made. The term "food environment" is used to describe the physical, economic, political and socio-cultural contexts in which choices are made about acquiring, preparing and consuming food.

As it was put in a paper published as part of The Lancet series on Obesity (2015), modern food environments "exploit people's biological, psychological, social, and economic vulnerability, making it easier for them to eat unhealthy foods".

In this episode the Sigma team discuss the implications of this, including a discussion of exactly which environmental conditions impact food choices and the evidence that exists for public health policy that may address the problematic aspects of modern food environments.


  • Intro to food environment [01:47]
  • Food preferences [11:50]
  • Disposable income/eat well guidelines [39:55]
  • What can we do for a healthier population overall? Top down/bottom up [46:14
  • Different types of public policy interventions [58:42]
  • Stealth interventions [01:07:24]

You can access the show notes to this episode here.

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Mar 02, 2022
Can You ‘Study’ Nutrition Science with a Podcast? Here’s How. (Including a Time-sensitive Announcement)

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You love listening to, and learning from, nutrition podcasts. Sigma Nutrition Premium allows you to more effectively do that.

  • Understand topics more deeply
  • Retain more of what you hear
  • Recall specific details long after listening
  • Study nutrition science in an enjoyable way

As a Premium subscriber you get exclusive access to:

  1. Detailed Study Notes
  2. ‘Key Ideas’ Segments
  3. Hand-crafted Transcripts
  4. Premium-only Episodes

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Feb 28, 2022
#427: Jacob Schepis – Evidence-Based Coaching: Desirable Goal or Unattainable Burden for Fitness Professionals?

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It's never been more popular to be seen as "evidence-based" as a fitness professional. And indeed evidence-based practice has been seen as the best way to arrive at coaching decisions. But is "evidence-based practice" actually what fitness professionals are doing? Is it even attainable for most coaches? Does it create a burden on them? Does it even matter if you're actually reading reserach or not? What makes for a competent personal trainer?

In this episode, Jacob Schepis is on the show to discuss all these questions and to discuss how he feels evidence-based practice fits within a framework of coaching and coach development.

Show notes can be found at

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Feb 22, 2022
#426: Jaebian Rosario – How Social Identity and Idealogical Extremes Impact Scientific Discussion

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Jaebien Rosario is currently a graduate level student in public health at East Stroudsburg University. He has degrees in psychology and philosophy, and has previously worked as a personal trainer and nutrition coach. His interest include science denialism, vaccine hesitancy, the philosophy of science, the sociology of science, and meta science.

His current research projects include research proposals for covid-19 and vitamin D trials, research conducted pertaining to local food banks and participation in coalitions for addressing food insecurity in northeast Pennsylvania.

Show notes at

Feb 15, 2022
#425: Prof. Anna Krylov – When Ideology Hurts Scientific Discourse

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Prof. Anna Krylov is a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Southern California (USC), working in the field of theoretical and computational quantum chemistry. She has a M.Sc. in Chemistry from Moscow State University (1990) and a PhD from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel (1996).

Krylov is active in the promotion of gender equality in STEM fields, especially in theoretical chemistry. She created the web directory 'Women in Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Material Science, and Biochemistry'. She has delivered several talks on gender equality in STEM.

In June 2021 she published a paper, "The Peril of Politicizing Science," has received over 75,000 views (as of February 2022) and is the all-time highest-ranked article in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (impact factor of 6.5).

Show notes:

Feb 08, 2022
#424: Is Low Cholesterol Bad For You?!

In this episode Alan and Danny discuss the role of cholesterol in the body and claims that are made suggesting low levels of blood cholesterol are harmful to health.

Starting with the premise that cholesterol is an important molecule in the body and plays a role in many processes, discussed are two related claims:

  1. we should avoid low cholesterol levels as it can harm our health
  2. elevated levels of cholesterol may actually be protective against disease or mortality.

The episode also critiques claims about cholesterol being “conditionally essential” and that low LDL-C/ApoB increases risk of mortality, cancer and infection.

Show notes at

Feb 01, 2022
#423: Zoya Huschtscha, PhD – Understanding Sarcopenia & Potential Interventions

Zoya Huschtscha, PhD is a researcher and assistant lecturer at Monash University (Australia), in the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics. She completed her PhD at the same institution, where her research focused on interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia; i.e. the loss of muscle function and mass, typically with age. Zoya also has a Masters of Dietetics. In addition to her academic work, she works in private practice as a sports dietitian.

Show notes available at

Jan 25, 2022
#422: Psychobiotics – Can Probiotics Improve Mood-related Disorders?

In this episode the Sigma team discuss the research looking at psychobiotics, i.e. probiotics that have health impacts on those with pyschiatric disorders or symptoms. They discuss the origins of the research, the gut-brain axis, mechanisms by which gut microbiota could impact mood, and then the human trials to date that have examined probiotics' effects on mood, anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder and other outcomes.

Show notes can be found at and the Sigma Statement on the gut-brain axis can be found at

Jan 18, 2022
#421: Brendon Stubbs, PhD – The Research on Depression & Physical Activity

Dr. Brendon Stubbs, PhD, is a Senior Clinical Lecturer and researcher at King's College London, conducting research in physical activity & mental health, the mind-body interface, and meta-research. He has published over 600 academic papers in several leading journals across multiple scientific fields. He has informed policy guidelines in the UK, Europe and the World Health Organization.

Dr. Stubbs is also a clinical physiotherapist, being Head of Physiotherapy at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. He has a MSc in Neurological Rehabilitation & PhD in Pain Medicine & Rehabilitation.

Show notes to this episode are available at

Jan 11, 2022
#420: Cannabis – Kevin Boehnke, PhD & Carrie Cuttler, PhD

Kevin Boehnke is a researcher at the University of Michigan, in the Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center. His current research focuses on therapeutic applications of illicit or semi-licit substances (cannabis, psychedelics). His goal is to rigorously assess appropriate use of these substances and to help address the public health harms caused by their criminalization.

Carrie Cuttler is an Assistant Professor at Washington State University. Her research at the Health and Cognition Laboratory there focuses on elucidating the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of chronic cannabis use and acute cannabis intoxication. Her recent work has focused on examining links between cannabis use and mental health (e.g., ADHD, PTSD, OCD, depression, anxiety).

Show notes available at

Jan 04, 2022
#419: Nathan Bryan, PhD – Role of Nitric Oxide in Human Health

Dr. Nathan Bryan, PhD is an Adjunct Assistant Professor at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. Bryan has been involved in nitric oxide research for the past 18 years and has made many seminal discoveries in the field. He was the first to demonstrate and discover an endocrine function of nitric oxide via the formation of S-nitrosoglutathione and inorganic nitrite.

Dr. Bryan obtained his doctoral degree from Louisiana State University School of Medicine in Shreveport where he was the recipient of the Dean’s Award for Excellence in Research. He pursued his post-doctoral training as a Kirschstein Fellow at Boston University School of Medicine in the Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute. After a two year post-doctoral fellowship, in 2006 Dr. Bryan was recruited to join faculty at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston by Ferid Murad, M.D., Ph.D., 1998 Nobel Laureate in Medicine or Physiology.

Show notes at

Dec 30, 2021
#418: Should We Consume a Direct Source of DHA?

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In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the debate around whether a direct source of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid DHA should be recommended. Many people do not consume the marine foods (primarily fatty fish) that contain DHA, and higher DHA intakes, DHA status, and omega-3 indices are predictive of certain health outcomes.

But the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) can be consumed from plant sources. So do those who do not consume direct sources of DHA have lower DHA status? Does this matter? And if so, then what pragmatic conclusions can we come to? All of this is covered in this episode.

Show notes available at

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Dec 21, 2021
#417: Austin Baraki, MD – What Do Nutrient Blood Tests Actually Tell Us?: Understanding Biomarkers

Dr. Austin Baraki joins Danny and Alan to critically evaluate the assumption that blood levels of a nutrient directly tell us about overall nutritional status. With many people getting blood tests done outside of clinical settings, there is significant risk of misinterpretation of what these measures mean. In this episode we discuss measures of calcium, sodium, vitamin D and others as examples of where misinterpretation and misunderstanding can happen.

Show notes can be found at

Dec 14, 2021
#416: David Nunan, PhD – Evidence-Informed Health Care: Evidence-based Medicine 2.0

Dr. David Nunan, PhD is a Lecturer and Senior Research Fellow in the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine at the University of Oxford. There, he is the Director of the Postgraduate Certificate in 'Teaching Evidence-Based Health Care' and the lead tutor for the internationally-renowned 'Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine' course.

He is a principal investigator with research interests in prevention and treatment of lifestyle-related conditions, improving the understanding and use of research evidence, and meta-epidemiology (research on research). David has experience in a breadth of methodologies including diagnostic studies, statistical analysis, qualitative research and clinical trials.

Show notes available at

Dec 07, 2021
#415: Prof. Bruce Neal – Can Salt Substitutes Reduce Cardiac Events & Death?

Bruce Neal is Executive Director at The George Institute for Global Health Australia; and Professor of Medicine, UNSW Sydney.

Prof Neal is a UK-trained physician who has 25 years’ experience in clinical, epidemiological, and public health research with a focus on heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Bruce has a longstanding interest in high blood pressure and diabetes and the potential for both clinical interventions and changes in the food supply to deliver health gains. His work has been characterised by its focus on collaboration, quantitation, translation and impact.

He holds professorial appointments at UNSW Sydney, Imperial College London, and an honorary appointment at the University of Sydney. He has published some 450 scientific papers and since 2016 has been identified by Thomson Reuters as one of ‘The World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds’, an acknowledgement provided to just a few thousand researchers across all disciplines, worldwide.

He has particular expertise in the conduct of large-scale clinical trials addressing cardiovascular disease but has also done a significant body of work addressing food policy issues related to sugars, fats, portion size and food labelling.

Find the show notes at

Nov 30, 2021
#414: Will Machine Learning Overtake Traditional Nutrition Research Methods?

In this episode, the Sigma team discuss the claim that machine learning and data science may overtake traditional research methods in nutrition.  They discuss how machine learning could solve some current limitations of traditional methods, studies on its use so far, potential applications in future trials, and potential limitations or problems with the increased use of data science (including ethical and societal concerns). They also ponder on how tech is currently being used (and abused) in relation to personalised nutrition, tech products, continuous glucose monitoring use, among other things.

Nov 24, 2021
#413: Anthony Fardet, PhD – Nutritional Reductionism, the Food Matrix & Impact of Processing

" data-userid="424351203778215936" data-orgid= "425311536639447040">Anthony Fardet, PhD is a nutrition science researcher in the Human Nutrition Unit at Université Clermont Auvergne, France. His work has focused on a number of related areas; the consequences of the reductionist and holistic approaches applied to nutrition research, the relevance of a new classification of foods based on their degree of processing, and the role of the complex structure of the food in its health potential ("matrix effect").

You can find the show notes to this episode at

Nov 16, 2021
#412: Eirini Dimidi, PhD – Diet, Chronic Constipation and the Gut

Dr. Eirini Dimidi of King’s College London discusses the research on diet in chronic constipation and functional bowel disorders. Dr. Dimidi is a Lecturer in Nutritional Sciences and a Registered Dietitian. In 2016, she was appointed as a Research Associate at King’s College London, where she undertook several research projects on the impact of nutritional interventions in gut function and dysfunction.

Dr. Dimidi is undertaking research on nutrition-based interventions, including fibre, plant foods, prebiotics, probiotics, and the low FODMAP diet, in gastrointestinal health. Her primary focus is to advance the understanding of the impact of dietary therapies in functional bowel disorders, including chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.


You can find the show notes to this episode at

Nov 09, 2021
#411: Bone Health & Nutrition

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In this episode Alan and Danny discuss the role of nutrition in bone health. They cover the importance of bone health, bone disorders such as osteoporosis, how nutrients play a role in bone remodelling, and the evidence of dietary and supplementation trials on bone health outcomes.

You can find the show notes, with links to all the reference studies, at 

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Nov 02, 2021
#410: Q&A: Sodium, Protein, Quackery Tactics & More!

In this episode Alan and Danny answer a variety of questions sent in from listeners.


[1:10] Gabriel - Is there any benefit to including SFAs and cholesterol in low quantities in our diets for healthspan?

[10:42] Luis Arrondo - Can I do 3 rather than 4 meals or more for protein absorption by increasing grams of protein? How many grams of protein can be absorbed at one sitting. Does taking in protein at night help more absorption of protein? If so, something slower, like milk over whey? Last, how much protein per kilo of weight to gain muscle via weightlifing?

[19:34] Heather Smith - Please could you go into the sodium needs of those with hypotension. Your podcast about normotension and hypertension was excellent, as was the section relating to athletes. I’d love to hear your thoughts on the sodium needs of a hypotensive person. Thank you!

[27:00] Judith Williams - I would find it really helpful if you could summarise what the evidence shows are the key dietary changes for long term weight loss.
[36:41] Dale Grant - Great podcast and episode as normal especially the quack asylum (big fan of this segment). Having listened to a few of these extreme people (quacks) on various platforms, I’ve noticed they also employ an aggressive falsify my opponents position tactic. Its almost as if they are aware of Karl Poppers falsification principle, but have misinterpreted it as falsify my "opponents" position instead of my own. Aside from the fact they falsely view the person they are having a debate with as their “opponent”, they miss the point that they should be trying to find evidence to falsify their own position, and thus get closer to a capital T Truth. On the other hand as Alan pointed out with Assem Mahlhotra, this may just be a reluctance to acknowledge evidence for other reasons (narcissism, us vs Them narrative, etc). Nowhere was this more apparent than when James Wilks (host of mass propaganda film game changers), sought to aggressively debate Chris Kresser on the Joe Rogan Podcast. Considering Wilks is a former cage fighter this wasn’t surprising. Unfortunately, this aggressive tactic does lead some people to conclude that Wilks has “won” the argument, because he has “won” the debate. Similar to most modern debates, it seems like you don’t have to win the debate intellectually with reason. Instead you just have to make it seem as if your more competent than your opponent. Do you agree these extreme people employ this tactic? and how do you think we could improve “scientific” debates (note inverted commas) in the public domain in the future?
[46:40] Dimitri - Should fruit consumption be moderated because of the sugar content? For example, a fig has 8g of sugar, can I eat 5-10 in one sitting or would that be detrimental to health?

[51:26] Rebecca Toutant - What is the evidence / practice behind integrative and functional nutrition?

[56:06] Duncan Clarke - This will be a strange question for you but I'll send it anyway. How could a cyclist specifically lose upper body muscle mass? For example a fit healthy athlete from another sport takes up cycling and they now have more arm/shoulder muscle than needed. The goal being to maximize the power to weight ratio for climbing.

[60:15] Gabriel - Do you foresee any public health issues related to the increasing popularity of plant based diets, where less careful individuals may face issues consuming certain nutrients harder to get from a plant based diet, such as preformed Vitamin A, choline, iron, protein etc?

[72:03] Ward Stanford - After re-listening to your podcast on weight maintenance over time I was wondering what information exists on the idea of establishing new body fat set points. It seems like merely existing at a lower bf% for a period of time may not be enough, but what are your thoughts on one's ability to truly create a lower set point where it becomes easier to maintain a lower body fat, and how long would you need to be at that lower bf% for it to become a "set point" Thank you!

Oct 26, 2021
#409: Simon Hill – Shifting Towards a Healthier Diet

In this episode nutritionist Simon Hill discusses the barriers to eating a healthy diet, steps that can be taken to shift both individuals and the general population to a healthier dietary patten, and a number of other topics. Find the show notes at 

Oct 19, 2021
#408: Mario Kratz, PhD – Is Eating Full-fat Dairy, Low-fat Dairy, or No Dairy Better for Cardiometabolic Health?

Dr. Mario Kratz is a clinical researcher in the areas of nutrition, obesity, and cardiometabolic disease, with more than 20 years of experience running clinical studies in a variety of populations. He is a former research associate professor at the University of Washington in the departments of Medicine and Epidemiology. And is also formerly an Associate Professor at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Washington state.

You can find the show notes at or you can support the show on

Oct 12, 2021
#407: Polyphenols - Impact on Blood Pressure, Endothelial Function & Heart Disease Risk

In this episode we discuss the potential impact of dietary polyphenols on cardiovascular disease risk; including impacts on blood pressure, flow-mediated dilation, and other related outcomes. We talk about some potential mechanisms and then several specific randomized, controlled trials.

You can find the show notes at and you can support the podcast on

Oct 05, 2021
#406: Polyphenols & Cognitive Health

In this episode we discuss the potential impact of dietary polyphenols on cognitive health; including cogitnitve funciton, memory, and risk of dementia and Alzeimher's. We talk about some potential mechanisms, cohort studies, and then direct controlled trials.

You can find the show notes at and/or support the podcast at

Sep 28, 2021
#405: Adrian Brown, PhD - Dietary Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes

Dr Adrian Brown is a NIHR Lecturer and Research Fellow in the Centre of Obesity Research at University College London. He is also a senior Specialist Weight Management and Bariatric dietitian with over 15 years of clinical experience and a PhD in Medicine from Imperial College London.

His research interests centre around obesity, type 2 diabetes, bariatric surgery, weight stigma and the use of formula-based diets in different patient populations. He is an Honorary Academic for Public Health England Obesity and Healthy Weight Team, on the strategic council for APPG on Obesity and is on the scientific council of the British Nutrition Foundation.


You can find the show notes to this episode at and you can support the podcast at

Sep 21, 2021
#404: Prof. Marion Hetherington – Psychology and Development of Food Preference & Eating Behaviour

Prof. Marion Hetherington is Professor of Biopsychology at University of Leeds, where her research is focused on the psychology of appetite across the lifespan. She has previously been at Johns Hopkins, the NIH, the University of Dundee, University of Liverpool and Glasgow Caledonian University, before taking up her role in Leeds in 2008, where she works within the Human Appetite Research Unit.
You can find the show notes to this episode at and you can support the podcast at

Sep 14, 2021
#403 Prof. David Jacobs – Food Synergy & The Top-Down Approach to Nutrition Research

Prof. David Jacobs, PhD is Professor of Public Health, in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, at the University of Minnesota. He has published highly inflential work in nutritional epidemiology and health epidemiolgy for decades. A number of his papers have brought up crucially important ideas about how to do good nutrition science. Specifically, he has talked about think of whole diet or foods as the exposure of interest, rather than individual nutrients. Essentially warning against the pitfalls of applying a biomedical lens to nutrition research. You can find the show notes to this episode at

Sep 07, 2021
#402: Prof. Leanne Redman – Pregnancy, Maternal Diet & Intergenerational Transmission of Obesity

Prof. Leanne Redman is a Professor of Reproductive Endocrinology & Women’s Health, based at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center. As the director of the Reproductive Endocrinology and Women’s Health Laboratory, she is focused on understanding the intergenerational transmission of obesity. She has published on maternal diet, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes, amoung other issues. She and her colleagues are currently conducting a rigorous trial to determine the effects of a 6-month gestational intervention with calorie restriction and food provision to promote maternal weight maintenance and fat loss in 100 pregnant women with grades 2 and 3 obesity.

Show notes are available at

You can support the podcast at

Aug 31, 2021
#401: Quack Asylum – Part 2: Greger, Berg & Saladino

We take a look at three more "quacks" who spread misinformation; Dr. Michael Greger (01:21), Eric Berg (36:26), and Dr. Paul Saladino (55:18). We give reference to some specific examples.

Show notes available at

If you wish to support the podcast you can do so via

Aug 24, 2021
#400: Quack Asylum – Part 1: Malhotra & DiNicolantonio

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To celebrate our 400th episode, we take a look at two "quacks" who spread misinformation; Dr. Aseem Malhotra and Dr. James DiNicolantonio. We give reference to some specific examples.

Show notes available at 

Click here to subscribe to Sigma Nutrition Premium

Aug 17, 2021
#399: Prof. James Betts – Does Fasting Have Benefits Beyond Those Caused By Calorie Restriction?

James Betts is Professor of Metabolic Physiology at the University of Bath, where he is Co-Director of the Centre for Nutrition, Exercise & Metabolism. His research employs randomised controlled trials to study the effects of nutrition on metabolic regulation.

His group recently published a trial aiming to separate out the effects of fasting from those of calorie restriction.

Show notes at

Aug 10, 2021
#398: Carole Hooven, PhD – Testosterone: Behavioural Endocrinology & Sex Differences

Carole Hooven, PhD, is lecturer and codirector of undergraduate studies in the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. She earned her PhD at Harvard, studying behavioral endocrinology and evolution of sex differences in humans (physiology, behavior and cognition). She has recently written a book on how testosterone influences behaviour and explains many sex differences. The book is titled 'T: The Story of Testosterone, the Hormone that Dominates and Divides Us'.

Show notes available at

Aug 03, 2021
#397: Dietary Nitrates & Nitrites

In this episode Danny & Alan discuss the impacts of nitrates and nitrites on health. They look at the beneficial impacts of dietary nitrate, as well as issues around nitrites in processed meat.

Show notes available at

Jul 27, 2021
#396: Leigh Frame, PhD – Nutrient Trials: RCT Design, Ethics and Placebo Groups

Dr. Leigh Frame, PhD is Director of Integrative Medicine at George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences in Washington DC. Dr. Frame received her PhD in Human Nutrition, as well as a Master of Health Science degree in Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

In this episode we discuss a range of topics including: the role of placebo groups and the different types we see in nutrient supplementation trials, potential ethical issues, and the development of research ethics.

Show notes available at

Jul 20, 2021
#395: Prof. Carel le Roux – Current Thinking in Obesity Treatment

Professor le Roux is an expert in metabolic medicine and is currently a Professor of Experimental Pathology, University College Dublin. He is recognised as a world leader in metabolism and obesity.

Professor le Roux’s clinical focus is in the management of Type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular risk and other metabolic disorders. Professor Carel le Roux has been published extensively and currently holds a number of editorial roles for journals in his field including, Clinical Obesity and Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases.

Show notes are available at:

Jul 14, 2021
#394: Gar Benn – Nutrition Coaching Q&A

Gar Benn is the Head of Coaching at Sigma Nutrition, where he works with nutrition coaching clients and oversees the coaching services.

He is the owner of CityGym Limerick, a powerlifting-centric gym in Ireland. And he is also the co-founder of the European Powerlifting Confernce and Titan Ireland.

Gar is a qualifed nutrition coach and has completed courses in Motivational Interviewing and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT).

Show notes at

Jul 09, 2021
#393: Vitamin D: Does Supplementation Actually Improve Health?

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Vitamin D status is linked to a variety of health outcomes, and avoiding or correcting deficiency is important. However, does supplementing with vitamin D actually benefit most people? Is there evidence for supplementation improving health outcomes like mortality, cancer risk, depression or other outcomes? In this episode Danny and Alan look at intervention trials of vitamin D supplementation.

Show notes available at:

Click here to subscribe to Sigma Nutrition Premium


Jun 29, 2021
#392: Clare Pettinger, PhD, RD – Environmentally Sustainable Diets & Food Access

Dr. Clare Pettinger is a Registered Dietitian, Public Health Nutritionist and experienced educator. Dr. Pettinger publishes research in the public health nutrition field, and lectures at the Universtity of Plymouth, UK. 

Dr. Pettinger is actively engaged in community-focussed research around food systems, poverty and social justice. She is an enthusiastic 'sustainability advocate' involved in promoting environmentally sustainable diets for nutrition professionals and Allied Health Professioinals. 

Show notes available at

Jun 22, 2021
#391: Is There a Body Weight Set Point?: Models of Body Mass Regulation

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the three primary models used to explain body mass regulation: 1) Set Point Model, 2) Settling Point Model, 3) Dual Intervention Model. They discuss the role of feedback systems, environment, behaviour, as well as discussing both the "thrifty gene hypothesis" and John Speakman's "drifty gene hypothesis".

Jun 15, 2021
#390: Gil Carvalho MD, PhD – Dairy, Olive Oil & Diet Debates: Understanding Evidence
Gil Carvalho, MD PhD is a medical doctor, research scientist, science communicator. Dr. Carvalho trained as a medical doctor in the University of Lisbon, in his native Portugal, and later obtained a PhD in Biology from Caltech (California Institute of Technology). He has published peer-reviewed medical research spanning the fields of genetics, molecular biology, nutrition, behaviour, aging and neuroscience.
In this episode we discuss:
  • Dairy: is it over-emphasized in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
  • Dairy tolerance
  • Critical importance of substitution effects
  • Differences between difference types of dairy on health
  • Claims by some WFPB advocates that olive oil can negatively impact endothethial function
  • Distinguishing between acute and chronic effects
  • Gil's work with Antonio Damasio on feelings
Show notes:
Jun 09, 2021
#389: Renee McGregor, RD – Why Are Athletes Under-Eating?

Renee McGregor is a leading sports dietitian, specialising in Eating Disorders, REDs, The Female Athlete, athlete health and performance.

She is regularly asked to work directly with high performing and professional athletes that have developed a dysfunctional relationship with food that is impacting their performance, health and career. Her practice and knowledge is supported by extensive experience of working in both clinical and performance nutrition, including, Olympic, Paralympic and Commonwealth teams.

She is the co-founder and director of #TRAINBRAVE a campaign raising the awareness of eating disorders in sport; providing resources and practical strategies to reduce the prevalence.

She is on the REDS advisory board for BASES (The British Association of Sport and Exercise Science) and sits on the International Task Force for Orthorexia.

Find the show notes at

Jun 04, 2021
#388: Consequences of Weight Stigma and Weight Bias

Danny & Alan discuss the current evidence on the health consequences and societal consequences of weight stigma and weigh bias. This includes implicit bias, explicit bias, and internalization of bias. What evidence do we currently have? And what questions remain unanswered?


Today's Topic in Focus [03:39]
Listener Questions  [59:48]
Quack Asylum [68:55]
Random Recommendations [72:07]

You can find the show notes to this episode at

If you wish to support the podcast you can do so on Patreon at or directly via the site at

May 27, 2021
#387: Shift Work and Health

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the relationship between shift work and health. Why does shift work have negative health impacts? How can one mitigate circadian misalignment? How does shift work impact nutrient metabolism? What nutrition, sleep and lifestyle strategies can help shift workers? 

Show notes at:

May 18, 2021
#386: Deirdre Tobias, ScD – Study Design, Diet Collection Methods and Nutrition Epidemiology

Dr. Tobias is a nutrition and obesity epidemiologist at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA. She received doctoral and postdoctoral training from the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, under mentor Dr. Frank B. Hu.

Dr. Tobias is co-Instructor of Nutrition Epidemiology with Dr. Walter Willett and faculty member at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health. Her epidemiologic research focuses on identifying lifestyle risk factors and underlying mechanisms related to obesity and its major chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cancer.

Dr. Tobias is currently the Academic Editor for the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Show notes at

May 12, 2021
#385: Insulin Resistance & Diet

In this episode we explore the causes of insulin resistance, and the dietary modifications that may help those with insulin resistance.

We discuss how insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder, that goes beyond one single pathway or cause. There is also a discussion on the mechanisms of insulin resistance pathogenesis. Specifically, we talk about the accumulation of ectopic fat. Ectopic fat is the storage of triglycerides in tissues other than fat tissue, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and pancreas.

There is also an overview of the Twin-Cycle Hypothesis, which was discussed in more detail in a previous episode with Prof. Roy Taylor. In addition, we give special mention to liver fat accumulation and the relationship between insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Then various diet interventions are assessed for their potential usefulness to those with insulin resistnace. This includes different diet types (e.g. whole-food plant-based diet, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet, etc.), role of macronutrients, pre-loading studies, and the role of meal timing and circadian effects.

Find the show notes at

May 04, 2021
#384: Research Review: The Interference Effect & Concurrent Training

In this episode Greg Nuckols and Mike Zourdos breakdown two research papers related to the interference effect and concurrent training. 

Greg and Mike (along with Eric Helms and Eric Trexler) produce the MASS research review, which breaks down the latest research studies relevant to those interested in strength training, strength sports, and bodybuilding. 

From April 27th to May 4th you can get a significant discount on a MASS subscription by visiting

Apr 27, 2021
#383: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) & Diet

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss irritable bowel syndome and the evidence related to dietary interventions. They discuss diagnosis of the condition, various sub-types, potential mechanisms, the gut-brain axis, first line treatments, impact of fibre, and evidence on the low FODMAP diet.

Today's Topic in Focus: IBS & Diet [06:20]

"I Have a Question!" [74:47]

Quack Asylum [79:30]

Random Recommendations [86:49]

Show notes available at

Apr 20, 2021
#382: Andy Morgan – Practicalities of Body Composition Change

Andy Morgan is the founder of and an online coach. He co-authored the Muscle & Strength Pyramids books along with Dr. Eric Helms and Andrea Valdez. He has published a host of excellent nutrition and training resources in the form of ebooks, articles and podcasts, which can be found on the Ripped Body website. He recently released the third edition of the Diet Adjustments Manual.

You can find the show notes to this episode at:

Apr 06, 2021
#381: Prof. Chris Packard – LDL Cholesterol, ApoB & Atherosclerosis

Prof. Chris Packard holds an Honorary Professorship of Vascular Biochemistry at the University of Glasgow. Over his career, Professor Packard has focussed on two aspects of atherosclerosis research, lipoprotein metabolism and how it is affected by diets and drugs, and large-scale clinical trials of lipid lowering agents. He is acknowledged as one of the leading researchers in the world in this field.

Show notes available at

Mar 30, 2021
#380: Prof. Barry Popkin – The Nutrition Transition & Using Policy Actions to Create Healthier Diets

Prof. Barry Popkin is the W.R. Kenan Jr. Distinguished Professor of Nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is a nutrition and obesity researcher at the Carolina Population Center and is the director of the Interdisciplinary Center for Obesity at UNC.

He developed the concept of the Nutrition Transition, the study of the dynamic shifts in dietary intake and physical activity patterns and trends around obesity and other nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Prof. Popkin is involved now in work on program and policy design at the national level to improve the average diet at the population level.

He has published more than 545 journal articles, and is one of the most cited nutrition scholars in the world, with more than 90,000 citations.

Show notes available at

Mar 23, 2021
#379: Obesity & Chronic Disease Risk with Dr. Spencer Nadolsky

Danny and Alan are joined by Dr. Spencer Nadolsky. Dr. Nadolsky is a board-certified obesity specialist, lipidologist, and family physician.

In this episode we discuss the strengths and limitations of BMI, adipose tissue type and relevance to risk, hypertrophic vs. hyperplastic adipocytes, 'Metabolically Healthy Obesity', and weight stigma.

Show notes available at

Mar 16, 2021
#378: Nutritional Epidemiology

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss some critical aspects to understand about nutritional epidemiology in order to evaluate diet-disease relationships appropriately. Of particular focus in this episode is the unique exposure of interest in nutrition studies, why its crucial to understand temporal relationships and how to think about relative risk and absolute risk. The guys finish by explaining how one can include these findings into an understanding of an overall body of evidence.

Show notes:

Mar 09, 2021
#377: Herman Pontzer, PhD – Metabolism, Mitochondria & Evolutionary Biology

Herman Pontzer, PhD is an Associate Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology at Duke University and Associate Research Professor of Global Health at the Duke Global Health Institute. He is an internationally recognized researcher in human energetics and evolution.

Over two decades of research in the field and laboratory, Dr. Pontzer has conducted pathbreaking studies across a range of settings, including fieldwork with Hadza hunter-gatherers in northern Tanzania, fieldwork on chimpanzee ecology in the rainforests of Uganda, and metabolic measurements of great apes in zoos and sanctuaries around the globe.

Find the show notes to this episode at

Mar 02, 2021
#376: Kevin Hall, PhD – Plant-based Diet vs. Ketogenic Diet: Impact on Calorie Intake

Dr. Kevin Hall, PhD is Senior Chief of the Integrative Physiology Section of the Laboratory of Biological Modeling at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

His laboratory investigates how metabolism and the brain adapt in response to a variety of interventions to diet and physical activity. They carry out studies to better understand the complex mechanisms regulating macronutrient metabolism, body composition, and energy expenditure.

Recently Dr. Hall was lead author on a study titled 'Effect of a plant-based, low-fat diet versus an animal-based, ketogenic diet on ad libitum energy intake', which was published in Nature Medicine in early 2021.

[Disclaimer: By participating in this podcast, the U.S. Government, represented by the National Institutes of Health does not directly or indirectly endorse any product or service provided, or to be provided, by Sigma Nutrition.]

Link to show notes:

Feb 23, 2021
#375: Salt, Sodium & Health

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the current evidence base related to sodium intake and health, most notably cardiovascular disease. The episode walks through understanding diet-disease relationships, the epidemiology of sodium and health outcomes, the reasons for conflicting conlusions, sodium measurements in research, intervention trials, and more. Importantly, the claim that the sodium-CVD risk relationship exhibits a "J-shaped curve" (i.e. risk is low at moderate intakes and higher at both low and high intakes) is dissected, with recommendations given on how to reconcile all the available evidence.

Feb 16, 2021
#374: How to Plan a Fighter’s Diet

In this episode Danny becomes the interviewee, as he is interviewed by sports dietitian and owner of The Fight Dietitian, Jordan Sullivan RD. Jordan oversees the diet of several UFC athletes, including champions Israel Adesanya and Alexander Volkanovski. Danny and Jordan have an in-depth chat about all aspects of nutrition and weight cutting for combat sport athletes, including the concept of the "52 week fight camp" and Danny's five-phase model of combat sport nutrition. This discussion first appeared on the Fight Science Podcast. Thanks to Jordan Sullivan for allowing its reproduction here.


Show notes:


Weight Cutting System:

Feb 09, 2021
#373: Alcohol & Health: Is Zero Better Than Some?

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the health impacts of alcohol and take a look at the research to answer whether alcohol should be viewed as having a J-shaped curve of risk or zero alcohol being better than any amount.


[03:40] Today's Topic in Focus

[53:45] "I Have a Question!"

[62:14 ]Random Recommendations

Show notes available at

Feb 02, 2021
#372: Mike Israetel, PhD – Bodybuilding, Avoiding Suffering & Lessons for Life

Dr. Mike Israetel​ is the cofounder of Renaissance Periodization, where he produces content related to training and dieting for hypertrophy, strength and bodybuidling.

Dr. Israetel is also currently a professor in the strength and hypertrophy masters program at Lehman College.

Mike is himself a competitive bodybuilder and professional Brazilian Jiu Jitsu grappler.

Show notes available at

Jan 26, 2021
#371: Dietary Cholesterol – Are Eggs & Cholesterol-rich Foods a Cause for Concern?
In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the debate over the impact of dietary cholesterol on LDL-C levels and heart disease risk. Are eggs & cholesterol-rich foods a problem? Let's dive into the research to find out! 
Today's Topic in Focus:  [00:51] 
"I Have a Question!"  [62:32] 
Quack Asylum [72:55] 
Random Recommendations [75:28] 
Show notes:
Jan 19, 2021
#370: Jake Mey, PhD, RD - Dietetics, Evidence-based Practice & Translating Science into Advice

Dr. Jake Mey is a registered dietitan and a human nutrition researcher. He is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center. His work focuses on diet, muscle & metabolism. Dr. Mey has a PhD in human nutrition and kinesology.

Show notes:

Jan 13, 2021
#369: Prof. Jason Gill - Population Cardiometabolic Disease Risk: Impact of Strength, Fitness & Activity
Professor Jason Gill is a Professor of Cardiometabolic Health in the Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences at the University of Glasgow. He leads an active multi-disciplinary research group investigating the effects of exercise and diet on the prevention and management of vascular and metabolic diseases from the molecular to the whole-body level.
He is a past Chair of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) Division of Physical Activity for Health and a member of the development groups for the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidelines for the prevention and treatment of obesity and for prevention of cardiovascular disease.
In this episode we discuss:
  • Strength and chronic disease risk
  • Discrepancy between self-report and objective measurements of physical activity
  • Regression dilution bias: If you measure something poorly you diminish the apparent association with the outcome
  • The EuroFIT randomized controlled trial
  • The amount of exercise needed to get to a point of low absolute risk of cardiometabolic disease is more for high-risk populations vs. low-risk populations
  • Why if you have a higher genetic risk for obesity, then lifestyle matters more, not less
  • Should there be differential guidelines for activity based on race/ethnicity?
  • Interaction between degree of social deprivation, lifestyle and health outcomes
  • Why reducing sitting time may not be a useful target


Jan 06, 2021
#368: Shannon Beer – Intentional Eating, Flourishing Health & Behavioural Psychology

Shannon Beer is a nutritionist, working with people via online coaching and mentoring, with the goal of helping people improve their health through facilitating lasting behaviour change.

In collaboration with Dr. Gabrielle Fundaro, she has developed a coaching framework that applies motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral coaching, and acceptance and commitment therapy-aligned processes in a client-centered alliance toward their own values-based goals. This 'Comprehensive Coaching' model facilitates long-term behavior change and flourishing health in clients.

Show notes:

Jan 01, 2021
#367: Gabrielle Fundaro, PhD – Mindful Eating, Facilitating Health Behaviour Change & Client-centred Coaching
Dr. Gabrielle Fundaro is a nutrition/health coach who focuses on facilitating behavior change, embodying a positive relationship with food, cultivating positive body image, and improving sport performance. 
Dr. Fundaro is a former Assistant Professor of Exercise Science at Georgia Gwinnett College and holds a PhD in Human Nutrition and Exercise. She is currently a board member of both the Nutrition Coaching Global Mastermind (NCGM) and the Sports Nutrition Association (SNA). 
In collaboration with Shannon Beer, she has developed a coaching framework that applies motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral coaching, and acceptance and commitment therapy-aligned processes in a client-centered alliance toward their own values-based goals. This 'Comprehensive Coaching' model facilitates long-term behavior change and flourishing health in clients. 
Dec 28, 2020
#366: Listener Q&A

In this episode Danny and Alan answer some listener questions, covering a range of topics, including hunger cues, weight-neutral appraoches, body fat distribution, and breakfast and cognition, among others. The guys also discuss the most interesting thing they've learned this year and resources on critical thinking.

Questions Answered:

[08:40] What’s the most interesting thing you’ve learnt this year?


[16:30] Is the cliche “hacks to survive the holiday period” a damaging narrative?


[18:32] Is the notion that weight loss attempts typically produce more harm than benefit, evidence-based?


[21:28] What's your opinion on intuitive eating? Both the official book and the unofficial trend.


[25:40] Based on your previous podcast discussing health policy, how does a health coach use this knowledge working with clients given that the deck may be stacked against certain clients? Does HAES become more important for clients who face more challenges like those you spoke about?


[30:26] What are the things a person can read or learn outside nutrition to become a better thinker and person?


[39:35] Is there a benefit to eating breakfast in the morning for mental/cognitive purposes?


[45:51] Genetically, do different individuals respond differently to various hunger cues? i.e; some respond extremely well to the secretion of leptin, and other to the stretch receptors in the stomach?


[50:15] Nightshift workers: to eat or not eat between midnight and 6am. What’s best to snack on P, C, or F?


[56:09] When it comes to the frontiers of nutrition science (nutrigenomics, diet-microbiome, etc.), which show most promise and which are overhyped?


[62:12] What is actually worse when it comes to a fatty liver, fructose or saturated fat?


[65:42] What makes collagen supplements any better/any different than simple AA supplements? Is it just marketing?


[69:42] Is fish oil supplementation worth the hype? Or is it better to get your omega 3 fatty acids from natural sources like fish?


[80:17] I've heard that peri/post-menopausal women's bodies are less efficient at using carbohydrates as fuel due to the hormonal changes. Is there any evidence to back up this claim?


[83:21] Thoughts on post-menopause midriff fat gain due to fat cells secreting oestrogen?


[85:26] Is there any evidence supporting strategies at target fat cells with a high ratio of alpha:beta receptors (i.e., "stubborn" fat)?


[88:50] Do we eat to feed ourselves or are we just the vehicle to feed the many bacteria in/on us?


[92:12] Is arteriosclerosis reversible?


[94:02] In the paleo/keto community there is a lot of discussion about the pro-inflammatory nature of industrialised seed and vegetable oils. Does the science back avoiding these?


[96:28] If marine omega 3 is so important, then how do we reconcile the fact that historically many cultures wouldn't have had much access to them?


[99:34] Do statins adversely affect strength gains or hypertrophy?


Find all mentioned resources linked at the show notes page:

Dec 22, 2020
#365: David Robert Grimes, PhD – Conspiracy Theories & Bad Information: Why Are We Susceptible?

Dr. David Robert Grimes is a physicist, cancer researcher and a science journalist. In addition to his cancer research, he has also published peer-reviewed work on conspiracy theories, meta-research and health modelling.

Dr. Grimes is the author of the fantastic book The Irrational Ape: Why We Fall for Disinformation, Conspiracy Theory and Propaganda. And given his keen interest in advancing the public understanding of science, he contributes to several media outlets discussing science, politics and society.

He appears frequently on news media to discuss and debate topics as diverse as vaccination to climate-change, and gives talks across the world on the importance of evidence in society. He was joint winner of the 2014 Nature / Sense About Science Maddox Prize for standing up for Science.

David is affiliated with Oxford University, Queen's University Belfast and Dublin City University. His cancer research has focused on the mathematical modelling and mechanistic understanding of hypoxia in cancer.

Show notes available at

Dec 15, 2020
#364: Jake Linardon, PhD - Disordered Eating: Impact of Macro Tracking & Social Media

Dr. Jake Linardon is a Senior Research Fellow at Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia. His research focuses on eating disorders, with a primary focus on testing and evaluating a broad range of treatment approaches for eating disorders.

Dr. Linardon is particularly interested in understanding how modern information technology can be used to help those most in need.

Show notes at

Dec 08, 2020
#363: Public Health Policy vs. Personal Responsibility: Evidence vs. Ideology

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the evidence for public health nutrition interventions, how health inequalities are driven by socioeconomic factors, and how ideology and simplistic rhetoric about "personal responsibility" can get in the way.

Today's Topic in Focus [07:29]

"I Have a Question!"  [82:22]

Quack Asylum [85:20]

Random Recommendations [91:14]

Show notes available at

Dec 01, 2020
#362: Alistair Monteyne – Impact of Mycoprotein & Vegan Diets on Muscle Protein Synthesis
Alistair Monteyne is the lead author on some recent RCTs examining the impact of mycoprotein on muscle protein synthesis. Alistair is currently a PhD student in the Nutritional Physiology Research Group based at the University of Exeter in the UK. He also has a MSc. in Sport and Exercise Nutrition from Loughborough University. 
Show notes available at
Nov 25, 2020
#361: Sarah Berry, PhD – The PREDICT Study, Postprandial Metabolism & Personalised Nutrition

Dr Sarah Berry is a researcher and senior lecturer in nutritional science at King's College London. Her research interests relate to the influence of dietary components on markers of cardiovascular disease risk; with a particular focus on the influence of food and fat structure on postprandial metabolism.

Dr. Berry has been the academic leader for more than 30 human nutrition studies in cardio-metabolic health. Her research also focuses on the influence of manipulation of food structure and subsequent effects on lipid and carbohydrate bioaccessibility and changes in postprandial metabolism.

Sarah is also the lead nutritional scientist on an ongoing series of postprandial metabolic studies, assessing the genetic, metabolic, metagenomic, and meal-dependent effects on postprandial metabolic responses in >1,200 individuals in the UK and US.

Show notes available at

Nov 18, 2020
#360: Nick Hiebert – Micronutrients, Anti-nutrients and Non-essential Nutrients

Nick Hiebert writes about nutrition science on his site The Nutrivore, as well as exclusive, comprehnsive posts on his Patreon page. He is the creator of the "Nutrient Density Cheat Sheet", a nutrition ranking tool for hundreds of whole foods. 

Nick has a deep interest in a host of nutrition science topics, from nutrient density to saturated fat & cardiovascular disease. He does a lot of deep analysis of raw data and has published some independent meta-analyses on his site. 

Show notes can be found at

Nov 12, 2020
#359: Calorie Confusion - (Mis)Understanding Energy Balance
In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the common misunderstandings and misrepresentations of the energy balance equation, leading to problematic debates over the validity of 'calories in, calories out'.
Today's Topic in Focus: Calories In, Calories Out [02:15] 
"I Have a Question!" [60:17] 
Quack Asylum [70:20] 
Random Recommendations [76:20] 
Nov 05, 2020
#358: Coffee & Health

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the health impacts of coffee consumption, including long-term protective influence on disease risk, acute impacts, optimal dosages, genetic differences in metabolism and the influence of the bioactive compounds in coffee.

Today's Topic in Focus: [01:50]

"I Have a Question!" [68:18]

Quack Asylum [71:03]

Random Recommendations [81:50]

Show Notes:

Oct 27, 2020
#357: Nicky Keay, MB BChir – Female Athletes: Hormones, Energy Availability & the Menstrual Cycle

Dr. Nicky Keay is a medical doctor (MB BChir, MRCP) with specific training in endocrinology. She has published related to female athlete hormone profiling, energy availability, and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S).

As a Research Fellow at St Thomas’ Hospital, she was part of the international medical team which developed an anti-doping test for growth hormone.

Dr. Keay studied medicine at Cambridge University, gained membership of the Royal College of Physicians, and trained in endocrinology.

Dr. Keay is currently an Honoray Fellow at Durham Universty in the Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences.

Show notes at

Oct 21, 2020
#356: Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD – Plant-based Diets, Meal Timing & Meal Frequency

Dr. Hana Kahleova is the director of clinical research at the Physicians Committee and directs research testing the effect a plant-based diet has on metabolism, insulin function, fitness, and mental health, as well as studying the impact meal timing and meal frequency have on metabolism and body weight. 

Dr. Kahleova earned her doctorate in nutrition and diabetes and her medical degree from Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. As a postdoctoral research fellow at Loma Linda University in California, Dr. Kahleova analyzed data from 50,000 Adventist Health Study-2 participants. She analyzed data on meal frequency and timing in relationship to changes in body weight. 

Show notes at:

Oct 15, 2020
#355: Is Time-restricted Eating Dead?: A Closer Look

Danny & Alan discuss a recent paper on time-restricted eating that has been inaccurately interpreted by some as a "disproval" of TRE as an intervention. In this episode, the aim is to provide some context to the situation.

There are also three listener questions, and another person/claim is brought into the quack asylum!

Today's Topic in Focus: Time-Restricted Eating [05:14]

"I Have a Question!" [57:27]

Quack Asylum [73:35]

Random Recommendations [86:05]


Oct 09, 2020
#354: Problems with the Meta-Analysis in Nutrition

Danny & Alan discuss issues with using and interpreting meta-analyses in nutritional science, they answer a question about methods of reheating food, and they highlight a recent paper published by quacks that experts have termed a "deception".

Today's Topic in Focus [08:50]

"I Have a Question!" [53:35]

Quack Asylum [59:32]

Something Random [66:42]

Show notes:

Sep 29, 2020
#353: James Hébert, ScD – Dietary Inflammatory Index

Dr. James Hébert is a nutritional and cancer epidemiologist, currently a distinguished Professor at the University of South Carolina. Dr. Hébert’s professional focus for the past several years has been on developing and refining the Dietary Inflammatory Index™ (DII®), which has now been established as an effective research tool.

Dr. Hébert is also a Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, a Professor of Epidemiology at the Medical University of South Carolina, a Professor of Community Medicine and Epidemiology at the University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, and the Director of the Cancer Prevention and Control Program.

Dr. Hébert obtained his ScD (Doctor of Science) in nutritional epidemiology from Harvard University in 1984.

Show Notes:

Sep 22, 2020
#352: Do Diets Even Work in the Long-term? - A Look at Weight Loss Maintenance

Danny and Alan take a look at the evidence on weight loss maintenance, answer a question about ApoE4, and admit another nonsensical claim into the quack asylum. In this episode:

[02:56] Today's Topic in Focus: Weight Regain vs Weight Loss Maintenance

[58:56] I Have a Question!: "How does the ApoE4 allele affect lipid metabolism? And how should someone structure their diet around having one or both alleles due to it resulting in higher LDL-C than someone without the gene?"

[63:09] Quack Asylum: Irish doctors gives nonsensical and harmful nutrition recommendations.

[76:35] Random Recommendations

Show notes:

Sep 15, 2020
#351: Prof. Glenn Gibson - Human Gut Bacteriology, Prebiotics & Probiotics

Glenn Gibson is Professor of Food Microbiology at University of Reading. He has been researching bacteria in the gut for over 30 years. Together with his colleague Marcel B. Roberfroid, both researchers coined the term prebiotics in their 1995 paper.

He has published over 450 research papers and 8 books. He currently researches acute and chronic gut disease, with specific projects on probiotics and prebiotics, gas production, gut microbiota development, gastroenteritis, obsesity and colonic homeostasis.

Show Notes:

Sep 08, 2020
#350: Peter Olusoga, PhD & Hugh Gilmore – Coaching Burnout: The Research & Applied Psychology

Dr Peter Olusoga is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at Sheffield Hallam University. His current research focuses on stress, burnout and wellbeing in sports, with a particular interest in high-performance environments and elite coaching. Peter is a Chartered Psychologist with the British Psychological Society (BPS).

Hugh Gilmore is an accredited sport psychologist with experience working in elite sport in the UK. Hugh has worked with elite athletes across a number of sports, including with the British Weightlifting team in the lead-up to the Olympic Games.

Hugh has a MSc. in Applied Sport and Exercise Psychology. And is accredited by The Irish Institute of Sport and the British Association of Sport and Exercise Science (BASES).

Peter and Hugh are the hosts of the new sport psychology podcast Eighty Percent Mental.

Show Notes:

Sep 02, 2020
#349: Prof. Naomi Allen – How the UK Biobank is Powering Chronic Disease Research

Professor Naomi Allen was appointed Chief Scientist for UK Biobank in 2019, having joined UK Biobank in November 2011 as Senior Epidemiologist. She is Professor of Epidemiology at the Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, with a keen research interest in cancer epidemiology.

At UK Biobank she is responsible for following-up participants both through linkage with routine health-related datasets, and through web-based questionnaires. She is also involved in developing the scientific strategy for future enhancements for the study.

Her research interest is largely in the role of diet, obesity and circulating biomarkers in cancer development.

Show Notes:

Aug 26, 2020
#348: Omega-3 Supplementation & Heart Disease

Today's Topic in Focus: Omega-3 Supplementation & Heart Disease [01:52] 

"I Have a Question!" [66:30]: UK government obesity plan. 

Quack Asylum [87:00]:
Is a gram of PUFA in chicken worse than 250g of sugar from honey? Carnivore cannibalism! 

Random Recommendations [94:20] 


Aug 19, 2020
#347: Alex Thomas - Advancing the Sports Nutritionist Profession

Alex Thomas is the founder of Sports Nutrition Association (SNA), which is global association that contains Sports Nutrition Australia, Sports Nutrition NewZealand, Sports Nutrition Asia, and Sports Nutrition USA.

Alex is an experienced Clinical Accredited Sports Nutritionist. He is the Australasian Ambassador of the ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition). He is co-creator of the Metabolic Health Screen (A health risk and contraindication identification and triage system – now imbedded in the MyPocketcoach platform).

His passion is in providing legitimate education, qualifications and insurance pathways to ensure the successful and sustainable career pathways for the profession of Sports Nutritionists. Alex believes we now have a unique opportunity to establish a significant meaningful impact and pride in what it is to hold the title of ‘Accredited Sports Nutritionist’ within the industry.

Show notes:

Aug 12, 2020
#346: Kathryn Bradbury, PhD – Diet & Colorectal Cancer Risk

Dr. Kathryn Bradbury, PhD is a researcher at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Her research has focused on examining the role of diet in the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases.

Dr. Bradbury spent 5 years in the Cancer Epidemiology Unit at the University of Oxford. There, she worked as a nutritional epidemiologist on large cohort studies, including the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), and the UK Biobank.

She also has expertise in traditional and web-based dietary assessment methods, nutritional epidmiology (including prospective analyses of large cohort studies), biomarkers of nutritional status (including folate), blood lipids, the role of diet in the development of gastrointestinal cancers, and vegetarian nutrition.

Show Notes:

Aug 04, 2020
#345: Rebecca Leech, PhD – Impact of Meal Patterning on Diet Quality & Health

Dr. Rebecca Leech is a Registered Nutritionist and Nutritional Epidemiologist, based at Deakin’s Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition.

Rebecca has a PhD in Nutritional Epidemiology, and in 2018, was awarded an Alfred Deakin Medal for her doctoral thesis, which examined adults’ eating patterns and their associations with diet quality and obesity.

Her postdoctoral research, extends on this, and applies novel analytic approaches to understand determinants of food intake at eating occasions and the role of eating patterns in cardiometabolic health in adults.

Dr. Leech is funded by an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Fellowship and received category 1 funding from the National Heart Foundation (NHF) Postdoctoral Fellowship in 2019.

Show notes:

Jul 29, 2020
#344: Prof. Martin Caraher – Food Poverty & Food Aid Provision

Prof. Martin Caraher is Emeritus Professor of food and health policy at Centre for Food Policy at City, University of London. He has worked for and acted as a consultant to the UK Department of Health, the World Bank and the World Health Organisation.

He was a member of the original London Food Board which developed the food strategy for London. He is a member of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) scientific committee. He also sits on the Safefood Irl scientific committee.

Show Notes:

Jul 22, 2020
#343: Understanding Causality in Nutrition Science

Danny & Alan discuss how to understand causality in nutrition research. The episodes includes: inferring causality vs demonstrating causality, the hierarchy of evidence vs. standards of proof,  the erroneous application of the biomedical model to nutrition, RCTs vs. epidemiology, what the “highest quality evidence available” is, and how nutritional epidemiology can infer causality.

Episode also includes a listener question, random recommendations and the Quack Asylum!

Show notes:

Jul 16, 2020
#342: Are Vegan Diets Superior for Health?

In this episode Alan and Danny discuss the nutritional science research on vegan diets and human health. Some of the concepts covered include: defining “plant-based” diets, examination of various intervention trials comparing diets, veganism across the lifestage, benefits of a vegan diet, nutrient considerations and lots more.
Show Notes:

Jul 07, 2020
#340: Ethics of Veganism & Omnivorism (Part 4) – Diana Rodgers, RD & Robb Wolf

Diana Rodgers and Robb Wolf are the co-authors of Sacred Cow, a book exploring the important role of animals in our food system.

Diana is a Registered Dietitian living on a working organic farm in New England, where she runs an active nutrition practice. She speaks at universities and conferences internationally about nutrition and sustainability, social justice, animal welfare and food policy issues. She’s just completed work on the new book and film project, Sacred Cow.

Robb Wolf is a former research biochemist and a New York Times/WSJ Best Selling author (for both The Paleo Solution and Wired To Eat). Robb has functioned as a review editor for the Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism (Biomed Central) and as a consultant for the Naval Special Warfare Resiliency program.

Show notes:

Jul 01, 2020
#339: Prof. Corinna Hawkes - Food Policy, Food Systems & Public Health

Professor Corinna Hawkes has been working for the past 20 years with UN agencies, governments, NGOs and academia at the local, national and international level to support the design of more effective policies throughout the food system to improve diets and prevent malnutrition in all its forms.

She is currently Director of the Centre for Food Policy at City, University of London, UK, a Centre dedicated to shaping a more effective food system through education, research and engagement with the world of food policy.

In 2018 she was appointed Vice Chair of the London Child Obesity Taskforce by the Mayor of London.

She was a member of the EAT-Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems and the Lancet Commission on Obesity.

Corinna has worked at the World Health Organization, the International Food Policy Research Institute, the University of Sao Paulo and as Head of Policy and Public Affairs at World Cancer Research Fund International, where she established the NOURISHING Framework which tracks policies to promote healthy eating worldwide.

Show notes:

Jun 26, 2020
#338: Ethics of Veganism & Omnivorism (Part 3) - Alex O' Connor

Alex J. O’Connor is founder of the Cosmic Skeptic YouTube channel, podcast and blog; platforms dedicated to the publication of philosophical ideas and debates in an accessible format. He is currently reading for a degree in philosophy and theology at St John’s College, Oxford University.

Alex is an impassioned animal rights advocate and religious critic, regularly discussing these topics on his online platforms. He has spoken at conferences internationally and has engaged in debates on ethics and philosophy.

Show Notes:

Jun 21, 2020
#337: Ethics of Veganism & Omnivorism (Part 2) – Prof. Paul Thompson

Professor Paul B. Thompson holds the W.K. Kellogg Chair in Agricultural, Food and Community Ethics at Michigan State University, where he serves on the faculty in the departments of Philosophy, Community Sustainability and Agricultural, Food and Resource Economics.

He received his Ph.D. in Philosophy from the State University of New York at Stony Brook and has held posts at Texas A&M University and Purdue University.

Thompson’s research and teaching has focused on ethical and philosophical topics in food and agriculture.

Show Notes:

Jun 16, 2020
#336: Ethics of Veganism & Omnivorism (Part 1) – Andrew Chignell, PhD

Andrew Chignell is a professor at Princeton, with appointments in Religion, Philosophy, and the University Center for Human Values. He was previously an associate professor at Cornell and a professor at University of Pennsylvania. He received his PhD from Yale.

Chignell’s work to date focuses on Immanuel Kant and other modern European philosophers, philosophy of religion, the moral psychology of hope and despair, and the ethics of belief. He also has an interest in food ethics, and recently co-produced (with Will Starr at Cornell) a Massive Open Online Course on “The Ethics of Eating” for

Jun 10, 2020
#335: Kyra Bobinet, MD – Systems, Dietary Behaviour Change & the Iterative Mindset

Dr. Bobinet received her Masters in Public Health at Harvard University, specializing in Healthcare Management, Technology-enabled Behavior Change, and Population Health Management. She received her medical degree from the UCSF School of Medicine. She has also studied in Dr. BJ Fogg’s Persuasive Tech Lab at Stanford.

Kyra has founded several healthcare start-ups, spanning behavior health, population health, and mobile health. She has designed behavior change programs, big data algorithms, billion dollar products, mobile health apps, and evidence-based studies in metabolic medicine.

Show notes:

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Jun 04, 2020
#334: Austin Baraki, MD – Potential Harms of Screening, Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment

Dr. Austin Baraki, MD is an Internal Medicine Physician, based in San Antonio, Texas. He completed his doctorate in medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School, and Internal Medicine Residency at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. He also works as a strength coach and puts out information via Barbell Medicine.

Show notes:

May 28, 2020
#333: Diet & Immunity

Today's Topic in Focus: Immune Function & Diet
Innate and adaptive immune response
How does body composition impact immune function?
Will a calorie deficit or fasting decrease immunity?
Vitamins A, C, D.
Supplementation with zinc: yes or no?
Eating “to support the immune system”
Exercise and immunity
Environmental factors in infancy

Show Notes:

May 20, 2020
#332: Prof. Sam McConkey – COVID-19: Public Health Response, Clinical Presentation & Socioeconomics

Prof. Sam McConkey is a doctor and researcher specializing in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Currently he is Associate Professor and Head of the Department of International Health and Tropical Medicine at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. He is also a Consultant in General Medicine, Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases at Beaumont Hospital Dublin.

Previously Prof. McConkey was a Research Fellow in Infectious Disease at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri and an Honorary Consultant in Infectious Diseases at Oxford Radcliffe Trust.

Show Notes:

May 15, 2020
#331: Prof. Roy Taylor – Diabetes Remission, Very-low Calorie Diets & the Twin Cycle Hypothesis

Roy Taylor is Professor of Medicine and Metabolism at the University of Newcastle in the UK. There he is also director of the Newcastle Magnetic Resonance Centre. Prof. Taylor is an Honorary Consultant Physician at Newcastle Acute Hospitals NHS Trust.

Since publishing his "twin cycle" hypothesis of type 2 diabetes in 2008, Prof. Taylor and colleagues have published several fascinating studies with potentially large implications for the potential to put diabetes into remission.

Three of the most important trials were the Counterpoint Study, the Counterbalance study and the DiRECT study. All of which will be discussed in this episode.

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May 05, 2020
#330: Eric Trexler, PhD – Antioxidants, Oxidative Stress & Exercise Adaptations

Eric Trexler is Director of Education at Stronger By Science, where he co-hosts the SBS podcast. He also is one of the four contributors to the MASS Research Review.

Eric has a prolific background in exercise science research, with more than 30 publications to his name by the time he completed his PhD at UNC-Chapel Hill.

One-week anniversary sale of the MASS Research Review:

Apr 28, 2020
#329: Diet & Inflammation

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In this episode Danny & Alan discuss:

  1. Today's Topic in Focus: Inflammation & Diet.
  2. Today's Member Question: "Is the carcinogenic risk of this high enough that I should be throwing them away and starting again?
  3. Being consigned to the Quack Asylum in this episode is... "Leveraging-COVID-to-further-my-diet-idealogy".
  4. Danny & Alan's random recommendations of the week.
Apr 20, 2020
#328: Meeta Singh, MD – Sleep, Immunity & Mental Health

Dr. Meeta Singh is a board-certified sleep medicine doctor and is currently the service chief of the sleep medicine at the Henry Ford sleep laboratory in Michigan.

She did her training in psychiatry at the Mayo clinic and a sleep fellowship at the Henry Ford hospital. She is board-certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology as a psychiatrist and sleep medicine sub-specialist.

Apr 14, 2020
#327: David Dunne – Behavioural Science in Nutrition

David’s a Performance Nutritionist with a track record in developing and delivering nutrition programmes to elite athletes, teams, Olympians and sports legends – all over the globe.

He has worked in elite sport with PGA Tour golfers and various teams including Harlequins (rugby union), Bradford Bulls (rugby league) and Queens Park Rangers (soccer).

David is currently completing PhD out of Liverpool Johns Moores University in the UK, doing research on digital media & behaviour change interventions in sports nutrition. David is the CEO of Hexis.

Show notes:

Apr 08, 2020
#326: Krista Scott-Dixon, PhD – Adaptability & Autonomy in the Nutrition Coaching Process

Dr. Krista Scott-Dixon is a former university professor and researcher who now designs curriculum for Precision Nutrition.

She focuses on helping people make meaningful change through the Precision Nutrition Coaching and coaching Certification programs.

Krista is also the author or co-author of several books, with the latest being Why Me Want Eat: Fixing Your Food Fuckedupitude.

Show Notes:

Apr 03, 2020
#325: Kirk Parsley, MD - Stress, Sleep & Anxiety During a Pandemic

Dr. Kirk Parsley is a former SEAL, and received his Medical Degree from Bethesda, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences (USUHS) in 2004. He served as an Undersea Medical Officer at Naval Special Warfare Group One from 2009 - 2013. While there, he led the development and supervised the group’s first Sports Medicine Rehabilitation center.

Dr. Parsley has been a member of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine since 2006 and has served as Naval Special Warfare’s expert on Sleep Medicine. After leaving the Navy he went into concierge medicine and consulting. He continues to consult for multiple corporations, and professional athletes/teams.

Show notes:

Mar 29, 2020
#324: Fatima Cody Stanford, MD – Obesity Treatment & Weight Bias

Dr. Fatima Cody Stanford is an obesity medicine physician, scientist, educator, and policy maker at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. She is a national and international sought after expert in obesity medicine who bridges the intersection of medicine, public health, policy, and disparities.

She completed her Obesity Medicine & Nutrition Fellowship at MGH/HMS after completing her internal medicine and pediatrics residency at the University of South Carolina. She has served as a health communications fellow at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and as a behavioral sciences intern at the American Cancer Society.

Show notes:

Mar 24, 2020
#323: COVID-19 & SARS-CoV-2 with Rizwan Sohail, MD

Dr. Rizwan Sohail is an infectious disease specialist based at the Mayo Clinic, where he holds a joint appointment with the divisions of Infectious Diseases and Cardiovascular Diseases.

He completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago and then a Fellowship in infectious diseases at the Mayo Clinic.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Distinguishing between COVID-19 (disease) and the actual novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2)
  • What is different about this specific coronavirus compared to others
  • This coronavirus has a respiratory droplet transmission
  • The difference between respiratory droplet and airbourne transmission
  • Time from exposure to SARS-CoV-2 to symptom
  • The disease mechanism
  • Current case reports on those hospitalized
  • In those who have recovered, do we know yet whether they can be reinfected or if they have established immunity?
  • Is the severity of the disease impacted by the length or magnitude of the exposure?
  • On average, for someone infected how many people will they likely infect.
  • How it compares to other viruses in terms of lethality and transmissibility
  • Why social distancing (and potentially self- isolation) is so important
  • Impact on healthcare system
  • Mortality rate is not inherent to the virus alone, but mediated by how the healthcare system holds up, as well as population demographics, etc.
  • Response needed now: a) public health/governmental; b) individuals (context dependent)
Mar 17, 2020
#322: Dominic Munnelly – Coaching People To Health: Philosophy, Empathy & Community

Dominic Munnelly is one of Ireland’s leading personal trainers having worked in the business for over 20 years. He has supported many clients on their health and fitness journey advising them on training, nutrition, mobility and wellness and in the process helped people lose weight, get fit and lead a happier and healthier life.

His background is Sports Science had he holds a degree from the University of Sunderland as well as other qualifications and certifications.

He is a co-author of Move Train Nourish, The Sustainable Way to a Healthier you, published by The Collins Press.


Mar 12, 2020
#321: Dave Feldman & Alan Flanagan – Debating LDL Causality & the “Lipid Triad”

Dave Feldman is a software engineer and runs the Cholesterol Code website. In 2015 Dave adopted a low-carb high-fat diet, which improved his overall health. However, upon seeing his LDL-cholesterol skyrocket, he set out learn all he could about blood lipids and health.

Dave has gained prominence as a “LDL-skeptic” and promoter of his “lipid triad” hypothesis. This lipid triad relates to a situation where one sees high LDL-C, high HDL-C and low triglycerides. Dave hypothesises that in such a context, the high LDL-C does not confer high risk of cardiovascular disease. This is counter to the current consensus position of the lipid hypothesis, where LDL plays a causal role in atherosclerosis development.

Alan Flanagan is the Research Communication Officer here at Sigma Nutrition. Alan is currently pursuing his PhD in nutrition at the University of Surrey, UK, with a research focus in chrononutrition. Alan previuosly completed a Masters in Nutritional Medicine at the same institution.


Feb 25, 2020
#320: Hannah Ritchie, PhD – Environmental Impacts of our Diet: Climate, Carbon Footprint & Land Use

Hannah Ritchie is a researcher at the University of Oxford, working at the online publication The publication aims to present empirical research on how the world is changing through the use of interactive data visualisations and explainers.

Her research is focused on the intersection between sustainability and global development, with a focus on how to couple economic development and improved living standards with environmental sustainability.

Hannah holds a BSc in Environmental Geoscience, and an MSc in Carbon Management from the University of Edinburgh. There, her doctoral studies focused on the assessment of global food systems and their capacity to address malnutrition and environmental sustainability simultaneously.

At the University of Edinburgh she was also a lecturer in Sustainability, Society and Environment, and worked on the development of teaching programmes directed towards interdisciplinary approaches to sustainability. She has worked on a number of sustainability consulting and industry-led projects.


Feb 18, 2020
#319: Women in Science: Past Guests as Role Models in Nutrition

The release of this episode coincides with the International Day of Women and Girls in Science, which has taken place annually on the 11th February, since 2016.

The day recognizes the critical role women and girls play in science and technology.

The International Day of Women and Girls in Science is implemented by UNESCO and UN Women, in collaboration with intergovernmental agencies and institutions, as well as civil society partners, that aim to promote women and girls in science.

The day’s purpose is to promote full and equal access to participation in science for women and girls.

In this episode, we look back on a handul of women who have appeared on the podcast over the past 12 months, to highlight the outstanding work and achievements of women in nutrition science and health science research.

Feb 11, 2020
#318: Chris Melby, PhD – Impact of Energy Flux on Weight Loss Maintenance

Dr. Chris Melby is a Professor in Food Science and Human Nutrition at Colorado State University. He has a long-standing research focus on the interplay between dietary eating patterns and exercise/physical activity in regard to energy metabolism and positive and negative energy balance.

In recent times Dr. Melby has published work on the relationshop between energy flux and the probability of maintaining a previous loss of body weight. Long-term maintenance of weight loss requires sustained energy balance at the reduced body weight. This could be attained by coupling low total daily energy intake (TDEI) with low total daily energy expenditure (TDEE; low energy flux), or by pairing high TDEI with high TDEE (high energy flux).

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Feb 04, 2020
#317: Understanding Diet & Heart Disease Risk

This episode is a supplemental/follow-up episode to the ‘Diet & Cardiovascular Disease’ Series of Sigma Statements. If you have not read those statements, you can find them on

his episode is sponsored by Legion Athletics. Get 20% off your order using the code SIGMA. All US order come with free shipping and all international orders have free shipping on orders over $99. All orders have a money-back guarentee. Check out the products at

Sigma Statements:

Jan 28, 2020
#316: Michael Grandner, PhD – Societal, Social & Psychological Influences on Sleep

Dr. Michael Grandner is the Director of the Sleep and Health Research Program and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychiatry in the University of Arizona College of Medicine – Tucson. He is Board-Certified in Behavioral Sleep Medicine.

His research focuses on how sleep and sleep-related behaviors are related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, neurocognitive functioning, mental health, and longevity.

He has published over 150 articles and chapters on issues relating to sleep and health and his work has been cited over 2,500 times. He is associate editor of the journal Sleep Health and serves on the editorial boards of the journals SLEEP, Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Sleep Medicine, Behavioral Sleep Medicine, Journal of Sleep Research, and Frontiers in Neurology: Sleep and Circadian Rhythms.

This episode is sponsored by Legion Athletics. Get 20% off your order using the code SIGMA. All US order come with free shipping and all international orders have free shipping on orders over $99. All orders have a money-back guarentee. Check out the products at

Sigma Statements:

Jan 22, 2020
#315: Samia Mora, MD – Lipids, Lipoproteins & Atherosclerosis

Dr. Samia Mora is an Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. She is a cardiovascular medicine specialist at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, where she is the Director of the Center for Lipid Metabolomics. Dr. Mora’s research focuses on risk factors and prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Dr. Mora received her undergraduate degree from Harvard University, and her medical degree from Harvard Medical School. She completed an internal medicine residency at Massachusetts General Hospital and a cardiovascular disease fellowship at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, where she also obtained a Masters in Health Science (Epidemiology) from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

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Sigma Statement:

Jan 15, 2020
#314: Q&A – Hemochromatosis, Sodium, Bone Health, & More!
  • [05:00] how should we define calorie restriction in the context of its scientifically observed connection with longevity?
  • [12.30] I'd love to hear your thoughts about the consumption of duck meat. Does it get categorized as red meat consumption in epidemiological studies?
  • [14.10] Can obese or overweight women experience REDs when dieting? If so how do you manage the risk vs. reward of losing excessive body fat vs inducing REDs?
  • [21.20] How much the Nutrition will change in 10 years, and how much impact it will have in our daily lives?
  • [25.00] Cancer recovery: What type food to eat and training protocols to follow whilst healing after operation  and what type of exercise during chemo?
  • [26.00] I'd love to know what your "weaknesses" are!
  • [34.00] What non-tracking methods do you use for combat athletes?
  • [38.20] can we adapt to higher fat oxidation during exercise so that exogenous CHO isn’t necessary?
  • [42.55] How do you plan a diet to lose muscle mass healthily?
  • [48.40] Does eating a high-fat diet (keto) cause heart health issues?
  • [52.34] Is salt good or bad for your health?
  • [53.38] Does calcium supplement improve bone health and prevent bone fracture?
  • [62.55] Hemochromatosis and the Irish
  • [68.10] In nutritional science and resistance training I'm witnessing what appears to be a shift from a physicalist based approach to a phenomenological based approach. Do you see a similar transition taking place?
Jan 09, 2020
#313: Fergus Connolly, PhD – Authenticity, Elite Human Performance & Getting the Best From Others

Dr. Fergus Connolly is one of the world’s foremost human performance thought leaders and influencers, and has applied performance science with leading sports, military, and business teams. He is the only coach to have full times roles in every major sport. Fergus has served as Director of Elite Performance for the San Francisco 49ers, Sports Science Director with the Welsh Rugby Union, and Performance Director for University of Michigan Football. He has guided coaches, support staff and players in the NBA, Australian Rules Football and international cricket. Fergus has also trained world boxing champions and advises elite military units and companies across the globe.

This episode is sponsored by Legion Athletics. Get 20% off your order using the code SIGMA. All US order come with free shipping and all international orders have free shipping on orders over $99. All orders have a money-back guarentee. Check out the products at

Jan 01, 2020
#312: Allison Brager – Sleep Architecture, Chronotypes & Rescuing Performance

Dr. Allison Brager is a behavioral neurobiologist with an expertise in sleep and circadian rhythms for the United States Army (active duty), as well as their contributions to psychiatric, neurological, and inflammatory disease states. She is currently the Director of Human Performance Operations and Outreach Education at the US Army Warrior Fitness Training Center in Fort Knox, Kentucky.

Her work has examined sleep and activity regulatory mechanisms as well as adaptation and resiliency to environmental stressors such as exercise, jet lag, and sleep deprivation. She consults with US Olympic, collegiate, and professional sporting teams and major police and fire departments (e.g., NYPD, Boston) in preparation for travel and to create sleep friendly environments.

She has served on the Board of Directors of the Sleep Research Society and presently chair a public advocacy committee for the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms. She previously was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as the Chief of the Sleep Research Center at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.

This episode is sponsored by Legion Athletics. Get 20% off your order using the code SIGMA. All US order come with free shipping and all international orders have free shipping on orders over $99. All orders have a money-back guarentee. Check out the products at

Dec 17, 2019
#311: Andrew Chappell, PhD – Diet Strategies in Elite Natural Bodybuilders

Dr. Andrew Chappell is a Lecturer/Researcher at Robert Gordon University, conducting research in sports nutrition, with a specific focus on bodybuilding.

Andrew is also a world-class natural bodybuilder with an unprecendented level of national and international success; having 2 Pro Cards and 6 British titles to his name. Andrew also has judged physique contests for over 7 years and has judged at British and World Finals.

Andrew holds a PhD from the Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health. He also holds a BSc in Sport and Exercise Science and a MSc in Human Nutrition and Metabolism.

This episode is sponsored by Legion Athletics. Get 20% off your order using the code SIGMA. All US order come with free shipping and all international orders have free shipping on orders over $99. All orders have a money-back guarentee. Check out the products at

Dec 10, 2019
#310: Meeta Singh, MD – Sleep & Circadian Disruption in Pro Athletes: Dealing With the NBA Schedule

Dr Meeta Singh is a sleep doctor whose work and research focuses on “coaching the sleep muscle” to help maximize performance in both individual athletes and sports teams.

She is the Service chief of the sleep medicine, and section head and medical director at the Henry Ford sleep laboratory in Michigan.

She did her training in psychiatry at the Mayo clinic and a sleep fellowship at the Henry Ford hospital. She is board-certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology as a psychiatrist and sleep medicine sub-specialist.

She has served as a consultant for multiple NFL, MLB, NHL and NBA teams. Dr. Singh performs athletic sleep assessments with personalized prescriptions for better sleep. She also helps sports teams and athletes with their travel management with a focus on addressing sleep deprivation and jet lag and maximizing athletic performance.

This episode is sponsored by Legion Athletics. Get 20% off your order using the code SIGMA. All US order come with free shipping and all international orders have free shipping on orders over $99. All orders have a money-back guarentee. Check out the products at

Dec 03, 2019
#309: Ciaran O’ Regan – Epistemology, Ignorance Navigation & the Error-Correcting Machinery of Science

Ciaran O’ Regan is currently a strength & conditioning coach in Cork, Ireland, predominantly working with rugby teams. He recently began a Professional Doctorate under John Kiely of University of Central Lancashire.

Ciaran has a BSc. in Sport & Exercise Science from the University of Limerick. Ciaran also works online with combat sport athletes on their nutrition and fight preparation here at Sigma Nutrition.

This episode is sponsored by Legion Athletics. Get up to 30% off your order using the code SIGMA. All US order come with free shipping and all international orders have free shipping on orders over $99. All orders have a money-back guarentee. Check out the products at

Nov 26, 2019
#308: Robin Tucker, PhD, RD – Impact of Sleep on Taste Perception, Cravings & Food Reward

Dr. Robin Tucker is currently an Assistant Professor of Food Science & Human Nutrition at Michigan State University.

The Ingestive Behavior Lab at MSU, under Dr. Tucker’s direction, examines the biological and environmental factors that influence human feeding practices.She is especially interested in how the chemical senses (taste and smell) and sleep influence food intake, physical activity, and body composition.

Robin is a registered dietitian and has a PhD in Nutrition Science from Purdue University, focusing on Concentration-Ingestive Behavior.

Show Notes:

Nov 19, 2019
#307: Stephan Guyenet, PhD – Are Popular Nutrition & Health Books Trustworthy, Accurate & Health-Promoting?

Stephan Guyenet is an obesity researcher, neurobiologist, and author. In addition to his research, he enjoys synthesizing and communicating science for a general audience over at his hugely successful blog.

Stephan has a PhD in neurobiology (University of Washington). He is the author of ‘The Hungry Brain’, which dives into the causes of obesity from the perspective of overeating and related brain chemistry.

He is also the founder of Red Pen Reviews, a site that uses a structured expert review method to deliver the most informative, consistent, and unbiased nutrition/health book reviews available.

Show notes:

Nov 12, 2019
#306: Daniel Davey – Food Preparation Skills, Being an Effective Nutritionist & Creativity

Daniel Davey has worked as a performance nutritionist with a host of elite athletes in a range of sports such as golf, athletics, rugby and GAA.

He is perhaps best known for his roles working as a performance nutritionist with with Leinster Rugby and the Dublin senior footballers.

Daniel holds an MSc in Nutrition, Physical Activity & Public Health from the University of Bristol, in addition to a BSc in Science from University College Dublin.

As an athlete Daniel has played Gaelic football at intercounty level for Sligo and won an All-Ireland club football medal in 2016 with Ballyboden St’ Enda’s in Dublin.

Show notes:

Nov 05, 2019
#305: John Berardi, PhD - Be a "Change Maker" in your Health & Fitness Career

John Berardi, PhD is best known as the co-founder of Precision Nutrition. He is also the founder of Change Maker Academy, which is devoted to helping people turn their passion for health and fitness into a successful career. Over the last 15 years he has advised Apple, Equinox, Nike, and Titleist, as well as the San Antonio Spurs, Carolina Panthers, US Open Champ Sloane Stephens, and 2-division UFC Champ Georges St. Pierre.

Get a free chapter to John's new book (or pre-order the book) at the show notes page:

Oct 28, 2019
#304: Tommy Wood, MD, PhD – Neurodegenerative Disease, Traumatic Brain Injury & Genetics

Dr. Tommy Wood is a Research Assistant Professor at the University of Washington in the Pediatrics Department. esearch focuses on ways to increase resilience of, and treat injury of, the developing brain. He studied biochemistry at Cambridge, received a medical degree from Oxford, and has a PhD in physiology and neuroscience from the University of Oslo.

Show notes:

Oct 22, 2019
#303: Brad Dieter, PhD - How Do We Tackle Type 2 Diabetes & Lifestyle-related Chronic Disease?

Brad is a trained Exercise Physiologist, Molecular Biologist, and Biostatistician. He completed his a post-doctoral fellowship in translational science at Providence Medical Research Center, where he studied how metabolism and inflammation regulate molecular mechanisms disease and is involved in discovering novel therapeutics for diabetic complications.

His research career has spanned the translational spectrum utilizing basic science, human trials, and machine learning in large data sets to identify and develop novel therapies and technologies.

His long term career goals include leading teams of people to make major inroads in health care through the development of new technology. Brad is also passionate about scientific outreach and bringing science to the public.

Show Notes:

Oct 15, 2019
#302: Leonie Heilbronn, PhD – Alternate-Day Fasting, Early Time-Restricted Feeding & Caloric Restriction

Associate Professor Leonie Heilbronn is the leader of the Obesity and Metabolism group based at the University of Adelaide, Australia.

She has a sustained record of translating basic discoveries in nutrition to humans and has contributed to current concepts of caloric restriction (CR), intermittent fasting (IF) and time restricted eating (TRE) in humans.

She is keenly interested in understanding mechanisms of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissue utilising nutritional perturbations. She is an Associate Editor of Obesity and Obesity Research and Clinical Practice.

Show Notes:

Oct 08, 2019
#301: John Berardi, PhD - Tribalism in Nutrition

John Berardi, PhD is best known as the co-founder of Precision Nutrition. He is also the founder of Change Maker Academy, which is devoted to helping people turn their passion for health and fitness into a successful career. Over the last 15 years he has advised Apple, Equinox, Nike, and Titleist, as well as the San Antonio Spurs, Carolina Panthers, US Open Champ Sloane Stephens, and 2-division UFC Champ Georges St. Pierre.

Show notes:

Oct 01, 2019
#300: The Random Episode

Sigma Nutrition Radio has reached the 300th episode! To mark the occassion, Patreon supporters of the podcast and subscribers to the Sigma Synopsis email were able to submit questions about anything they wished.

In this episode, Gar Benn joins me to go through some of the questions submitted.

This episode focuses on all the random questions submitted about a range of things, from my schedule to religion to career highlights to living in Ireland, and everything in between!

Sep 26, 2019
#299: Mark Hopkins, PhD – Compensatory Eating, Exercise-induced Weight Loss & Energy Balance Homeostasis

Dr. Mark Hopkins is a lecturer in nutritional physiology at the University of Leeds, UK. His research focuses primarily on the physiological mechanisms of appetite control, and the interaction between diet, physical activity and appetite control. This includes examining the physiological and behavioural responses to dietary and exercise-induced weight loss.

Mark is a member of the Association for the Study of Obesity, the British Association of Sport & Exercise Science and The Nutrition Society.

Show notes:

Sep 17, 2019
#298: David Zeevi, PhD – Genes of Gut Microbes & Inter-Individual Variation in Glucose Response

David Zeevi is an independent research fellow at Rockefeller University in New York. His current work focuses on developing computational methods for studying microbial ecology in the human gut and in the marine environment, and its contribution to human and environmental health.

Previously he completed his PhD at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel under Prof. Eran Segal, studying the human microbiome and its effect on host health and personalized nutrition. He was lead author on two important studies to come from the lab, published in Nature and Cell respectively.


Sep 10, 2019
#297: Cliff Harvey, PhD – Carbohydrate-Restriction, Ketosis & Neuroprotection

Cliff Harvey has a PhD in Nutrition from Auckland University of Technology (AUT), with his research focus being on ketosis, ketogenesis, and individual responses to diet. His research interests include MCTs, keto-induction, “keto-flu”, and finding appropriate carbohydrate intake for individuals based on their metabolic state, activity and ethno-genetic factors.

He is a Registered Clinical Nutritionist in New Zealand, with over 20 years of experience as a practitioner. Cliff was one of the very first practitioners to begin prescribing and working with low-carb, high-fat (LCHF), ketogenic, and lower-carb, higher-protein diets in the late 1990s. Cliff is the founder of the Holistic Performance Institute.


Sep 03, 2019
#296: Alan Flanagan – Circadian Entrainment, Chronotypes & Chrononutrition

Alan Flanagan is currently a PhD researcher at the University of Surrey, UK. His research is in the general field of chrononutrition, with a specific focus on how calorie distribution and timing may impact health & energy balance. Alan has a Masters in Nutritional Medicine, also from the University of Surrey. Alan is also a qualified lawyer, practising in Dublin, Ireland before embarking on his PhD.


Aug 27, 2019
#295: Ben House, PhD – How Much of a Surplus Do Advanced Lifters Need for Optimal Muscle Gain?

Ben House has a Ph.D. in Nutrition from the University of Texas at Austin. Ben has worked as a Strength and Conditioning Coach and Nutritionist since 2006. He is currently the owner and founder of Functional Medicine Costa Rica, where he hosts courses, mentorships and retreats. House has numerous publications in peer reviewed scientific journals such as The International Journal of Obesity, has presented his work at multiple international conferences, and lectures regularly on health and nutrition at The University of Texas.



Aug 21, 2019
#294: Nicola Guess, PhD, RD - Prediabetes & Type 2 Diabetes Nutrition

Nicola Guess is a Registered Dietitian with a PhD in the dietary management of prediabetes from Imperial College London. She is currently Head of the Nutrition Unit at Dasman Diabetes Institute (DDI) in Kuwait. Nicola is a research fellow at King’s College London where her research focuses on the role of diet in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes.

She has a particular interest in the use of low-carbohydrate diets in the management of type 2 diabetes, and leads a research programme investigating dietary modification – including increasing protein or the use of very-low-calorie-diets – on the factors underlying type 2 diabetes.

Nicola received her Registered Dietitian qualification in the United States which included clinical rotations at the Baylor College of Medicine, and world-famous Weight Management Clinic at the Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas.

Nicola’s expertise in the area of diet and type 2 diabetes is well recognised. She is currently a National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) Guidelines Expert Adviser and was a Diabetes UK Research Fellow. She sits on the Diabetes UK Clinical Guidelines Committee which sets priorities for diabetes research in the UK; is a panel member of the Royal College of General Practitioners Lifestyle Group and was previously a topic expert on the NICE Guidelines Committee for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes.


Aug 12, 2019
#293: Jessica Setnick, RD – Orthorexia: Positive vs. Pathological Nutrition

Jessica Setnick background in human behavior (she holds a Bachelor’s degree in Anthropology from The University of Pennsylvania) combined with her expertise in dysfunctional and disordered eating (she is a Registered Dietitian with a Master’s Degree and writes books and articles about eating disorders).

A Certified Eating Disorder Dietitian and CEDRD Supervisor, Jessica is the author of The Eating Disorder Clinical Pocket Guide and Eating Disorders Boot Camp. She is a co-founder of IFEDD, the International Federation of Eating Disorder Dietitians.

Aug 07, 2019
#292: Prof. Alexandra Johnstone, PhD – Appetite Control, Satiety & Diet Interventions

Prof. Alexandra Johnstone is recognized as a leading innovative UK researcher within the field of human appetite control and specifically, the role of dietary protein. She is a Professor at The Rowett Institute at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland.

She has published an extensive list of studies to assess the impact of diets on the body and the mind and to investigate how different meals and drinks affect our appetite, health and wellbeing.


Jul 31, 2019
#291: Gab Fundaro, PhD – Gut Microbiome, Bacterial Diversity & the Impact of Diet & Probiotics

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Dr. Gabrielle Fundaro is a coach and science communicator for Renaissance Periodization coach. Dr. Fundaro is a former Assistant Professor of Exercise Science at Georgia Gwinnett College, and holds a PhD in Human Nutrition.

In This Episode We Discuss:
- Bacertial diversity: eveness & richness
- What is an “optimal” gut microbiome composition
- How rapidly does it change on changing diet?
- Relationship between microbiome and disease states: which way around does this occur?


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Jul 24, 2019
#290: Menno Henselmans & Eric Helms, PhD - Diet Breaks, Calorie Cycling & Muscle Retention

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In This Episode We Discuss:

  1. How low is “too low” for low calorie days?
  2. How much do very low calorie days or fasting impact muscle retention?
  3. Is there a physiological benefit to diet breaks and refeeds?

Eric is currently a Research Fellow at Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand. His work is focused on training and nutrition interventions that could have implications for bodybuilders, powerlifters and other strength athletes. Eric has many peer reviewed publications and currently has many ongoing research projects and collaborations.

Previously, Eric completed his PhD at AUT. He also holds a BS in fitness and wellness, an MS in exercise science, and a MPhil in sports nutrition.

Once a former business consultant specialized in advanced statistical data analysis, Menno has MSc from the University of Warwick (UK) in that area. Menno’s background in science and statistics helped him to develop a unique way of approach questions in fitness.

Menno is a published academic author and has spoken at some of the world’s biggest evidence-based training conferences and events.


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Jul 15, 2019
#289 Ciaran Fairman, PhD – Exercise Interventions in Cancer Treatment

Ciaran is a post-doc research fellow at the Exercise Medicine Research Institute (EMRI) at Edith Cowan University in Western Australia.

Ciaran completed his PhD in the Exercise and Behavioral Medicine Laboratory at The Ohio State University under the mentorship of Dr. Brian Focht. Here, his research focused on the physiological and psychosocial responses to physical activity lifestyle interventions in a variety of clinical populations including breast and prostate cancer, and individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

Ciaran is also strong advocate of the dissemination/translation of scientific research to a variety of audiences. He is the founder of REACH (Research in Exercise and Cancer Health), a company designed to provide evidence-based guidelines of physical activity to health/medical professionals and individuals with cancer.


Jul 05, 2019
#288: Ted Ryce: Meditation, Communication & Understanding Behaviours

Ted is an online coach and podcaster. He has been in the fitness industry for over 20 years, with much of that spent as a sought-after personal trainer in Miami, Florida. During his coaching career he has worked with a variety of clients including Fortune 500 CEOs and celebrities, including Richard Branson and Robert Downey Jr. In more recent years he has continued to coach people online whilst being based in several different locations around the world.


Show notes:

Jun 26, 2019
#287: Gregg Slater - Dietary Fatigue, Nutrition Periodization & the Deficit-Adherence Model

Gregg Slater is head of education at Lift The Bar, a company providing education to fitness professionals. After completing his BSc in Sports and Exercise Science Gregg started out his professional life as a Physical Education Teacher before making the transition towards his passion for fitness as a Physical Training Instructor in the Royal Air Force for 10 years.

In 2015 he took  up his role as Head of Education for Lift The Bar. Over this time Gregg has designed a number of acclaimed courses on a variety of topics, mentored trainers, consulted with gyms and runs regular educational seminars for personal trainers.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • “Dietary fatigue”
  • The deficit-adherence model (dietary performance = deficit – fatigue)
  • Balancing diet sustainability, rate of progress and adherence
  • How previous experiences with diets shoudl be taken into account
  • Transitioning from a period of dieting to a period of weight maintenance
  • Dietary autoregulation


Jun 19, 2019
#286: James Morton, PhD - Fuelling Elite Sport: Team Sky, Liverpool FC & Carbohydrate Periodization

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Dr. James Morton is a Professor of Exercise Metabolism at Liverpool John Moores University. He has an extensive list of published peer-review research in high impact journals, as well as being deeply involved in the highly-regarded sport science and nutrition programs at LJMU.

James was Head of Nutrition at Team Sky (now Team Ineos) during a period where the team captured 5 Tour de France titles. Previously, Dr. Morton worked as head performance nutritionist at Liverpool Football Club. He also also worked with professional and amateur boxers.

Show Notes:

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Jun 11, 2019
#285: What is Health? A Conceptual Framework

Intro to Danny’s framework for defining “health”: 1) Physical Reality – 06.30; 2) Contentedness – 14.08; 3) Psychological Framework – 31.37



Jun 04, 2019
#284: Simone Harding – Tackling Negative Body Image & Weight Stigma

Simone is an Intuitive Eating Counsellor, currently finishing MSc Nutrition and Behaviour at Bournemouth University. She is also a PhD Counselling psychology candidate. Her academic research area is body image and adaptive eating, and she practices as a therapist in the field of nutrition, chronic dieting, body image and eating disorders.

In This Episode We Discuss
The scale of the problem of negative body image
Tying appearance to self-worth & personal identity
External drivers of negative body image
Root causes of obesity
Why “self-responsability” isn’t helpful at scale
Steps in modifying body image
Self-talk: moving from negative to neutral to positive
Can non-weight loss interventions improve health to the same degree as those that lead to weight loss in “at risk” groups (e.g. those with diabetes or with obesity)?


May 28, 2019
#283: Alun Williams, PhD - The Genetics & Science Behind the Historic Caster Semenya/IAAF Case

Dr. Williams is the Director of the Sports Genomics Laboratory and is a Reader in Sport and Exercise Genomics at Manchester Metropolitan University. Alun is also Honorary Senior Research Associate at University College London. He has a PhD from the University of Birmingham.

He has published expert position statements about the ethics and practicality of applying genetic technologies in sport. And was recently involved in the historic IAAF vs. Caster Semenya case related to testosterone levels within athletes with differences of sexual development (DSD).


May 21, 2019
#282: Louise Burke, PhD - Project Supernova: The Science of Fuelling Elite Athletes

Professor Louise Burke has been one of the most highly respected and accomplished sports nutrition researchers over several decades. She has been the head of sports nutrition at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) for nearly 30 years, publishing a vast number of important, novel and high-quality papers in the sports nutrition field.

Professor Bourke’s research interests lie in nutritional intervention strategies for sporting performance. The goal of Louise’s research is to find practical nutrition strategies that athletes and coaches can use to achieve optimum performance. Often this will involve examining metabolism during and after exercise to discover how complex systems work.


May 14, 2019
SNR #281: Jake Linardon, PhD – Eating Disorders, Binge Eating & Body Image

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Dr. Jake Linardon is a Lecturer in Psychology at Deakin University, Melbourne Australia. He started working at Deakin in 2018, shortly finishing his PhD at Australian Catholic University (2017). He continues to research into eating disorders, with a primary focus on testing and evaluating a broad range of treatment approaches for eating disorders.


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May 06, 2019
SNR #280: Kirsty Elliot-Sale, PhD – Energy Availability, Menstrual Disorders & RED-S

Dr Elliott-Sale is an associate professor in female physiology at Nottingham Trent University.

There, she is also the Head of the Musculoskeletal Physiology Research Group.

She is also responsible for teaching on the undergraduate and postgraduate Sport Science degree programmes.

Dr Elliott-Sale teaches mainly in the areas of Exercise Physiology and particularly in Female Physiology, Performance, and Health.

In This Episode We Discuss:
--> Menstrual disorders: secondary amenorrhea (loss of 3 or more consectively) vs. oligomenorrhea (cycle longer than 45 days), vs.Functional --> Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (FHA) vs milder symptoms of some dysfunction
--> What is happening on a hormonal level that ties in with menstrual issues?
--> Understanding “energy availability”
--> How do we quantify what is “low” energy availability?
--> Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport VS. Female Athlete Triad
--> Landmark papers that really advanced understanding of this concept
Triad can lead to decreased estrogen. --> Implications for contraceptive pill users?
--> Difference in risk between genders? --> Difference in expression of symptoms among genders?
--> Reduced EA = increased illness/injury and thus more opportunities to train are lost.
--> Recommendations for at risk athletes
--> The screening and diagnosis of RED-S is challenging, as symptomatology can be subtle.
--> Individuality: How great the energy deficiency needs to be for that individual to be symptomatic


Apr 30, 2019
SNR #279: Avrum Bluming, MD & Carol Tavris, PhD – Estrogen, Menopause & Misconceptions About Hormone Replacement

Avrum Bluming received his MD from the Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons. He spent four years as a senior investigator for the National Cancer Institute and for two of those years was director of the Lymphoma Treatment Center in Kampala, Uganda. He organized the first study of lumpectomy for the treatment of breast cancer in Southern California in 1978, and for more than two decades he has been studying the benefits and risks of hormone replacement therapy administered to women with a history of breast cancer.

Dr. Bluming has served as a clinical professor of medicine at USC and has been an invited speaker at the Royal College of Physicians in London and the Pasteur Institute in Paris. He was elected to mastership in the American College of Physicians, an honor accorded to only five hundred of the over one hundred thousand board-certified internists in this country.

Carol Tavris received her PhD in social psychology from the University of Michigan. Her books include Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me), with Elliot Aronson; Anger: The Misunderstood Emotion, and The Mismeasure of Woman. She has written articles, op-eds, and book reviews on topics in psychological science for a wide array of publications — including the Los Angeles Times, the New York Times Book Review, the Wall Street Journal, and the TLS — and a column, “The Gadfly,” for Skeptic magazine. She is a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and has received numerous awards for her efforts to promote gender equality, science, and skepticism.


Apr 23, 2019
SNR #278: Jackson Peos – The ICECAP Trial, Intermittent Energy Restriction & the Science of Diet Breaks

Jackson is currently completing his PhD at the University of Western Australia in Perth. He is currently running the largest dieting study ever done on athletes in Australia.

This research called the ICECAP trial (Intermittent versus Continuous Energy restriction Compared in an Athlete Population), looks at the effect of including a “diet break” week after every 3 weeks of dieting, compared to a continuous hypocaloric diet for the duration of the full dieting period.

In This Episode We Discuss:
- Theoretical reasons for including diet breaks and refeeds within dieting periods
- Distinguishing between intermittent fasting protocols and intermittent moderate energy restriction (MOD-IER)
- Lessons learned from the MATADOR trial
- What might differ between obese and athletic populations
- Design of Jackson’s “ICECAP trial”
- Determining the duration, frequency and magnitude of diet breaks, refeeds and energy restriction
- Current best practices for implementing these strategies


Apr 16, 2019
SNR #277: Eric Helms, PhD - Non-Quantitative Dieting, Personal Experiments & Optimal Weight Gain for Hypertrophy

Eric is currently a Research Fellow at Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand. His work is focused on training and nutrition interventions that could have implications for bodybuilders, powerlifters and other strength athletes. Eric has many peer reviewed publications and currently has many ongoing research projects and collaborations.

Previously, Eric completed his PhD at AUT. He also holds a BS in fitness and wellness, an MS in exercise science, and a MPhil in sports nutrition.

For the better part of his career he’s been a coach at 3D Muscle Journey, working with drug free strength and physique competitors at all levels. Eric, along with Greg Nuckols and Dr. Mike Zourdos, created the monthly reserach review MASS (Monthly Applications in Strength Sports), which breaks apart some of the recent research carried out that is relevant to strength athletes, bodybuilders and powerlifters. He is also the author of the highly popular Muscle & Strength Pyramids set of books.

As an athlete, Eric has competed as a bodybuilder and powerlifter. This year (2019) he returns to the bodybuilding stage for the first time in eight years, for his fourth competition season.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Ongoing trial looking at effects of differnt sizes of caloric surplus for muscle gain
  • Eric’s unconventional appraoch to his current contest prep
  • Non-quantitative tracking and assessment of progress
  • Applying lessons from bodybuilding to other areas of life


Apr 09, 2019
SNR #276: Nick Gant, PhD - Neurometabolism: Brain Function, Fatigue & Nutritient Interventions

Nick Gant is Director of the Exercise Neurometabolism Laboratory at the University of Auckland.

His group uses interdisciplinary approaches from the nutritional sciences and neurosciences to investigate the role of nutrition in brain health and performance. Nick is particularly interested in foods and supplements that prevent brain fatigue and improve physical and cognitive function.

His research is currently funded by the Royal Society of New Zealand, the Health Research Council of New Zealand, and several industrial partnerships. He partners with clinicians and dieticians within the NZ Centre for Brain Research and provides scientific and educational support for elite athletes, government and military organisations

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Understanding fatigue
  • Hypoxia-induced decrements in cognitive performance
  • Role of caffeine and stimulants in “rescuing” performance in high-fatigue/high-stress states
  • Creatine for cognitive function and brain health
  • Potential for creatine mitigating traumatic brain injury (TBI)
  • Can ketones aid in mitigating traumatic brain injury?
  • Thoughts on cognitive impact of nicotine
  • CHO mouth rinsing: proposed mechanism of action


Apr 02, 2019
SNR #275: Kate Solovieva - Psychology, Empathy & Coping Strategies for Better Coaching

Kate has both undergraduate and graduate degrees in Psychology and spent time as a psychology professor at a college and university level.

She currently is a health & nutrition coach, working for Precision Nutrition, where she has coached over 1,000 people. Now she coaches fitness professionals on how to be better coaches.

In This Episode We Discuss:
--> Using an understanding of human psychology to improve coaching outcomes
--> How we go about rationalizing our behaviour.
--> How coaches can develop empathy
--> Fitting the diet to your lifestyle: how much leeway/flexible does one give?
--> The best skills a coach can teach themself
--> Resilience
--> Proactive and reactive coping strategies


Mar 26, 2019
SNR #274: James Lindsay, PhD - When Peer-Review Goes Wrong: Lessons From the Grievance Studies Affair

James A. Lindsay holds degrees in physics and mathematics, with a doctorate in the latter. His previous books include Dot, Dot, Dot: Infinity Plus God Equals Folly and Life in Light of Death.

He has been in the news for submitting, along with Peter Boghossian and Helen Pluckrose, a series of hoax papers to peer-review (seven of which were published) in fields that categorise as “grievance studies”.


Mar 19, 2019
SNR #273: Bryan Chung, MD, PhD – Dealing with Science Overwhelm & Improving Your Relationship with Research

Bryan Chung is a plastic/hand surgeon and PhD research designer. He is a methodologist who improves people’s relationship with science.

In This Episode We Discuss:
--> Bryan’s advice column for people who have “relationship problems with Science”
--> If things merely confirm what you are already doing, why you should filter it out
--> How to determine what is practically meaningful from a study
--> The importance of establishing what the research question is
--> How to deal with the daunting nature of statistics in research
--> Why you’re already good enough to start engaging with research


Mar 12, 2019
SNR #272: Barbora de Courten, PhD – Effect of Carnosine on Glucose Metabolism and Chronic Disease Risk

Professor Barbora de Courten, MD PhD FRACP MPH is a Professor at Monash University, Australia. She is a National Heart Foundation Future Leader Fellow and a specialist physician with a PhD in epidemiology, extensive training in clinical trials (NIH) and a Master of Public Health (Monash University). She has expertise across the translational research continuum from epidemiology, human mechanistic studies to clinical trials and public health interventions through to practice.

She is passionate about research into holistic approaches to prevention and treatment of chronic diseases by promoting health through safe, low-cost and easily scalable interventions with the potential to have an immediate public health impact to prevent and treat chronic diseases. She believes this will impact not only health of individuals but also be beneficial to our society and environment we live in.

Her vision is to establish new strategies for prevention and management of chronic diseases, specifically obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Her goal is that her research findings will ultimately translate into treatment guidelines, reduced diabetes and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and reduced healthcare costs.

In This Episode We Discuss:
--> Mechanisms by which certain behaviours (inactivity, poor diet, smoking, etc.) increase chronic disease risk: inflammation, oxidative stress and advanced glycation (AGE formation).
--> What is carnosine?
--> How might carnosine supplementation reduce risk?
--> Dosage and timing used in trials to date
--> Prof. de Courten’s trial showing improvements in insulin sensitivity and an oral glucose tolerance test
--> As beta-alanine works by increasing muscle carnosine concentration, could it be useful for the health?


Mar 09, 2019
SNR #271: Prof. John Hawley – Circadian Metabolomics & Time-Restricted Feeding

Prof. Hawley is Director of the Mary MacKillop Institute for Health at Australian Catholic Universtiy in Melbourne, Australia.

He has published over 220 scientific manuscripts, written over 100 articles for technical journals and has authored numerous book chapters for exercise biochemistry and sports medicine texts.

He is an Associate Editor for Diabetologia and currently sits on the Editorial Boards of many international journals. He is a frequently invited speaker at both National and International scientific meetings.

John’s primary research focus includes the interaction of exercise and diet on the regulation of fat and carbohydrate metabolism, particularly within skeletal muscle, the molecular basis of exercise training adaptation and the cellular bases underlying exercise-induced improvements in insulin action.

In This Episode We Discuss:
--> Current work being done by Prof. Hawley’s lab on circadian metabolomics
Defining the human metabolome and circadian metabolomics
--> Comparative analysis of the circadian metabolome in the serum versus peripheral tissues (i.e., skeletal muscle)
--> Impact of high-fat or high-carb diet on the daily variation in metabolites
--> How dietary intake is a strong zeitgeber for peripheral clocks
--> Tissue-specificity of the human circadian metabolome
--> Time-restricted feeding in animal models and in humans

Join the Sigma Synopsis for free:

Mar 04, 2019
SNR #270: Alexander Kolliari-Turner – Anabolic Steroids, Muscle Memory & Advances in Drug Testing

Alex is currently completing a PhD at the University of Brighton in the UK, investigating the implications of RNA sequencing in the detection of anabolic steroid use and the harnessing of the molecular mechanisms of “muscle memory”. He is currently conducting research aiming to address a hypothesis that suggests that the myonuclei obtained via strength training and anabolic steroid usage are retained and therefore provide long term advantages to steroid users.

In This Episode We Discuss:
--> The mechanism of hypertrophy via myonuclei accumulation
--> Defining “muscle memory” in relation to myonuclei
--> Animal models that show myonuclei don’t dissappear after atrophy
--> Anabolic steroids activate the stem cells in muscle (satellite cells) resulting in a donation of their nuclei into muscle fibres
--> How drug testing works
--> How you prove someone has taken exogenous testosterone via T:E ratios
--> The Athlete Biological Passport
--> Thoughts on the recent Jon Jones case
--> Next generation “omic” technologies such as transcriptomics could enhance the testing protocols

If you are based in the UK and want to be involved in advancing science in this area and be involved in Alex’s trial, then email him at:

Feb 26, 2019
SNR #269: Lyndon Purcell & Jacob Schepis: Physiology, Hypertrophy & Discussions

In This Episode We Discuss:
--> How physiology enhances ability to make really training and nutrition decisions
--> Applying “form follows function” to biological systems
--> If training a certain way and observing the result tells us whether it “works” or not, understanding physiology can tell us WHY it worked
--> Importance of lift execution for hypertrophy progress
--> The trap of always assume “more volume is best”
--> The value of debating ideas and open discussions

yndon is Head of Education at JPS Health & Fitness in Melbourne, Australia.

He has a Bachelor of Applied Science in Exercise and Sport Science and is completing a Masters in High Performance Sport Science. He is also a qualified strength and conditioning coach and has coached many athletes over the past number of years.

Jacob is the founder and director of JPS Health & Fitness in Melbourne, Australia.

Having worked in the industry for close to a decade, Jacob’s wealth of knowledge coupled with his experience in the trenches has led him to become one of Melbourne’s most sought out trainers. His role has extended fate beyond working with his beloved clients, to now mentoring aspiring personal trainers, holding workshops and seminars, and writing for the nations personal training governing body, Physical Activity Australia.

Come to the OBC seminars in Australia:

Feb 21, 2019
SNR #268: Luke Leaman - Physiology, Nutrition From First Principles & Prioritising Health

Throughout recent years, Luke Leaman has become a prominent figure in the health and fitness industry. With a mantra of “Health Over Everything,” his teachings, research, and knowledge boldly reflect that.

Luke has spent the last 9 years educating coaches, trainers, and health professionals around the world on biochemistry and physiology, with a large focus on the application of this knowledge.

Earlier on in his career, Luke sought out the best in their fields to internship with, learn from, and work alongside. Luke has mentored under world-renowned Strength Coach Charles Poliquin, as well as Dr James Lavalle formally of the Lavalle Metabolic Institute, and author of Cracking the Metabolic Code.

Over the years, Luke has focused his learning and education on the stress response in relation to fat gain, metabolic disruption, and performance. Through his knowledge, he has been able to help hundreds of clients get back to peak health when all hope had previously been lost.

In September 2015 he began his mission with Muscle Nerds. His focus is to bring health back to the health and fitness industry, to help mould critically thinking, educated coaches, and to do so in a positive, encouraging, and enthusiastic manner.

In This Episode We Discuss
Why better health will lead to better performance
Knowing the fundamentals of physiology to be a better coach
Understanding nutrition and training from first principles
The problem with relying on research without understanding basic physiology
When diets stop working
Tweaking dietary intake with increasing training workload
Tracking simple metrics: resting heart rate, HRV, blood pressure, sleep, fasting blood glucose

Purchase the Sigma Live Sessions at

Feb 18, 2019
SNR #267: Fiona Willer, AdvAPD - Health At Every Size, Non-Dieting & Weight-Neutral Approaches

Fiona is an Advanced Accredited Practising Dietitian (AdvAPD) and university lecturer in nutrition and dietetics. Her academic research areas are dietetic private practice benchmarking, interprofessional learning and HAES (Health At Every Size) integration into dietetics.

Fiona has close to a decade of academic work under her belt and has been employed by Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Central Queensland University (CQU) and the University of the Sunshine Coast (USC).

She will soon complete a PhD focusing on the clinical application of weight neutral approaches to weight concern in dietetics and it’s adoption into practice.

Fiona’s mission is to empower health professionals to adopt weight neutral practice by providing support and training in how and why to do so.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Defining Health At Every Size (HAES)
  • Weight neutral program vs. weight loss program
  • Benefits of non-diet approaches
  • Long-term data on dieting
  • Can obese patients still improve their health even if there is no weight loss?
  • Problems with basing health status on bodyweight and/or BMI
  • Striking the balance of knowing weight loss is beneficial with the potential that focusing solely on weight change can be contraindicated
  • Intuituve eating


Access the Sigma Live Sessions:


Feb 11, 2019
SNR #266: Marty Kendall - Nutrient Optimiser, High-Satiety Diets & Carb/Fat Combinations

Marty is an engineer by trade but his passion is for researching and writing about nutrition topics over at his site

There he has created a framework for eating for health, which focuses on the intersection between energy density and nutrient density. He promotes maximizing micronutrient density of the diet, regardless of your dietary approach or goal.

In This Episode We Discuss
Nutrient optimiser
Nutrient Density Challenge
Hyperpalatability of carbohydrate and fat combinations
Meal timing and TRF
Micronutrient ratios
EAT Lancet


Feb 05, 2019
SNR #265: Lessons From Experts - Prediabetes, Autophagy, Relative Energy Deficiency and Carbohydrate Periodization

The Sigma Live Sessions include four topic discussions on:
1) Dietary Interventions in Prediabetes & Diabetes - Nicola Guess, PhD
2) Fuelling Elite Sport Performance, Carbohydrate Periodization & Pracitioner Experiences - James Morton, PhD
3) Relative Energy Deficiency & Female Athlete Triad - Kirsty Elliot-Sale, PhD
4) Fasting for Health? Longevity, Autophagy and More - Martin MacDonald, MSc

For full access to these sessions, go to:

Jan 29, 2019
SNR #264: Prof. Michael Ristow – Longevity, Mitochondria & Free Radicals

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Role of mitochondria in lifespan regulation and prevention of metabolic diseases
  • Health-promoting effects associated with: low caloric intake, reduced glucose metabolism, physical exercise, sirtuin signaling & more
  • How Prof. Ristow’s findings go against the popular “free radical theory of aging”
  • How increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within mitochondria can increase longevity
  • ROS causing a vaccination-like adaptive response that culminates in increased stress resistance and extended longevity
  • Mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis
  • Human vs. non-human trials
  • How do insulin, protein and resveratrol affect longevity?
  • NAD
  • Caloric restriction vs maintenance of lean physique for longevity

Head of Institute of Translational Medicine at ETH Zurich and heads up the Energy Metabolism Laboratory. Prof. Ristow has been involved in research for many years examing Biochemistry and Physiology of Aging, Exercise, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes.

Prof. Ristow’s group are interested in the biochemical and molecular basis of longevity — in particular the role played by mitochondria in lifespan regulation and prevention of metabolic diseases. Contrary to the widely re-iterated ‘Free Radical Theory of Aging’, his group have been the first laboratory to show that the health-promoting effects associated with low caloric intake, physical exercise and other lifespan-extending interventions like sirtuin signaling are caused by increased formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) within the mitochondria, causing a vaccination-like adaptive response that culminates in increased stress resistance and extended longevity, a process called mitohormesis.


Jan 22, 2019
SNR #263: Brenda Davy, PhD – Dietary Assessement Methods in Nutrition Research

Dr. Davy, is a Professor in the Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise at Virginia Tech. She conducts research investigating the role of diet and physical activity behaviors in the prevention and treatment of obesity and related comorbidities, beverage consumption and weight management, and dietary assessment methodologies.

Dr. Davy received a BS in Nutrition in 1989 and an MS in Exercise Physiology in 1992 from Virginia Tech, and a PhD degree in Nutrition from Colorado State University in 2001. Dr. Davy is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and The Obesity Society, and serves on the Board of Editors for the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Her research has been supported by the National Institutes of Health. To date, she has published more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles. At Virginia Tech, she directs the Laboratory for Eating Behaviors and Weight Management.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Self-report measures: diet records (3-4 days), recalls, Food Frequency Questionnaires
  • Limitations of typical self-report measures used in research
  • Social desirability bias
  • Do particular meals/diet habits cause more inaccurate reporting?
  • How do the self-report methods try to minimize the degree of underreporting?
  • Intake biomarkers: Urinary excretion, isotope-based methods, etc.
  • Metabolomics
  • Tech-based methods: wearables, cameras, Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM)
Jan 15, 2019
SNR #262: Trevor Kashey, PhD – Thoughts on Science, Learning & Nutrition Practice

Trevor received a PhD in Biochemistry from the Univerisity of Arizona at the age of 23. Previous to that he completed his undergraduate degree whilst still in high school.

He currently is the owner of Trevor Kashey Nutrition, where he works with an array of different people. Previous to that he was an owner of Relentless Dietetics.

Trevor has competed in strongman and bodybuilding in the past, and has been the nutrition consultant to many athletes in those sports and other strength-based sports.

Trevor is a lover of learning, science and critical thinking.

Keep up-to-date with Danny's recommended content from around the web with the Sigma Synopsis weekly email:

Jan 08, 2019
SNR #261: Ari Snaevarsson – Eating Disorder Recovery, Body Positivity & Intuitive Eating

Ari Snaevarsson is a nutrition coach who works primarily with clients who suffer from disordered eating patterns. He also works as a dietetic technician at a residential eating disorder treatment center. In both capacities, he helps clients develop positive relationships with food and their bodies. His book, 100 Days of Food Freedom, outlines a simple, day-by-day process to recovery from one’s eating disorder.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Commonalitites in recovery from the various eating disorders
  • Defining recovery
  • The factors that may increase the probability of that recovery being a success
  • Critical nature of support systems
  • How you can support a friend/family member recovering from an eating disorder
  • Modification of environment and lifestyle
  • Goal setting: what metrics can be assessed on an ongoing basis?
  • Understanding relapses accurately
  • Cognitive dietary restraint – dieting messages from the diet industry
  • Body-positive, intuitive eating approach
  • Health At Every Size (HAES) – misinterpretations and misconceptions
Jan 01, 2019
SNR #260: Steve Taylor, RD - Sustainable Results, Human Behaviour & Dietary Approaches

Steve Taylor is a registered dietitian and lifestyle coach who through sustainable behavior changes elicits positive lifestyle transformations in, and with his clients.

Steve has a Master’s Degree in Dietetics, Nutrition, and Exercise Physiology. This formal training, combined with a decade of experience, has equipped him with powerful tools, skills, and strategies which he now teaches and shares with others.

In addition to his own coaching practice, Steve is the registered dietitian for 3D Muscle Journey.

Originally from Kansas City, Missouri, Steve now resides in Los Angeles, California.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Philosophy to coaching
  • The issue of weight re-gain and loss of adherence
  • Understanding client motivation and attitudes
  • Sustainable diet methods
  • Balancing sustainability with methods that can get rapid results
  • Messages in the dieting industry that are particulary damaging
Dec 27, 2018
SNR #259: Chad Kerksick, PhD - Energy Availability and Pre-Exercise Protein vs. Fasted Training

Chad Kerksick, PhD currently works as an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science and Director of Graduate Programs in the School of Sport, Recreation and Exercises for Lindenwood University in St. Charles, MO.

He received his PhD in Exercise, Nutrition and Preventive Health from Baylor University, a Masters degree in Exercise and Sport Science at the University of Memphis and a Bachelor’s degree in Health and Exercise Science at Truman State University. He is certified as a strength and conditioning specialist by the National Strength and Conditioning Association and as an athletic trainer by the National Athletic Trainers Association and recognized as a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and International Society of Sports Nutrition.

Chad’s previous research work has focused upon studying the impact of exercise and nutrition on numerous aspects of health and performance and from this work he has published over 70 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals, given over 100 research presentations, authored multiple chapters, one book on nutrient timing and recently edited a book on Sport Nutrition Needs of Child and Adolescent Athletes.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Energy availability in athletes
  • Fasted cardio vs. pre-exercise protein ingestion
Dec 24, 2018
SNR #258: Dan Garner – Building an Online Business as a Nutrition Coach

Dan Garner is the owner and founder of Team Garner and is the head strength coach and nutrition specialist for Specializing and delivering consistent world class results in physique transformation and athletic performance, Dan has worked with many athletes from the youth leagues right up to the NHL, NFL, MLB and UFC. He is an international lecturer on sports nutrition and has been featured in several major media outlets.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • How Dan built a successful online nutrition business after being a successful personal trainer
  • Coaches transition their skills online
  • Lacking clarity over what to do
  • Coaches lacking confidence in either themselves or the process/plan
  • Why wanting to make money is a good thing
  • Optimizing time and productivity
  • the 2-3 pieces of low-hanging fruit for a coach out there who wants to build success online
Dec 18, 2018
SNR #257: Andrew Jagim, PhD – Pre-Workout Supplementation: Current Evidence & Recommendations

Andrew is currently an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science in the Exercise & Performance Nutrition Laboratory at Lindenwood University in St. Charles, Missouri. In the near future, Andrew will be changing jobs as he will soon be serving as the Director of Sport Medicine Research for a satellite health system of Mayo Clinic in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Andrew earned his Bachelor’s degree in Physical Education and Exercise Science at the University of North Dakota. He went on to complete a Master’s degree in Human Performance at the University of Wisconsin – La Crosse. He later completed his PhD in Kinesiology with an emphasis in Exercise Physiology at Texas A&M University, working under Dr. Richard Kreider in the Exercise and Sport Nutrition Lab. His primary research area focuses on the use of different nutritional and training strategies to improve measures of performance and health which has led to several publications in peer reviewed journals and has presented at multiple national conference events. He currently is investigating the prevalence of use and supplementation habits of pre-workout supplement users in addition to monitoring changes in energy availability and body composition throughout a season in several team sport athletes. Andrew is also a co-host for the podcast Clinically Pressed.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Caffeine
  • Beta-alanine
  • Sodium bicarbonate
  • Citrulline
  • Beetroot juice
  • Making sure no banned substances found in your supplement
  • Which compounds are likely to benefit each type of sport
  • What steps to take to get the best quality product
Dec 12, 2018
SNR #256: Alex Leaf – Risks of High-Protein Diets?: Longevity, Gut Health & Microbiota

Alex holds a master’s degree in Nutrition from Bastyr University. He is a full-time researcher at involved in updating the supplement database, editing ERD articles, and blogging about nutrition. Alex also teaches young minds about human nutrition and functional medicine at the University of Western States. He enjoys blending the scientific aspects of nutrition with the pragmatic realities of life to help others achieve their goals.

In This Episode We Discuss

  1. Potential controversies in how protein influences human health
  2. Hypothesis of protein restriction (and methionine restriction) benefitting longevity via impact on mTOR and AMPK
  3. Extrapolating animal data to humans: limits and conclusions
  4. Does protein restriction actually increase human lifespan?
  5. How do we balance the potential benefit of protein restriction with the known benefits of high-protein intakes for muscle mass and function?
  6. Are high-protein intakes detrimental for gut health and/or the gut microbiome?
  7. How other dietary components can mitigate the negative impacts of protein on gut health
  8. How cooking methods may influence the imapct of protein-rich foods on health
  9. Knowing the potential risks of a high-protein diet
  10. Cost:benefit analysis of protein intake

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Dec 04, 2018
SNR #255: Alan Flanagan – Public Health Nutrition & the Role of Epidemiology

Alan is a qualified lawyer and nutritionist based in Dublin, Ireland. Alan has a Masters in Nutritional Medicine from the University of Surrey. And in 2019 he will be starting his PhD work at the same institution, focusing on chrononutrition.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  1. Public health messaging vs. individual advice
  2. Barriers to better nutrition at the population level
  3. What policies could make a difference?
  4. Do we know what a healthy dietary pattern is?
  5. Addressing criticisms of nutritional epidemiology
  6. Understanding the hierarchy of evidence: quality of evidence vs. proof standards
Nov 27, 2018
SNR 254: Nutrition for Health, Body Composition & Performance (My OPEX Podcast)

Danny is interviewed by Robbie Bourke of OPEX on a range of topics related to the fundamentals of evidence-based nutrition.

Instagram: @dannylennon_sigma

Nov 19, 2018
SNR #253: Listener Q&A

Danny answers questions submitted by podcast listeners.

To submit yours, go to

Nov 12, 2018
SNR #252: Alpana Shukla, MD – Effect of Food Order on the Glycaemic Response

Dr Shukla is an Assistant Professor of Research in Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College and an Assistant Attending Physician at New-York Presbyterian Hospital. Dr Shukla’s clinical interests and expertise include management of obesity and related metabolic complications including type 2 diabetes.

Dr Shukla obtained her medical degrees, MBBS and MD, from and completed internal medicine residency at Grant Medical College & J J Group of Hospitals in Mumbai, India. She subsequently trained in the UK as a senior house officer in Medicine, Specialist Registrar and Clinical Fellow in Endocrinology and as Registrar in Clinical Pharmacology in Australia over the next 5 years. While in the UK, she completed the training and examination requirements and was granted the MRCP(UK) degree.

Dr. Shukla is currently the Director of Clinical Research at the Comprehensive Weight Control Center. A key area of Dr. Shukla’s research is a novel behavioral intervention, termed “food order,” for regulation of blood glucose in individuals with overweight /obesity, type 2 diabetes, and prediabetes

In This Episode We Discuss
Trials conducted examing the glycaemic response to food order
“Carbohydrate-last meal pattern”
Typical mixed meals where the components are not as easily separated
Impact of fiber before ingestion of a main meal
How these strategies compare to a protein pre-load
Impact on ghrelin and GLP-1
How does all this research apply to real world recommendations for prediabetes and diabetes


Nov 06, 2018
SNR #251: What Is Science?

In this episode Danny discusses the concept of “what is science?” with input from:

  • Andy Galpin, PhD
  • Brad Dieter, PhD
  • John Kiely
  • Trent Stellingwerf, PhD
  • Mike T Nelson, PhD
  • Ciaran O’ Regan

In This Episode We Discuss

  • What is science meant to be? What is science pragmatically?
  • “Science doesn’t prove anything it just reduces uncertainty”
  • If you want to know something better, it takes concentrated cognitive effort and thinking. Wrestle with difficult ideas. Don’t just consume
  • What information do you have that you can collect, how does that inform your mental model? And how do you test that model
  • Crucially, how do you disprove that model?
  • Application: explicit vs. tacit knowledge. (Tacit = coach intuition)
  • Adding that knowledge to a larger body of evidence
  • You don’t identified as your views, but as the being that has certain views that are subject to change
  • Far important how you think than what you think
Oct 29, 2018
SNR #250: Mike T Nelson, PhD - Metabolic Flexibility Revisited

Mike has a PhD in exercise physiology from the University of Minnesota, with that work focusing on the concept of metabolic flexibility. In addition, he has a MS in biomechanics and an adjunct professor and a member of the American College of Sports Medicine.

In This Episode We Discuss
How to correctly think about metabolic flexibility
Metabolic flexibility in adipose and muscle tissue
Fuel use in type 2 diabetes
Why ketogenic diets do not increase metabolic flexibility
What drives metabolic inflexibility
Metabolic flexibility pathways are therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases


Oct 22, 2018
SNR #249: James Clear - Habits & Behaviour Change


On his blog James primarily writes on how we can create better habits, make better decisions, and live better lives. He combines ideas from a wide range of disciplines including biology, neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and more.

He is the author of Atomic Habits, the creator of the Habits Academy, a weightlifter, and a travel photographer in over 30 countries.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Where James’ interest in habits stemmed from
  • The meaning behind “Atomic Habits”
  • Where to start when deciding what habits to change?
  • How do we stick we these new habits?
  • How to help others (clients/patients) build new habits
  • Environment design: things that act as obstacles that we may not be aware of
  • Preventing loss of momentum when schedule or environment is thrown off, for example shift work or travel
  • How long to build a new habit? And does it matter?


Buy tickets for Sigma Nutrition Radio LIVE! here:

Oct 16, 2018
SNR #248: Kyra Bobinet, MD – Behaviour Change Through Design Thinking

When it comes to health engagement, Dr. Bobinet has 5 words of advice: be caring, authentic, and useful. As the CEO-founder of engagedIN, Kyra devotes her life to helping people crack the code of how, what, and especially, WHY we engage.

Kyra has founded several healthcare start-ups, spanning behavior health, population health, and mobile health. She has designed behavior change programs, big data algorithms, billion dollar products, mobile health apps, and evidence-based studies in mind-body and metabolic medicine. All of her designs, whether for at-risk teens or seniors, are rooted in the belief that true caring is our greatest value.

Dr. Bobinet teaches at Stanford School of Medicine on patient engagement and empowerment, and health design with Dr. Larry Chu, founder of MedicineX. She has studied in Dr. BJ Fogg’s Persuasive Tech Lab at Stanford, whom she credits as the founder of “behavior design”.

Dr. Bobinet received her Masters in Public Health at Harvard University, specializing in Healthcare Management, Technology-enabled Behavior Change, and Population Health Management. She received her medical degree from the UCSF School of Medicine.

In This Episode We Discuss
What design thinking is, in relation to behaviour change
Not letting a failure/lack of progress lead to abandonment of trying
Modifying eating habits and behaviours
Dealing with deeply embedded “programs” that subciously affect our ability to change
Negative self-image in the fitness industry
Motivation in the behaviour change process
Those who self-doubt what they can achieve: “oh other people can do that, but I wouldn’t be able to”


Oct 09, 2018
SNR #247: John Kiely – Scepticism, Cognitive Bias & Applying Science to Practice

John is Senior Lecturer in Elite Performance at the Institute of Coaching & Performance at the University of Central Lancashire. He has published a long list of peer-reviewed work, notably on stress and periodization, and is well known for questioning conventional dogmas withing strength & conditioning literature and practice.

John’s career within sport has been relatively varied, having experienced life as an international competitor, coach, sports scientist and strength and conditioning specialist. He has been the head of S&C at UK athletics, a S&C coach to Olympic medallists & world champions, as well as working with teams at both Rugby & Soccer World Cups.

In This Episode We Discuss
Issues translating research into practice
How is a critical thinking mindset fostered/developed/trained?
Scepticism vs. nihilism
Cognitive bias: pitfalls for coaches or practitioners


Oct 02, 2018
SNR #246: Jamie Pugh, PhD – Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Athletes

Jamie Pugh is a post-doctoral research at Liverpool John Moores University. During his PhD and current work, he has looked at the effect exercise can have on the gastrointestinal system and in more recent work, looked at the effects probiotic supplementation can have on endurance athletes. He has also worked as a consultant nutritionist and physiologist for a number of professional teams and extreme endurance athletes.

In This Episode We Discuss
The range and severity of symptoms athletes experience
Causes of symptoms: physiological, mechanical and nutritional
Individual variation in susceptibility to symptoms
Lack of association between gut “damage” and symptoms experienced
GI distress outside of endurance sport
Maximal rates of glucose ingestion: higher than previously thought?
Effect of glutamine supplementation
Effect of probiotic supplementation
Effect of low FODMAP diets
Practical steps for practitioners and athletes to mitigate risk

JOIN ME IN DUBLIN! Come to Sigma Nutrition Radio LIVE on November 24th.

Tickets on sale now:

Sep 25, 2018
SNR #245: Artin Entezarjou, MD – Simplifying Science & Interpreting Research

Artin is a medical doctor, currently completing his intern rotations at Helsingborg Hospital, Sweden. He is also currently completing a PhD in Artificial Intelligence in eVisits in Primary Care.

Outside of medicine, Artin co-founded EBT (Evidence Based Training), a brand dedicated to making science on health, fitness and nutrition digestible and understandable to the public, mostly through Instagram, but also their blog.

In This Episode We Discuss
What it means to simplify science
How to have a discussion, levels of argument
Study types: expert opinions, observational, experimental.
Reading studies: what to be looking out for
Translating research into practice
Understanding statistics in research: p-value, confidence intervals

Sigma Nutrition Radio LIVE! Tickets:

Sep 18, 2018
SNR #244: Ian Dunican, PhD – Sleep & Impact of Weight Cutting

Ian is currently the Director and Principal Consultant of Melius Consulting and has a PhD from the University of Western Australia (UWA), where he worked with elite sporting organisations/athletes to optimise sleep, recovery and performance. He is also the Director of Sleep4Performance and an Adjunct Researcher at Monash University, Australia.

Ian has worked with elite and highly trained athletes at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), West Australian Institute of Sport (WAIS), professional teams in Super Rugby, Australian Rules Football, Basketball, Swimming, Ultrarunners and Martial Arts such as Boxing, & MMA.

He is an ultrarunner, completing over 20 ultramarathons to date including the Ultra Trail Australia ~100km (7 times), Leadville~100 miler, numerous other marathons and trail running events. He is a Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Purple belt and enjoys cross training in wrestling, Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) and kettlebells. He is now focusing on improving his swimming to undertake open water swimming events in 2018/19.

He was a TEDx Perth speaker in 2017. He has co-authored technical reports, guidelines for industry organisations and authored a number of scientific articles and is a regular reviewer for scientific peer reviewed journals. Ian is the host of Sleep4Performance radio a podcast dedicated to education, knowledge sharing and promotion of the value of managing sleep.

In This Episode We Discuss
Weight cutting study: impact on sleep
Does low fibre dieting lead to worse sleep?
Effects of caloric restriction on sleep
Impact of anxiety and nervousness on week of competition
Brain trauma and sleep
Demands for sleep with increased training workload
Impact of late night training

Sigma Nutrition Radio LIVE! in Dublin:

Sep 11, 2018
SNR #243: Valentin Tambosi - Time Frames for Natural Bodybuilders

Valentin is a pro natural bodybuilder and coach based in Vienna, Austria. He has been working as a personal trainer and physique coach for several years. As an athlete he is a professional natural bodybuilder with the IPE. Valentin is also a speaker at Intelligent Strength for their Strength Coach program.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Ideal body composition at the start of a contest prep
  • Recommended length of contest prep for natural athletes
  • How competition frequency should change with experience level
  • Off-season length and building in mini-cuts
  • Strategic use of diet breaks during prep
  • Understanding conditioning: how lean is “lean enough”?
  • Weekly refeeds: setting the correct duration
  • Peak week carbohydrate intake: front-loading vs. back-loading, and other considerations

Come to Sigma Nutrition Radio LIVE! in Dublin this November:

Sep 06, 2018
Special Announcement: Sigma Nutrition Radio LIVE!


Four true world-class experts in the world of nutritional sciences will join SNR host Danny Lennon for a day of deep-diving conversations on the most cutting-edge and important topics in nutrition.

Joining Danny on stage will be:

--> Martin MacDonald - Mac-Nutrition

--> Kirsty Elliot-Sale, PhD - NTU

--> James Morton, PhD - Team Sky & LJMU

--> Nicola Guess, PhD, RD - King's College, London


Sep 04, 2018
SNR #242: Jake Mey, PhD, RD – How Much Sugar is Too Much?

Jake is a registered dietitan and a human nutrition researcher. His work focuses on diet, muscle & metabolism.

He is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Integrated Physiology and Molecular Medicine at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center. He is also a contractor in Inflammation and Immunity research at the renowned Cleveland Clinic.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Understanding evidence-based research
  • Can sugar, without caloric excess, still have detrimental health effects?
  • Cleveland Clinic study: effect of wholegrains vs. refined grains on glucose metabolism
  • How much sugar counts as a ‘high intake’?
  • At what intakes we see issues
  • Insulin resistance, AGEs and other issues

Sigma Nutrition Radio LIVE! - Event in Dublin:

Aug 28, 2018
SNR #241: Elise Facer-Childs – Circadian Phenotypes, Brain Function & Athletic Performance

Elise Facer-Childs is currently a Doctoral Researcher working at the University of Birmingham on sleep, circadian rhythms and neuroimaging. She works with human participants to uncover the impact that our body clocks can have on brain structure and function, genetics, physiology and performance.

Elise has presented her research at an International Conference for the European Biological Rhythms Society (EBRS)/World Chronobiology Congress (WCC) and has given presentations at the UK’s largest circadian conferences (UK Clock Club).

In This Episode We Discuss
Understanding circadian phenotypes
Neuroimaging (fMRI) to understand how the brain is affected by time of day
Time of day vs. time relative to internal circadian clock
Practical implications for “night owls” and “morning larks”
Personal best performance times differ significantly between circadian phenotypes
Circadian phase shifting

Aug 21, 2018
SNR #240: Erica Goldstein, RD – Exercise-Associated Anemia, Hepcidin Activity & Implications for Athletes

Erica is a registered dietitian, currently completing a PhD at the University of Central Florida in Orlando.

Previously she was employed as a Clinical and Sports Dietitian at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, where Erica provided individual sports nutrition consultation to endurance and team sport athletes, in addition to providing care and educating oncology patients in the hospital.

She has a M.A. in Exercise Science and Health Promotion from FAU, in addition to a B.S. in Nutrition and Dietetics from UNF.

She is also a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist with the NSCA, and a Certified Sports Nutritionist with the ISSN.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Defining iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia
  • Iron-deficiency anaemia: diagnosis and symptoms
  • Why is iron so crucial for athlete performance?
  • The role of hepcidin
  • Dilutional pseudoanaemia
  • Heel strike hemolysis
  • How sources of iron differ in quality or bio-availability
  • Supplementation: dosage, forms, etc.
Aug 13, 2018
SNR #239: Carl Juneau, PhD – Does Muscle Damage Actually Cause Hypertrophy?

Carl is an exercise scientist with a PhD in physical activity epidemiology. He is also the founder of the Dr. Muscle app.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Influence of mechanical tension, muscle damage and metabolic stress on hypertrophy
  • Does muscle damage really cause hypertrophy?
  • Research for and against muscle damage being important.
  • Practical implications
  • Volume vs. mechanical tension
Aug 06, 2018
SNR #238: Andi & Alex Pürzel – Behind Intelligent Strength

Andi and Alex are the guys behind Intelligent Strength, a company that produces education on strength training and body composition through seminars and books. The brothers also have a gym in Vienna, Austria; Das Gym.

Das Gym is a truly unique place. And when you talk to Alex & Andi you immediately understand why. The gym opened in 2016 and it’s hard to imagine there being another place like it on the planet.

Andi has a long career as a coach and educator. As an athlete he first competed in strongman and powerlifting, and in more recent years has competed in bodybuilding.

Alex, in addition to his work with Intelligent Strength, also works as a physical education teacher at a school in Vienna. As an athlete, he has competed in powerlifting for a long-time. This has included competing at several IPF world championships and winning Gold in the deadlift at the European championships.

In This Episode We Discuss
Alex and Andi’s childhood influences
What got them into lifting weights
Experiences as coaches and athletes
Lessons training can teach you about life
What the goals of Intelligent Strength are

Jul 17, 2018
SNR #237: Martin MacDonald – The Influences, Experiences & Journey of an Industry Leader

Martin is a clinical performance nutritionist and the founder of Mac-Nutrition, a thriving nutrition consultancy boasting sought after long-term internship and weekend mentorship programs. He has also developed Mac-Nutrition Uni, the UK’s first ever evidence-based, nutrition course that can be completed online.

Martin has worked as a performance nutritionist in elite sport with British Weight Lifting, Derby County Football Club, English swimming and other elite sport organizations.

He has lectured at the University of Derby and has guest lectured on the prestigious MSc Sport and Exercise Nutrition course at Loughborough University.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Martin’s undergraduate education
  • What drew Martin to nutrition
  • The early life influences that developed interests in bodybuilding or in science
  • The moments/experiences in his education that stand out as the most important or influential to Martin
  • Martin’s work in elite sport
  • How Martin had became disillusioned with the fitness industry before he started MNU
  • The unexpected benefits students have reported from doing MNU
  • Martin’s interests outside of nutrition/work

Jul 10, 2018
SNR #236: Kevin Ashworth, MSc - Understanding Anxiety & How To Deal With It

Kevin received his Bachelor’s in Psychology from Washington State University, before completing his Masters Degree in Counseling Psychology at Pacific University. His focus remained on anxiety and models for working with children, which led to completing anxiety focused training during his tenure at Pacific University. During this time, he authored three publications on anxiety and completed his dissertation on the effectiveness of Collaborative Problem Solving. Kevin has earned certification in treating OCD and Hoarding Disorder from the International Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Foundation (IOCDF) Behavior Therapy Training Institute (BTTI). Though he has presented at local and national conferences, he has found his true calling with public speaking on the topic of anxiety, often being recruited for providing lectures and workshops in the Portland community.

Kevin aims to provide effective, evidence-based treatment to individuals struggling with anxiety disorders using humor, kindness, and compassion. He believes Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective when he is able to help clients shift their relationship with anxiety while not taking themselves too seriously. Kevin likes to empower his clients by saying (in regards to Exposure Response Prevention) “you’re already miserable, you may as well be miserable on purpose.”

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Defining anxiety accurately
  • “Am I doing the action based on fear or preference?”
  • How to not be crippled by uncertainty
  • Relationship between anxiety and depression
  • Exposure therapy and evidence-based strategies used in practice
  • Focused on the past: feelings of guilt, shame, perhaps depression. How do we prevent ruminating on things that happened in the past?
Jul 03, 2018
SNR #235: Ciaran O’ Regan – Combat Sports Weight Regain After Weigh-in (Research Breakdown)

Ciaran has a BSc. in Sport & Exercise Science from the University of Limerick. He currently is a strength & conditioning coach in Cork, Ireland and works online with combat sport athletes on their nutrition and fight prep here at Sigma Nutrition.

He has experience as a fighter himself, competing at a national-level for many years in amateur boxing, as well as competing in kickboxing, K1 and BJJ.

Paper Reviewed:
Silveira-Coswig et al., 2018 – Weight Regain, But Not Weight Loss, Is Related to Competitive Success in Real-life Mixed Martial Arts Competition

Jun 26, 2018
SNR #234: Lachlan Mitchell, RD – Natural Bodybuilding Research & Muscle Dysmorphia
Lachlan Mitchell, RD, PhD Candidate

As a qualified dietitian Lachlan has worked both in the public and private health systems at Hervey Bay Hospital, Hunter New England Diabetes Service and a private weight loss clinic in Newcastle. It was in these settings Lachlan provided high quality, evidence based nutrition advice to a variety of patient groups, including intensive care, cardiology, diabetes, paediatrics and weight loss.

Lachlan has held numerous positions in the academic world. He spent time at Australian Catholic University as a lecturer and tutor teaching a nutrition and exercise unit as part of the exercise science degree program. Whilst living in Ireland he was head-hunted by Athlone Institute of Technology to co-write the course curriculum and syllabus for many units of study for a new exercise physiology degree. Lachlan has also spent time at University of New South Wales tutoring in physical activity and health.

Lachlan is currently undertaking a PhD in metabolism and bodybuilding at the University of Sydney.

Jun 19, 2018
SNR #233: Bryce Lewis - Athlete Development, Identity & Psychology

Bryce is the founder of The Strength Athlete and is a world-class elite-level powerlifter in the IPF.

Bryce competes in the -105 kg class, winning USAPL Raw Nationals in both 2016 and 2017, as well as winning silver at the IPF World Championships in Minsk in 2017.

Through his success as an elite lifter, Bryce’s dream is to pass on his knowledge and skills through The Strength Athlete (TSA) powerlifting coaching services online. Bryce passionately advocates for the application and love of the sciences, evidence-based philosophies, and skepticism of pseudoscience.

Off the back of his 2017 Raw Nationals win with a 890 kg total (315/220/355), Bryce will again represent the USA at IPF Worlds this year in Calgary, Canada.

In This Episode We Discuss
Preparing for world championships
Modifications made over the past year
How some weight loss has helped deadlift leverage for Bryce
Family background of athleticism, How was that cultivated as you grew up?
exploring how psychology and sport psychology practices can affect lifting
how thinking about athlete development is not simply about how do we increase physical performance through training
Is there a distinction between building a better athlete and a better person?
What Bryce has improved on to become a better athlete
How athletes identify themselves; implications of tying their whole identity and/or self-worth to being an ahtlete
On what idea have The Strength Athlete team yet to reach a consensus or common position stand on?

Jun 12, 2018
SNR #232: Ted Ryce - Social Isolation, Flow & the Influencers of Health That The Fitness Industry Forgets

Ted is a personal trainer and podcaster. He has worked with Fortune 500 CEOs, busy professionals and celebrities, including Richard Branson and Robert Downey Jr.

Many of his clients are middle-aged executives who want a trainer to help them stay in shape and keep their energy levels high and stress levels low. He also counsels his clients on the proper use of supplements and offers nutritional advice. He believes in using science and scientifically proven methods to achieve the best fitness results.

Ryce’s goal in all of his efforts has been to help other people lead better, more fulfilling lives—legendary lives. Through his podcast, his coaching and his other projects, he has reached thousands of people and helped them achieve their goals.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Ted’s background, including training Robert Downey Jnr!
  • Impact of social isolation on health; both pyschological and physiological
  • How does exercise and nutrition help psychology, anxiety, etc.
  • What if you already exercise, eat well and have good body composition, but are still “unhealthy”?
  • Flow (from the work of Czikszentmihalyi) and trying to manifest this state in life
  • Application over knowledge
Jun 05, 2018
SNR #231: Hugh Gilmore - Applied Sport Psychology Strategies

Hugh is currently with the English Institute of Sport working as the Performance Psychologist to the British Weightlifting team. Hugh worked with these lifters in the lead-up to the most recent Olympic Games in Rio 2016.

Hugh has a MSc. in Applied Sport and Exercise Psychology. And is accredited by The Irish Institute of sport, the British Association of Sport and Exercise Science (BASES), and the British Psychological Society.

Hugh has also worked with high-level athletes across a number of other sports, including All-Ireland winners, World Champions & Olympians.

In This Episode We Discuss
Misconceptions among athletes as to the role of sport psychology
False consensus bias
Pseudoscience in psychology vs. evidence-based practice
Enhancing athlete confidence
Model of perceived demands, perceived resources and perceived importance
Achieving optimal arousal for performance: how psyched up should you get?
Differences in external factors in competition vs. training
Why being positive when setting goals can actually be a bad thing!

May 22, 2018
SNR #230: Stephan van Vliet, PhD - Effect of Whole Foods on the Anabolic Response, Muscle Function & Metabolism

Stephan is a PostDoc researcher in the Center for Human Nutrition at Washington University School of Medicine. Stephan’s research is focused on muscle metabolism.

Stephan completed his PhD research at the University of Illinois, examining the regulation of postprandial protein metabolism after food ingestion and exercise.

In This Episode We Discuss
Do nutrient-dense whole foods have a different anabolic response to isolated protein?
Stephan’s study: 18g protein from whole eggs vs. 18g protein from egg whites, which showed superior MPS response for whole eggs.
Implications of higher nitrogen retention
Hypothesis that higher protein intakes (closer to 3 may impart a benefit for immune function in athletes engaged in very intense training?
Is there a dampened anabolic response to protein feeding in overweight/obese people?

May 15, 2018
SNR #229: Sophie Killer, PhD - Fuelling Olympic Track & Field Athletes

Dr Sophie Killer is a senior member of the English Institute of Sport Performance Nutrition Team where she’s worked as the Lead Performance Nutritionist for British Athletics, supporting the Olympic and Paralympic Track & Field athletes since 2015. She completed her PhD in Exercise Metabolism & Performance Nutrition at Loughborough University.

Sophie has gained a wealth of experience working as a nutrition consultant across a range of elite athletes from individual cyclists, runners and triathletes through to team sports, including supporting British Basketball during the London 2012 Olympic Games and spending 4 seasons working in the Premier League.

Sophie continues to engage in research through collaborations with Loughborough University, Nottingham Trent University and the University of Surrey. She is a Visiting Fellow in Sports Nutrition at Loughborough University where she is involved in PhD supervision and sessional lecturing. She has 10 publications to date, sits on the Editorial Board of the BioMed Central Nutrition Journal, is a Review Editor for Frontiers in Nutrition and is an invited reviewer for the EJSS, IJSNEM and IJSPP.

May 08, 2018
SNR #228: Jacob Schepis – Developing Coaching Skills & Blending Evidence with Pragmatism

Jacob Schepis is the owner & director of JPS Health & Fitness, where he has helped thousands of individuals improve their strength, body composition and well being through evidence based resistance training and nutrition.

Taking a scientific based approach to training and diet has enabled Jacob to excel in a variety of sports, including playing VFL, bodybuilding, where he has won multiple state and international titles, along with competing in the International Powerlifting Federation, where he has competed at a national level and achieved a top 8 Ranking in Australia.

Having worked in the industry for over 8 years, Jacob’s wealth of knowledge coupled with his experience in the trenches has led him to become one of Melbourne’s most sought out trainers. His role has extended fate beyond working with his beloved clients, to now mentoring aspiring personal trainers, holding workshops and seminars, and writing for the nations personal training governing body, Physical Activity Australia.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Coaching Philosophy; Increasing your value ceiling.
  • Pragmatic Coaching; Avoiding being esoteric whilst upholding EBP
  • Refining Your Craft; Self Awareness, Self-efficacy and Career Development
May 01, 2018
SNR #227: Listener Q&A Episode

Question Topics

  • Coffee and appetite
  • Gelatin consumption [11:10]
  • Protein timing [14:10]
  • The relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cholesterol levels in the body [20:40]
  • Increasing carbs after ketogenic diet [20:38]
  • Is too much fiber a problem? [29:37]
  • Anti-oxidant supplementation (mainly Vitamin C and E) and training adaptation [33:25]
  • Do additives/preservatives accumulate in tissues? [36:20]
  • Will increasing exercise lower NEAT? [39:55]
  • Intermittent fasting for women [46:31]
Apr 24, 2018
SNR #226: Prof. Stuart Phillips – Muscle Protein Balance, Protein Dose When Dieting & Anabolic Resistance

Professor Phillips is a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Skeletal Muscle Health. In addition to being a full Professor in Kinesiology, also an Adjunct Professor in the School of Medicine at McMaster University. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American College of Nutrition (ACN). His research is focused on the impact of nutrition and exercise on human skeletal muscle protein turnover. He is also keenly interested in diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition.

His research is funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, the National Science and Engineering Council of Canada, the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, and the Canadian Foundation for Innovation as well as the USDA.

He has received more than $2.4 million in research funding in the last 3 years. Dr. Phillips was the recipient of a New Investigator Award from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the Ontario Premier’s Research Excellence Award and in 2003 received the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Young Investigator Award. He currently has more than 18000 career citations, and 200 original scientific research and review papers.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • How good of a proxy for muscle growth is muscle protein synthesis?
  • Recommendations for daily and per-meal protein intake to maximize MPS
  • The influence of a calorie deficit on muscle protein balance: do you need more?
  • Whole eggs lead to greater MPS than egg whites: discussion of research paper
  • Anabolic resistance and strategies to overcome it
Apr 17, 2018
SNR #225: Carl Juneau, PhD - Effective Reps & Strategies for Hypertrophy

Carl Juneau, PhD is an exercise scientist with a PhD in physical activity epidemiology. He is also the founder of the Dr. Muscle app.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Theory of effective reps
  • Influence of mechanical tension, muscle damage and metabolic stress on hypertrophy
  • Does metabolic stress really cause hypertrophy? Or is it just a by-product of mechanical tension?
  • Methods to make use of a higher number of effective reps: rest-pause, myo-reps, drop sets, etc.
  • Exercise selection for such methods
  • Role of rest intervals: the U-shaped curve developed by Carl Juneau and James Krieger
  • How strategies change with experience level
Apr 10, 2018
SNR #224: Kurtis Frank - Understanding The Placebo Effect & Supplement Misconceptions

Kurtis Frank graduated from the University of Guelph with a bachelor's degree in Applied Human Nutrition. During his undergraduate studies in human nutrition, he co-founded the website to gather and present as much evidence-based information on dietary supplements as possible in as unbiased a manner as possible.

To that end, Kurtis worked tirelessly for seven years to make Examine the premier resource on the Internet for learning about the science of supplementation. Today, it boasts guides on over 500 supplements containing over 41,000 scientific citations.

Kurtis then became Director of Research for Legion Athletics, a company that produces evidence-based supplements. There, he takes an active role in managing the scientific advisory board, creating new and improving existing formulations, writing informative articles on our blog, and generally guiding the scientific direction of the company.

In This Episode We Discuss
What is an accurate way to think about the placebo effect?
How the placebo effect and actual drug effect are not mutually exclusive
Should coaches actively “placebo their clients”?
The nocebo effect
People using supplements to “reduce inflammation”: do they have a reason?
What anti-inflammatory compounds actually work?
Supplements for joint pain and joint health: what works and what doesn’t?
Supplements that help with sleep quality and sleep onset

Apr 03, 2018
SNR #223: Prof. Christopher Gardner - DIETFITS Trial 2018: Low-Fat vs Low-Carb Weight Loss Diets and Effect of Genotype and Insulin Secretion

Prof. Gardner is the Director of Nutrition Studies at the Stanford Prevention Research Center and a professor of medicine at Stanford University. He received his PhD in Nutritional Sciences at the University of California, Berkeley in 1993. His postgraduate training included a postdoctoral fellowship in cardiovascular disease epidemiology at Stanford.

Dr. Gardner is passionate about two central questions that keep him up at night and get him to jump out of bed most mornings. The first of these is: What can people eat and drink (or avoid/limit) to optimize their health? Dr. Gardner has recently shifted much of his energies to a second and more challenging question: What forces and factors can successfully motivate people to improve their food and beverage choice behaviors?

Study Discussed: Gardner et al., 2018 – Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial

Mar 26, 2018
SNR #222: Ari Snaevarsson - Anorexia Nervosa, Refeeding Syndrome & Potential Refeeding Strategies

Ari Snaevarsson currently works as a dietetic technician at a residential treatment center for patients with eating disorders. He graduated from Gettysburg College with his Bachelor’s in Health Sciences and worked there also as a research assistant. His Capstone research was titled “How aggressively can hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa be refed to prevent irreversible adverse outcomes or death?” In addition, Ari works, separate from the eating disorder field, as a Precision Nutrition Level 1 certified nutrition consultant at True Fitness & Nutrition.

In This Episode We Discuss

  • Defining anorexia nervosa & refeeding syndrome
  • How and why we see severe hypophosphatemia play out
  • What is the current standard of care for hospitalized anorexic patients?
  • Is their alternatives to current standard practice that have potential?
  •  What sort of surpluses lead to appropriate rates of weight gain?
  • Differences between whole food refeeds vs. feed tube vs. TPN (intravenous)
Mar 20, 2018
SNR #221: Jordan Feigenbaum, MD - Why Doctors Should Be Recommending Resistance Training

Jordan Feigenbaum is an experienced strength coach who also has his medical degree and residency training. In addition to a veritable laundry list of credentials, Jordan is also an elite powerlifter.


In This Episode We Discuss

  • Benefits of strength training for health
  • Why aren’t recommendations to do resistance training not more widespread in medical practice?
  • Misinterpretation of evidence-based practice
  • Is it better to recommend people do “any exercise they like” or persuade them to strength train?
Mar 13, 2018
SNR #220: James Krieger – Frequency, Volume and Calories for Strength & Hypertrophy

James Krieger is the founder of Weightology. He has a Master’s degree in Nutrition from the University of Florida and a second Master’s degree in Exercise Science from Washington State University. He is the former research director for a corporate weight management program that treated over 400 people per year, with an average weight loss of 40 pounds in 3 months. His former clients include the founder of Sylvan Learning Centers and The Little Gym, the vice president of Costco, and a former vice president of MSN.

James is a published scientist, author, and speaker in the field of exercise and nutrition. He has published research in prestigious scientific journals, including the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and the Journal of Applied Physiology.

In This Episode We Discuss
The recent systematic review and meta-analysis that James co-authored on training frequency and strength gain
Volume for strength & hypertrophy: how many sets should you do?
How much difference does a calorie surplus make for muscle gain?
How much difference does a calorie surplus make for strength?
What variables outside of training volume drive results?

Mar 06, 2018
SNR #219: Arthur Lynch - How We Were Wrong, Mistakes Made & Lessons Learned

Arthur Lynch is a exercise physiology researcher currently pursuing his PhD at the University of Limerick. His current research focuses on the role of HMB supplementation on hypertrophy and strength performance in well-trained individuals.

Arthur is an accomplished drug-free powerlifter, representing Ireland at the last two IPF World Championships and heading there again this year. He is current Irish Powerlifting Ferderation national champion in the -93kg class.

Arthur coaches online here at Sigma Nutrition, working with powerlifters of all levels.

Feb 26, 2018
SNR #218: Powerlifting Insights: Tuchscherer, Nuckols, Helms, & More!

Some snippets of wisdom from past episodes of the Sigma Powerlifting Podcast. Insights from: Mike Tuchscherer, Eric Helms, Greg Nuckols, Rori Alter, Matt Gary and LS McClain.

European Powerlifting Conference 2018 takes place in Dublin, Ireland on July 21st and 22nd.

Tickets are on sale now from

Feb 13, 2018
SNR #217: Israel Halperin, PhD - Combat Sport Science, S&C Coaching & Motor Learning (Guest Hosted by Ciaran O' Regan)

Special guest host Ciaran O' Regan interviews Dr. Israel Halperin about research and application of S&C coaching.
Israel is a post-doctoral researcher at Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Israel completed his PhD at Edith-Cowan University, Australia in conjunction with the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). His research centered on the effects coaching feedback has on the performance of resistance trained subjects and combat sport athletes. Israel spent the 3 years working with the four Olympic Combat sports in the AIS Combat Centre as a sport scientist.

Over the years Israel has trained many world-class combat sport athletes as an S&C and Muay Thai coach. Israel has international competition experience in Muay Thai, and has spent 2 years in the U.S and a year in Thailand for training and competition purposes. He also holds two black belts.

In This Episode We Discuss:
Israel's background as athlete, coach and scientist
The role of strength and conditioning in open loop sports and the cost to benefit analysis of GPP vs SPP
An evidence-based approach to designing combat sports training sessions
Becoming comfortable with the uncertainty and chaos of working with humans
Humility as a scientist and a coach and being willing to change our views in light of evidence
Becoming aware of our biases and what to do about them

This episode is brought to you by Health IQ. To see if you qualify, get your free quote today at or mention the promo code SIGMA when you talk to a Health IQ agent.

Feb 06, 2018
SNR #216: Andy Morgan - Experiences & Philosophies of a World-Class Coach

Andy Morgan is back on the show to discuss a whole host of topics related to coaching, fitness and learning.
Andy is the founder of and an online coach. He co-authored the Muscle & Strength Pyramids books along with Dr. Eric Helms and Andrea Valdez. He has published a host of excellent nutrition and training resources in the form of ebooks, articles and podcasts, which can be found on the Ripped Body website.

Born in the UK, Andy has been living in Japan for over a decade, currently residing in Tokyo.

In This Episode We Discuss:
Current projects Andy is working on
Characteristics of great coaches
Developing a framework for client success
Learning from experiences regardless of outcome
How excitement and philosophies change with experience in fitness
Interpreting studies more effectively
Lessons learned from Mike Tuchscherer
How past experiences and culture have influenced Andy as a coach and person.

This episode is brought to you by Health IQ. To see if you qualify, get your free quote today at or mention the promo code SIGMA when you talk to a Health IQ agent.

Jan 30, 2018
SNR #215: Andy Galpin, PhD - Science to Practice, Technology and Adaptation to Stress

Dr. Andy Galpin of CSU Fullerton talks about blending evidence and practice, as well as the potential beneficial and detrimental roles of technology for making training decisions.
Andy is a tenured Professor in the Center for Sport Performance at CSU Fullerton. Andy spent 4 years studying the structure and function of human skeletal muscle at the single cell level, a feat which earned him a PhD in Human Bioenergetics in 2011. This also resulted in the friendship with frequent collaborator Dr. Jimmy Bagley and the ability to open up his own "Biochemistry and Molecular Exercise Physiology Laboratory" at CSU Fullerton.

He now focuses his attention on teaching classes (Sports Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, Designing Exercise Programs, Applied Strength and Conditioning, Athlete Assessment and Measurement, etc.) and running the BMEP lab (which studies the acute responses and chronic adaptations of human skeletal muscle in response to high force/velocity/power and fatiguing exercise from the whole body, down to the individual muscle fiber and even into the individual DNA. The team does this by taking muscle biopsies from non-athletes and elite athletes from different backgrounds (e.g. normal college student, MMA fighter, Boxer, Weightlifter, etc.) and use highly sophisticated laboratory techniques and equipment to address questions about single fiber "type", size, function, protein quantity, diameter, mitochondria, and myonuclear function.

In This Episode We Discuss:
Communication of scientific concepts
Physiology of the adaptive response
Decision-making process for how to decide on whether a specific technological tool is useful to use
Assessing readiness to train: in either remote athletes or combat athletes where you can’t visually see them for every session

This episode is brought to you by Health IQ. To see if you qualify, get your free quote today at or mention the promo code SIGMA when you talk to a Health IQ agent.

Jan 23, 2018
SNR #214: Marty Kendall - Optimising Nutrition Through Nutrient Density

Marty Kendall is the man behind the Optimising Nutrition blog and creator of the Nutrient Optimiser. On the show we discuss energy density, nutrient density and insulin load.

To see if you qualify for a special life insurance quote due to being health conscious, then go to healthiq,com/sigma

Jan 16, 2018
SNR 213: Greg Potter - Chronobiology & Chrononutrition (Research Breakdown)

Greg Potter is currently just finishing up his PhD at the University of Leeds in the UK. His research focus on chronobiology; looking at circadian rhythms, light-dark cycles and the potential for meals to entrain peripheral circadian clocks.

Two Research Papers Examined in this Episode:

Jan 09, 2018
SNR #212: Mike Zourdos, PhD - Drop Sets, Cardio for Lifters & Understanding Research as Conceptual

Michael (Mike) C. Zourdos, Ph.D, CSCS: Mike is an Assistant Professor in Exercise Science at Florida Atlantic University with a specialization in strength and conditioning and skeletal muscle physiology. He earned his Ph.D. in Exercise Physiology from The Florida State University (FSU) in 2012 under the guidance of Dr. Jeong-Su Kim.

Prior to attending FSU Mike received his B.S. degree in Exercise Science from Marietta College and M.S. in Applied Health Physiology from Salisbury University. At Marietta Mike lettered in soccer for four seasons and captained the squad in his final two. While at Salisbury he also served as the graduate assistant strength and conditioning coach for all sports teams.

Further, Mike served as the Head Powerlifting Coach of FSU’s 2011 and 2012 state championship teams and currently serves as FAU’s Head Coach in addition to being a faculty member. Mike’s research focuses on optimizing periodization and program design methods, along with improving training efficiency, and examining skeletal muscle adaptations and the inflammatory response to exercise.”

This line of high performance research is currently ongoing in the FAU ‘Muscle Lab.’ His best powerlifting competition lifts include a 230.0kg (507lbs.) raw squat as an 83kg lifter. Finally, Mike is recently married to Dr. Catherine Coccia, Ph.D., R.D., and Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics at Florida International University (Miami, FL).

Papers Discussed in this Episode

Paper 1: Fink et al., 2017 - Effects of drop set resistance training on acute stress indicators and long-term muscle hypertrophy and strength

Paper 2: Murlasits et al., 2017 - The physiological effects of concurrent strength and endurance training sequence: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Jan 03, 2018
SNR #211: Brianna Stubbs, PhD - Ketogenesis, Metabolism and Ketone Ester Supplementation

Brianna Stubbs, PhD

In 2016 Brianna completed her PhD in Metabolic Biochemistry at Oxford University. She also became a World Champion rower as part of the GB Rowing Lightweight Women's four person crew, and won 3 other World Rowing Championships medals. She has published peer-reviewed studies looking at ketone metabolism, ketone ester supplementation in athletes and effects of ketones on appetite.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Brianna's background as an elite-level rower
  • Her PhD research on ketone metabolism
  • Misconceptions about ketones (both endogenous and exogenous)
  • Ketogenesis: why do we make ketones?
  • Brianna's study examining effect of ketone ester supplementation on appetite and ghrelin levels
  • Who needs to even know their ketone concentration?
  • Ketone supplements: glycogen sparing or glycogen impairing?
  • Effect of ketone supplementation on fuel selection in endurance athletes
  • Potential for supplementation: where is the area we will most likely see some benefit?
  • Limitations of current literature base
Dec 30, 2017
SNR #210: Prof. Tim Noakes & Martin MacDonald - Carbohydrate Intake, Insulin Resistance & Body Fat Regulation

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This is an "open discussion" between Prof. Tim Noakes and Martin MacDonald on the topic of carbohydrates, insulin resistance and body fat.

Prof. Noakes obtained an MBChB degree in 1974, an MD in 1981 and a DSc (Med) in Exercise Science in 2002. In the early 90s, Noakes teamed up with Morné du Plessis to drive the founding of the Sports Science Institute of South Africa (SSISA).

Prof Noakes has published more than 750 scientific books and articles. He has been cited more than 16,000 times in scientific literature, has an H-index of 71 and has been rated an A1 scientist by the National Research Foundation of South Africa for a second 5-year term. He has won numerous awards over the years and made himself available on many editorial boards.

After his research convinced him that a high fat, low carb diet is the healthiest option for many, Prof Noakes founded The Noakes Foundation in 2012. Prof Noakes retired as Professor of Exercise and Sports Science at the University of Cape Town (UCT) in 2014 and is now an Emeritus Professor at UCT. While his career has seen him involved in some controversial circumstances, love him or hate him, you cannot deny his contributions to scientific research.

Martin is a clinical performance nutritionist and the founder of Mac-Nutrition, a thriving nutrition consultancy boasting sought after long-term internship and weekend mentorship programs. He has also developed Mac-Nutrition Uni, the UK’s first ever evidence-based, nutrition course that can be completed online.

Martin has worked as a performance nutritionist in elite sport with British Weight Lifting, Derby County Football Club, English swimming and other elite sport organizations.

He has lectured at the University of Derby and has guest lectured on the prestigious MSc Sport and Exercise Nutrition course at Loughborough University.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  1. Should carbohydrates be restricted for weight loss? weight maintenance? health?
  2. Confusing messages given to the public surrounding nutrition
  3. Do insulin resistant people need to be very low-carb?
  4. Does LCHF mean less hunger, and therefore better long-term results?

You can find the show notes at

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Dec 18, 2017
SNR #209: Amy Bender, PhD - Sleep Better: Practical Evidence-Based Recommendations

Sleep researcher Dr. Amy Bender discusses the most current evidence-based recommendations for optimizing your sleep for health and athletic performance.

Dr. Bender is the Clinical Program Director of Athlete Services at the Centre for Sleep & Human Performance and is also an adjunct professor of Kinesiology at the University of Calgary. She received her PhD and Master of Science degrees in Experimental Psychology from Washington State University in Spokane, WA specializing in sleep EEG. Her current research focuses on the relationship of sleep and recovery on athletic performance in Canadian National Team athletes. Her research interests stem from being an athlete herself; she is a Hall of Fame basketball player, has summited a number of volcanoes, and completed an Ironman in 2009.

In This Episode We Discuss:

Circadian biology and light/dark cycles
Effects of artificial light at night
The importance of daylight exposure early in the day
Daily vs. weekly sleep quantity
What exactly is "good quality" sleep?
Strategy of "banking sleep"
Assessing and tracking sleep in clients and athletes
Strategies to mitigate detrimental effects of sleep before competition
Are there any supplements that actually work for helping sleep?

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Dec 12, 2017
SNR #208: Herman Pontzer, PhD - Constrained Energy Expenditure Model & the Evolutionary Biology of Energy Balance

Evoultionary biologist Dr. Herman Pontzer of Hunter College discusses the model of contrained energy expenditure and the metabolic adaptations that accompany high levels of physical activity.
Dr. Pontzer is an associate professor at the Department of Anthropology, Hunter College & City University of New York. He is an evolutionary biologist with a PhD in Biological Anthropology from Harvard University. He has published seminal work in the area of energetics, including viewing human energy expenditure via a model of constrained total energy expenditure. He s truly a world-class leader in this field and has been repeatedly recognized internationally for his research.

In This Episode We Discuss:

Constrained vs. Additive model of total energy expenditure
The physical activity paradox: Do highly active populations actually burn more calories?
Why NEAT, movement efficiency and other metabolic adaptations can't fully explain the paradox
Why did we evolve this way?
Why are human capable of expending so much energy in acute time frames?

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Dec 06, 2017
SNR #207: Alex Ritson - Research: Dynamic Fat Loss Rules & High vs. Low Reps

Alex Ritson is on the show to dive into two recent recent papers; one investigating the theories of dynamic fat loss models, and the other looking at the effect of low-rep vs. high-rep training for hypertrophy and strength.
Papers Discussed in this Episode

Paper 1: Silva et al., 2017 - Do Dynamic Fat and Fat-Free Mass Changes follow Theoretical Driven Rules in Athletes?

Paper 2: Morton et al., 2016 - Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men

Nov 21, 2017
SNR #206: Alessandro Ferretti - Blood Glucose, HRV & Inflammatory Response to Diet

Nutritionist Alessandro Ferretti discusses data he has collected that may inform us as to the inflammatory response to diet and lifestyle, using markers such as blood glucose, heart rate variability and Alessandro's metric of "HRV/BG Index".

Nov 14, 2017
SNR #205: Brandon Roberts, PhD - Muscle Physiology & Bodybuilding Case Study (Research Breakdown)

Brandon has a PhD in Muscle Biology and is currently a Postdoctoral Fellow researching muscle physiology related to hypertrophic adaptations. He is a published author or peer-reviewed research. In addition to his prowess in academia, Brandon is well-respected and experience in the practical side of things; being a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS), USA Weightlifting Sports Performance Coach and online coach for The Strength Guys.

As a writer, Brandon has been published in Alan Aragon's Research Review, Stronger By Science, Muscle & Strength, STACK, and

Research Papers Discussed In This Episode:

Nov 07, 2017
SNR #204: Greg Nuckols - Research Breakdown: Concurrent Training & Fat Free Mass Index

Greg Nuckols is on the show to review two recent research papers; one looking at concurrent training and the interference effect, and the other looking at the fat-free mass index in athletes.
Greg Nuckols is the founder of, a website that provides comprehensive information about how to get stronger and more jacked. Greg has over a decade of experience under the bar, and a BS in Exercise and Sports Science. He’s held 3 all-time world records in powerlifting in the 220 and 242 classes, and is pursuing graduate research at UNC-Chapel Hill, under the supervision of Dr. Abbie Smyth-Ryan.

He’s trained hundreds of athlete and regular folks, both online and in-person. He’s written for many of the major magazines and websites in the fitness industry, including Men’s Health, Men’s Fitness, Muscle & Fitness,, T-Nation, and

Greg, along with Eric Helms and Dr. Mike Zourdos, created the monthly research review MASS (Monthly Applications in Strength Sports), which breaks apart some of the recent research carried out that is relevant to strength athletes, bodybuilders and powerlifters.

Research Papers Discussed In This Episode:

Study #1: Eddens et al., 2017 - The Role of Intra-Session Exercise Sequence in the Interference Effect: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Study #2: Trexler et al., 2017 - Fat-Free Mass Index in NCAA Division I and II Collegiate American Football Players

Nov 01, 2017
SNR #203: Arthur Lynch - FFM for Strength & HMB vs. Leucine

Arthur is an exercise physiology PhD researcher and international-level competitive lifter in the IPF. He is head powerlifting coach at Sigma Nutrition. His current research is based on HMB supplementation and anabolism.

Research Papers Discussed In This Episode:

Oct 25, 2017
SNR #202: Andrea Valdez: Insights About Coaching, Training & the Fitness Industry

Andrea Valdez has been an athlete her entire life. As a former competitive gymnast and long-time coach in the sport, she developed a discipline and respect for the powers that strong minds and bodies can achieve. This led her to continued success in competitive cheerleading and bodybuilding throughout her journey in higher level education.

She received a Kinesiology degree from Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi with an emphasis in Sports Management and a Minor in Business Administration. Upon graduation, she worked as a Marketing Intern for a Major League Soccer organization, the Houston Dynamo. Andrea then continued on to teach and research at the University of Oklahoma, where she earned her Master’s Degree in Exercise Physiology. Her scholarly development and professional experiences in training, coaching, teaching and mentoring lead her to begin a career as an author and video content provider for her own personal website and YouTube channel, both of which began in 2012.

Andrea became a 3DMJ athlete for her next figure season in 2013 and for powerlifting in 2014. She continued her journey with the team by teaching alongside the other 3DMJ coaches at posing clinics, and helping to create digital products and content for the 3D Muscle Journey website. After months of collaborating as a project manager and writer, she was officially added as the fifth 3DMJ coach in September 2015.

Also in 2015, she had the pleasure of co-authoring a pair of books with Eric Helms and Andy Morgan titled The Muscle and Strength Pyramids. These nutrition and training guides have become the industry standard for anyone trying to gain strength or manipulate body composition.

During her current figure off-season, Andrea has begun training in Olympic weightlifting and gymnastics-based movements to pursue competition in a new sport called GRID. She continues to journal her athletic experiences on all of her social media platforms and throughout her personal website at

Oct 17, 2017
SNR #201: Eric Helms - Anabolic Sensitivity & High-Protein Bulking [Research Breakdown]

PhD researcher Eric Helms of Auckland University of Technology is on the podcast to breakdown two interesting research papers. We look at a paper on protein overfeeding and another on the effect of body fat on anabolic sensitivity.
Eric, along with Greg Nuckols and Dr. Mike Zourdos, created the monthly reserach review MASS (Monthly Applications in Strength Sports), which breaks apart some of the recent research carried out that is relevant to strength athletes, bodybuilders and powerlifters.

Research Papers Discussed In This Episode:

Study #1: de Moraes et al., 2017 - Protein Overfeeding is Associated with Improved Lipid and Anthropometric Profile thus Lower Malondialdehyde Levels in Resistance-Trained Athletes
Study #2: Beals et al., 2016 - Anabolic sensitivity of postprandial muscle protein synthesis to the ingestion of a protein-dense food is reduced in overweight and obese young adults


Oct 10, 2017
SNR #200: Saturated Fat Panel Discussion - Nadolsky, Guyenet, Masterjohn & Dieter

Our 200th episode is a special and unique one with an in-depth panel discussion on the topic of saturated fat. On the panel are Dr. Spencer Nadolsky, Stephen Guyenet PhD, Chris Masterjohn PhD and Brad Dieter PhD.
The Panellists

1) Dr. Spencer Nadolsky

Dr. Nadolsky is a a board certified family and obesity medicine physician. He is known for being extremely passionate about using exercise and lifestyle interventions as medicine, where possible. Dr. Nadolsky runs an online clinic,, where he can help patients all over America. He is also the author of The Fat Loss Prescription.

2) Stephan Guyenet, PhD

Stephan is an obesity researcher, neurobiologist, and author. In addition to his research, he enjoys synthesizing and communicating science for a general audience over at his hugely successful blog. Stephan has a BS. in biochemistry (University of Virginia) and a PhD in neurobiology (University of Washington). He recently published the fantastic book ‘The Hungry Brain’, which dives into the causes of obesity from the perspective of overeating and related brain chemistry.

3) Chris Masterjohn, PhD

Chris has a PhD in Nutritional Sciences from the University of Connecticut. He was formerly an Assistant Professor of Health and Nutrition Sciences at Brooklyn College. Chris currently writes detailed nutritional science articles on his blog and hosts a podcast, Mastering Nutrition.

4) Brad Dieter, PhD

Brad holds a PhD. in exercise physiology from the University of Idaho. Brad has also done research training as a fellow in biomedical research, examining how nutrition and metabolism influence disease. Brad also runs Science Driven Nutrition, an online platform that aims to spread evidence-based nutrition information.

In This Episode We Discuss:

Differences between different SFA’s (butyric vs. lauric vs. myristic, etc.)
Benefits of consumption of SFA-containing foods?
Effects at cellular level: ease of storage, oxidation proneness of different fatty acid types, role in cell membrane
Effect of SFA on LDL-C & LDL-P (and hence CHD risk)
Effect of SFA on blood lipids
Effect of SFA (and/or total dietary fat) on food intake: effect on satiety? palatability?
Reducing SFA: If lowering SFA intake, how much does the replacing nutrient make (MUFA vs. PUFA vs. CHO vs. PRO)
Food sources/Delivery method: Isolated SFA intake (e.g. spoonfuls of coconut oil) vs. SFA packaged alongside other nutrients/fibre and phytonutrients (e.g. some oil drizzled on a salad)
Practical Implications: Is there a best target intake range of SFA for health?
Is there an “optimal” ratio of SFA:MUFA:PUFA?
Are current nutritional guidelines for SFA intake suitable? (The American Heart Association recommends aiming for a dietary pattern that achieves 5% to 6% of calories from saturated fat.)

Sigma Seminar:

Oct 02, 2017
SNR #199: Ciaran Fairman - Exercise-Oncology: Effects of Exercise in Cancer Treatment & Survivorship

Ciaran Fairman, M.S. is currently working on his doctorate in the Kinesiology program at The Ohio State University. Ciaran received his M.S. in Kinesiology from Georgia Southern University, working in the Human Performance laboratory, and holds several nationally accredited certifications through the American College of Sports Medicine (CPT, HFS, CET), and International Society of Sports Nutrition (CISSN).

Ciaran's research interests focus on the effects of acute and chronic interventions on physiological and psychosocial outcomes in different populations. More recently, Ciaran has focused his interest on cancer survivors. He is the founder and chief exercise physiologist at REACH, a non- profit organization aimed at providing cancer patients and survivors with evidence based recommendations of physical activity and lifestyle behaviors to optimize survivorship. Ciaran has published over 15 peer-reviewed papers, book chapter, and abstracts on sports nutrition, supplementation, and training adaptations.

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Sep 25, 2017
SNR #198: Richard Nikoley - Ketosis: A Call For for Context & Sanity

Richard Nikoley is the man behind the blog Free the Animal, which as of 2016, contains over 4,000 posts and 100,000 comments from readers. He has written about his learnings on health, diet, and lifestyle.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Discussions around ketosis
  • Calorie-deficit induced ketogenic diet vs. nutritional ketosis at calorie balance
  • Anti-lipolytic nature of ketones
  • Inaccurate claims about ketosis and ketogenic diets
  • Hierarchy of factors influencing body composition
Sep 19, 2017
SNR #197: Kyle Mamounis, PhD - Fatty Acid Metabolism & Implications for Health

Kyle J. Mamounis, has a doctoral degree in nutritional science from Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey USA. He is currently a researcher at University of Central Florida in Orlando. His primary research interest is investigating the effects of fatty acids on energy balance regulation. He maintains a science blog with posts on his research interests, reviews of science magazine articles and general cellular physiology at

Sep 14, 2017
SNR #196: Rob Wildman, PhD - Nutrient Timing & the 24-Hour Approach to Workout Nutrition

Researcher and registered dietitian Dr. Rob Wildman discusses the importance of viewing performance and recovery nutrition as a 24 hour process, rather than hyperfocusing on the workout "window".
Dr. Rob Wildman, PhD, RD is Chief Science Officer for DYMATIZE Enterprizes in Dallas, Texas.

Dr. Wildman is the author of four books including Sports & Fitness Nutrition and The Nutritionist: Food, Nutrition & Optimal Health. He has also written more than 75 referred journal articles, chapters and abstracts on nutrition, performance and health aspects.

Dr. Wildman is an Advisory Board member of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) and serves as adjunct research faculty in the Department of Human Nutrition at Kansas State University. He is the creator of and is currently penning his fifth book titled: BODequation.

PN Course:

Sep 11, 2017
SNR #195: Brendan Egan, PhD - Exogenous Ketone Supplementation

Brendan holds a position as Senior Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Physiology in the School of Health and Human Performance at Dublin City University. His current research investigates the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle function and adaptation across the life course, with special interest in the synergy between nutrition and exercise interventions to optimise performance in athletes and elderly. He received his BSc Sport and Exercise Science from the University of Limerick in 2003, MSc Sport and Exercise Nutrition from Loughborough University in 2004, and PhD from Dublin City University in 2008, before completing two years of post-doctoral training with Prof. Juleen Zierath’s Integrative Physiology group at the Karolinska Institute, Sweden. His doctoral studies focussed on skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise, and in particular the continuity between acute molecular responses to individual bouts of exercise and adaptations induced by exercise training, whereas his post-doctoral training utilised animal models and in vitro cell systems to investigate the transcriptional regulation of skeletal muscle development and mechanisms of insulin resistance. He joined the faculty in the School of Public Health, Physiotherapy, and Sport Science at University College Dublin in 2011, where he spent five years, and retains a position as Visiting Associate Professor. On the sporting front, he has played inter-county Gaelic football with Sligo since 2003, and consults as a performance nutritionist to elite team sport athletes.

Sep 04, 2017
SNR #194: Daniel Davey - Applied Performance Nutrition for Team Field Sports

Leinster Rugby performance nutritionist Daniel Davey discusses how to apply evidence-based nutrition practices with team sport athletes in elite-level sport.
Daniel received his BSc in Science from University College Dublin and holds an MSc in Nutrition, Physical Activity & Public Health from the University of Bristol. Daniel is also a Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist (C.S.C.S) with the NSCA, and has completed the national qualification in Exercise and Health Studies.

Daniel has worked as a performance nutritionist with a host of elite athletes in a range of sports such as golf, athletics, rugby and GAA. In conjunction with his role with Leinster Rugby, Daniel also works as a performance nutritionist with the Dublin senior footballers.

His primary focus is developing individualised nutrition strategies for achieving specific performance related goals. He also believes that enhancing athletes’ understanding of appropriate nutrition practices is vitally important for long-term optimum health outside of sport. In order to achieve this, he believes in providing this information in an understandable, practical and enjoyable manner.

Daniel is a committed athlete himself and has played Gaelic football at intercounty level for Sligo and won an All-Ireland club football medal in 2016 with Ballyboden St’ Enda’s in Dublin. His own playing and training experience allows him to understand the practical implications of applying the science of sports nutrition to achieve peak physical condition and performance in sport.

Aug 29, 2017
SNR #193: Lyle McDonald - Nutrient Partitioning & Fuel Utilization

Lyle McDonald

Lyle is the author of the Ketogenic Diet, the Rapid Fat Loss Handbook and the Guide to Flexible Dieting. He has been interested in all aspects of human performance physiology since becoming involved in competitive sports as a teenager. Pursuing a degree in Physiological Sciences from UCLA, he has spent almost 20 years of his life studying human physiology and the science, art and practice of human performance, muscle gain, fat loss and body recomposition.

Over the years, in addition to working with the general public, Lyle has worked primarily with endurance athletes, a few powerlifters, and some bodybuilders. Through his books, articles and his forum, he has helped thousands lose fat, gain muscle and get stronger or perform better.

In This Episode We Discuss:

Fundamentals of calorie partitioning
What actually influences the partitioning of fuel substrates and the fate of the calories we consume
Genetic differences in how much our body composition proportionally changes when either in a hyper- or hypo- caloric diet
Is there anything we can really do to modify this?
Insulin sensitivity in muscle and adipose tissue
Blood glucose responses to meals: For healthy individuals, how much does it matter?
Should you match carbohydrate intake to insulin sensitivity?

Aug 22, 2017
SNR #192: Shona Halson, PhD - Recovery Strategies for Elite Performance

Dr. Shona Halson is the Senior Recovery Physiologist at the ‪Australian Institute of Sport and an Associate Editor of the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. Her work involves providing athletes with advice and assistance to minimise fatigue and maximise recovery, she is responsible for conducting applied research to evaluate techniques to reduce fatigue and increase recovery. Shona has worked closely with the Australian Dolphins and their specific preparation for the Rio Olympics. Shona has a wealth of experience in the area of fatigue and recovery and she spent a number of years working as the Recovery Centre Director for the Australian Olympic Committee.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Periodization of recovery
  • Cold water immersion and constrast water therapy for recovery
  • Do recovery strategies have the potential to negatively impact adaptive responses to training?
  • Athlete perception and "belief" in recovery modalities
  • The importance of hydrostatic pressure: implications for hydrotherapy practice
  • Effectively monitoring fatigue in athletes to assess training load and recovery
Aug 16, 2017
SNR #191: How to Build a Career in Nutrition Coaching

How to Build a Career in Nutrition Coaching
For some reason enough people have seemingly deemed me to be “successful” enough to ask me for advice about starting a career in nutrition, usually via some version of one of the following questions:

What nutrition course do you suggest I do?
What qualifications do I need to work as a nutritionist?
I’m a personal trainer/coach, what is the best way to improve my nutrition knowledge and/or my reputation as a nutrition coach?
I currently work in a different field but want to transition to a career in nutrition. How should I go about this? Is it possible?
I’d like to work in sports nutrition. How do I go about this?
So the plan is to address these questions comprehensively in this guide. Which should hopefully help those of you who have similar questions. So let’s get started!

Aug 14, 2017
SNR #190: Mike Israetel, PhD - Nutrition Considerations for the Strength Athlete

Mike Israetel, PhD discusses the relative importance of carbohydrates for strength athletes, planning nutrition periodization for strength athletes and how to structure mesocycles for strength gain.

Mike Israetel is currently a professor of Exercise Science at Temple University in Philadelphia, as well consulting nutritional and training for elite strength and combat athletes around the world. Mike is the head science consultant for Renaissance Periodization, where he has authored and co-authored a number for books. He has a PhD in Sport Physiology from East Tennessee State University, and on the sporting side has experience as a competitive powerlifter, grappler and bodybuilder.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Do strength athletes (powerlifters, weightlifters) need full glycogen stores? What roles do carbohydrates serve for such athletes?
  • Nutrition considerations when making weight for a meet
  • Nutritional periodization for the strength athlete: diet early and maintain lower bodyweight, or maintain higher weight before dieting close to the meet?
  • Do the volume landmarks for planning training (MRV, MEV, MAV) still apply for the strength athlete? Are volume increases as important?
Aug 07, 2017
SNR #189: Katy Horner, PhD - Gut Hormones, Gastric Emptying & Appetite Regulation

Katy joined the School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sport Sciences at UCD as a lecturer in Sport and Exercise Science in 2017. Katy holds a BSc and MSc in Sport and Exercise Science, both from the University of Limerick, and a PhD in Exercise and Nutrition Sciences from Queensland University of Technology, Australia. She subsequently completed postdoctoral studies in childhood obesity and physical activity at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, USA and more recently in the Nutrition, Biomarkers and Health Research Group at UCD as part of Food for Health Ireland.

Her research draws on this interdisciplinary background, particularly in terms of trying to make connections across exercise physiology, metabolism and nutrition science. She has published articles on appetite control, gut and exercise physiology in a range of journals across the fields of sports medicine, exercise science, metabolism, obesity and nutrition. Her interest in applied sport and exercise science centres on nutritional advice and exercise prescription for both athletes to optimise performance and to a wide range of other individuals to optimise wellbeing and metabolic health. Katy is also a trained phlebotomist and registered nutritionist (with specialisms in nutrition science and sport/exercise), and currently works with the Ad Astra elite athlete support team at UCD.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • What you should know about gut peptide hormones (GLP-1, ghrelin, peptide YY)
  • Does the dysregulation of appetite hormones drive excess caloric intake and hence excess bodyfat accumulation, or is it excess bodyfat accumulation that drives hormonal dsyregulation?
  • The effects of exercise interventions on these appetite-related gut peptides
  • Active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward
  • Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis
  • What is gastic emptying and how do we measure it?
  • Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake?
  • Implications of gastric emptying on exercise performance
Jul 25, 2017
SNR #188: Barbara Oakley, PhD - How to Learn, Study & Get Better With Science

Barbara Oakley is a Professor of Engineering at Oakland University. She is involved in multiple areas of research, ranging from STEM education, to Engineering education, to learning practices.

Most recently, Professor Oakley has co-created and taught Learning How To Learn: Powerful mental tools to help you master tough subjects, the world's most popular online course. She also has written a number of books, including: 'A Mind For Numbers' and 'Mindshift'.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Focused mode vs. diffuse mode for thinking, problem solving and working
  • Environments for productive learning: distractions, timelines and procrastination
  • "Neural chunking" and creating patterns for developing skills
  • Preventing regression of knowledge and skill acquisition
  • Advice for improving scientific literacy/proficiency and confidence in reading/understanding science
  • How to soak up (and retain) more information from podcasts
Jul 20, 2017
SNR #187: Katie Anne Rutherford – The Importance of Perspective in Chasing Strength & Physique Goals

Katie Anne started her initial athletic endeavors in high school; running track and cross country before transitioning into bodybuilding while attending college at The Ohio State University.

Her first contest prep and powerlifting meet both took place in 2014. In her first season of competing, she came away with two first place wins in figure, a powerlifting meet win, and her IFPA figure pro card.

Katie Anne is currently an elite USAPL 72kg powerlifter, IFPA Natural Figure Pro, and coach. She was the 2015 USAPL Raw Nationals 72kg Junior National Champion.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Katie Anne’s background in athletics and her transition to bodybuilding and powerlifting
  • The trap for athletes of putting all their self-worth into their athletic acheivement
  • Gaining perspective and focusing on the process when chasing goals
  • Advice on how to women can deal with scale weight increases when building muscle
  • How attitude and positivity are a skill, and like any skill need to be practised 
Jul 11, 2017
SNR #186: Dr. Jake Kushner, MD - Nutrition for Type 1 Diabetes

Dr. Jake Kushner is leading the efforts in Diabetes and Endocrinology at Texas Children's Hospital. Dr. Kushner is a McNair Medical Institute Scholar at the Baylor College of Medicine. As the Chief of Pediatric Diabetes and Endocrinology at Baylor College of Medicine, he is a major thought leader in type 1 diabetes care and research. His overarching career goal is to help children and young adults with diabetes and other endocrine disorders live long, healthy lives. His administrative priorities focus upon developing and promoting innovative new models of patient-centered care, education, and cutting edge research.

A graduate of the University of California at Berkeley, Dr. Kushner earned his medical doctorate from Albany Medical College in New York. He completed a residency in pediatrics at Brown University. He then completed a clinical fellowship in Pediatric Endocrinology at Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, followed by a 5-year research fellowship at the Joslin Diabetes Center at Harvard Medical School.

Prior to arriving at the Baylor College of Medicine Dr. Kushner was at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Dr. Kushner has received national awards, including elected membership to the prestigious American Society of Clinical Investigation. He currently serves as the president of the Society for Pediatric Research. Dr. Kushner's research has been supported by the National Institutes of Health, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation and the March of Dimes, amongst other sources. His clinical interests include the care of children with type 1 diabetes.

Dr. Kushner's research is focused upon of the insulin-secreting beta cells of the pancreas. A major theme of the Kushner lab includes studies to understand the origins of adult beta cell growth and regeneration. Until recently it was not clear exactly where adult beta cells came from during postnatal life. Dr. Kushner and colleagues have carried out studies in adult mice with a variety of advanced tools. In contrast to the dominant views, they do not observe any contribution to beta cell growth in adult mice from "tissue stem cells". Instead, they find that beta cells expand by simple division "self-renewal". Dr. Kushner and colleagues are currently extending this work, with the goal of studying beta cell regeneration under a variety of normal and disease conditions.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • The intricacies of type 1 diabetes
  • Beta cell dysfunction
  • Nutritional approaches to type 1 diabetes: standard care and carbohydrate restriction
  • Issues with low-carb for T1D: hypoglycaemic episodes? ketones? long-term safety unknown?
  • "Low carb is not for everyone with T1D. Frankly, there is so much that we don’t know. But, low carb management of T1D can be quite advantageous for those who choose it." - Jake Kushner, MD
Jul 05, 2017
SNR #185: Trent Stellingwerff, PhD - Nutrition Strategies for Endurance Sports

Trent is an applied sport physiologist with a specialization in the area of performance nutrition. He earned a Bachelor of Science in Human Nutrition and Exercise Physiology at Cornell University and he earned his Ph.D. from the University of Guelph in Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Physiology.

In his current role he focuses on providing his physiology and nutrition expertise to Canada’s national rowing, track and field and triathlon teams, as well as leading Canadian Sport Institute’s Innovation and Research division. Trent previously worked as the senior leading scientist in Performance Nutrition for Power Bar at the Nestle Research Center in Lausanne, Switzerland. An experienced researcher, Trent has more than 40 peer-reviewed scientific publications and is currently on the editorial board for the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance and International Journal of Sports Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. He has co-authored six book chapters focusing on the role that nutrition can play in supporting elite athlete performance, including a chapter on ’Nutrition for the Endurance Athlete’, for the newest version of the 2013 IOC Sports Nutrition Encyclopaedia. His expertise is paired with his ability to deliver complex scientific concepts in an informative and applicable way. He co-supervises a number of master and PhD student collaborative research projects at UBC, UVIC and Guelph.

Trent has attended many World Championships and Olympic Games as part of Team Canada’s Integrated Support Team and consults several Olympic athletes from around the world, including his wife Hilary, who competed for Canada in the 1500m at the 2012 Games.

Jun 27, 2017
SNR #184: Uncertainty About Artificial/Non-Nutritive Sweeteners (Listener Question Episode)

We take a deeper look at artificial/non-caloric sweeteners; effects on bodyweight, glucose tolerance, gut flora and health. What does the evidence say about safety and health concerns?

All references are linked to in the show notes page at

Jun 20, 2017
SNR #183: Arthur Lynch & Eoghan McNeill - Sports Psychology in Self-Paced/Closed-Skill Sports

Sigma coach Arthur Lynch interviews sport psychology PhD researcher Eoghan McNeill of the University of Limerick on applying evidence-based sports psychology techniques to improve performance, particularly in powerlifting and other self-paced/closed skill sports.
Eoghan is a PhD researcher in the PESS department at the Univeristy of Limerick. Eoghan's research examines improving performance in self-paced sports (focusing on golf) through psychology techniques and mental preparation. Eoghan has a MSc. in Sport and Exercise Psychology from Ulster University, Jordanstown (UUJ). Eoghan can be contacted at

In This Episode We Discuss:

Pre-performance routine and the importance of conscious thought
Use of first-person and third-person imagery for performance and skill acquisition
Effective self-talk
Thought replacement strategy and reframing negative thoughts

Jun 13, 2017
SNR #182: Reid Reale, PhD - Research on Water Loading & Making Weight Practices in Combat Sport

Reid recently completed a PhD, focusing on weight cutting techniques and body composition of combat sport athletes. This work was carried out in conjunction with the Australian Institute of Sport, where research is combined with helping elite level Olympic athletes. Reid has a master’s degree in dietetics and holds Accredited Sports Dietitian and Accredited Practising Dietitian status with Sports Dietitians Australia and the Dietitians Association of Australia respectively.  He won first prize in the “Young investigator award” at the 2016 European College of Sports Science annual congress in Vienna, for his presentation ‘Rapid weight loss in Olympic combat sports’.

On the sporting side, Reid started training BJJ in 2006 and received his black belt in 2015 from Prof. Chris Derksen of the Peter De Been lineage. He is an active competitor having fought in hundreds of BJJ competition matches and winning gold medals at every belt level. His most notable and recent achievements include 2016 UAEJJ World Pro Trials Black Belt Heavyweight champion (Sydney, Australia), 2015 Asian Open Brown Belt heavy weight silver medallist (Tokyo, Japan), 2015 Pan Pacific Brown Belt open weight champion (Melbourne, Australia).

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Why cut weight?
  • Methods used to cut weight
  • The mechanisms by which water loading can potentially be useful in weight cutting
  • Low residue diets and acute weight loss
  • Deciding how much to cut for each sport
Jun 07, 2017
SNR #181: Jeff Nippard - Intuitive Eating, Control-Based Eating & Body Recomposition

Jeff Nippard is a WNBF Pro Drug-Free Bodybuilder and internationally qualified IPF/CPU Powerlifter in the 74 kg class. He earned the title of Mr. Junior Canada for natural bodybuilding in 2012 under the guidance of Dr. Layne Norton. Prior to earning the Canadian national title, Jeff was a two-time Mr. Junior Newfoundland title-holder for 2009 and 2010. As a powerlifter, Jeff has claimed a 227.5 kg (502 lb) squat, 152.5 kg (336 lb) bench press (2014 Canadian national record) and a 235 kg (518 lb) deadlift with an all time best Wilks score of 446.

With a Bachelor of Science degree in biochemistry, Jeff has gathered the requisite scientific knowledge to compliment his practical experience acquired through training and coaching. Jeff worked as a coach with esteemed online coaching group The Strength Guys through 2014 and 2015 before branching out with STRCNG. Jeff has coached women's bikini and men's bodybuilding national and provincial champions, professional natural bodybuilders and nationally and IPF Worlds qualified raw powerlifters.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Intuitive eating vs. ad libitum eating
  • Accurately defining intuitive eating
  • Using intuitive eating whilst making physique progress
  • Factors that influence whether intuitive eating or control-based eating is the best tool
  • Long-term planning for body recomposition
May 30, 2017
SNR #180: Jason Gill, PhD - Role of Ethnicity in Cardio-Metabolic Disease Risk

Dr Jason Gill is a Reader in Exercise and Metabolic Health in the Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences at the University of Glasgow. He leads an active multi-disciplinary research group investigating the effects of exercise and diet on the prevention and management of vascular and metabolic diseases from the molecular to the whole-body level. Major research interests include: why certain population groups (particularly South Asians) appear to be particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of a `Westernised' lifestyle, and how lifestyle interventions can modulate this excess risk; the interactions between physical activity, energy balance, adiposity and disease risk; and the mechanisms by which exercise regulates lipoprotein metabolism.

He is a past Chair of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) Division of Physical Activity for Health and a member of the development groups for the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidelines for the prevention and treatment of obesity and for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Jason is Director of the MSc programme in Sport and Exercise Science & Medicine, and also plays an active role in communicating the science of physical activity, diet, obesity and cardio-metabolic risk to the widest possible audience including a number of appearances on TV documentaries and organisation of Understanding of Science events for the general public.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • Modifiable factors that influence cardio-metabolic disease risk
  • Differences in diabetes and cardio-metabolic disease risk between different ethnic groups
  • Is this increased disease risk a function of ethnicity alone or a mismatch between the environment and that populations evolutionary past?
  • How different BMI values correspond to different levels of risk between ethnic groups
  • Differences in cardiorespiratory fitness levels and capacity for fat oxidation potentially contribute to ethnic differences in the cardio-metabolic risk profile
  • Do we need ethnicity-specific physical activity guidelines?
  • Research questions that remain unanswered
May 23, 2017
SNR #179: What Interviewing the Best Minds in Evidence-Based Nutrition & Fitness Has Taught Me About Them

Episode 179: Patterns that I've recognised and traits that are common to the best people in evidence-based nutrition and fitness.

May 16, 2017
SNR #178: Listener Input, Future Plans & Latest News

Episode 178: I need your input as a valued listener! I talk through some exciting new plans, ideas and where we as a community should aim to bring this podcast.

May 08, 2017
SNR #177: Chris & Eric Martinez - Habits, Mentality & the Self-Improvement Side of Fitness

Chris and Eric Martinez are the founders of Dynamic Duo Training. The twin brothers have the knowledge, the credibility, the passion, the “in the trenches” experience training themselves and clients, and have been mentored under some of the most prestigious coaches in the industry such as Layne Norton, Eric Helms, and Dr. Joe Klemczewski. Chris and Eric are constantly striving to innovate, learn to be better in all areas of life, evolve, and most importantly execute and serve to their clients. They recently authored the book 'The New Era of Fitness'.

In This Episode We Discuss:

  • The components that comprise the "new era of fitness"
  • Forming new habits with clients
  • Mentality towards fitness goals
  • Why personal development is important
  • How to improve yourself
  • Lessons learned through experience and education
May 03, 2017
SNR #176: Eric Trexler - Citrulline & Nitrate Supplements for Performance

Eric Trexler is a PhD student at UNC Chapel Hill, under Dr. Abbie Smith-Ryan. He has a research focus on how exercise and nutrition affect metabolism, performance, and body composition. Eric comes from a background in natural bodybuilding, powerlifting, and strength coaching, and currently holds certifications in sports nutrition (CISSN) and strength and conditioning (CSCS). Eric completed his undergraduate degree at The Ohio State University, and his master’s degree at UNC Chapel Hill.
In This Episode We Discuss:

Proposed mechanisms of action of citrulline
Citrulline malate vs. L-citrulline
Nitric oxide "boosters"
Why arginine is ineffective
Dietary nitrates and nitrate supplementation via beetroot/pomegranate
What athletes might this work for?
Research on cordyceps supplementation for exercise performance

Apr 25, 2017
SNR #175: Prof. Klaas Westerterp - Metabolism, Energy Expenditure & Weight Regulation

Klaas Westerterp is Professor of Human Energetics at Maastricht University. His field of expertise is energy metabolism, physical activity, food intake and body composition, and energy balance under controlled conditions and in daily life. He is member of the Editorial Board of the journal Nutrition and Metabolism (London), the European Journal of Applied Physiology, the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and Editor-in-Chief of the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.

Apr 18, 2017
SNR #174: Jorn Trommelen – Carbohydrate Oxidation During Exercise & Pre-Sleep Protein