VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts

By Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachinger, DACVECC

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VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts. With VETgirl, you can learn clinical veterinary medicine with style, passion, and efficiency! VETgirl is designed for veterinary professionals who have time poverty and are on the run. Who has time to read journals or sit through hours of lectures? Download the podcasts you want to listen to, and get clinical tips within just a few minutes of listening! We'll help get you the facts you need in a convenient way! Want more information? Go to JoinVETgirl.com.

Episode Date
Opportunistic fungal infections in dogs treated with immunosuppressives | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:45
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Jul 06, 2020
Esophagostomy Tube Nursing Care Tips in Veterinary Medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:16:54
In today's VETgirl podcast, we interview Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) on all you need to know about esophagostomy tube placement in veterinary medicine. What's the best way to secure an e-tube so it doesn't migrate or pull out? What's the length to use for an e-tube, and how do you clean the stoma? Find out some great nutritional nursing care tips here.
Jun 29, 2020
The prevalence of bacteriuria in dogs with chronic kidney disease | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:24
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Jun 22, 2020
What you need to know about cats with restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:47
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) in cats. Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) in humans is most classically described as a myocardial disease whereby left ventricular wall thickness is normal, diastolic filling is impaired, and systolic function is affected minimally or not at all. There is significant variety in the actual etiology and clinical manifestations of RCM, however. RCM in cats has thus far generally been described as either a “myocardial” form whereby the myocardium is diffusely affected, or an “endomyocardial” form which involves a bridging endomyocardial scar from the interventricular septum to the left ventricular free wall. There is limited data regarding factors that influence prognosis in RCM in cats. So, Chetboul et al out of France wanted to evaluate this in a study entitled Clinical, epidemiological and echocardiographic features and prognostic factors in cats with restrictive cardiomyopathy: A retrospective study of 92 cases (2001-2015).
Jun 15, 2020
Taking care of our senior geriatric veterinary patients | VETgirl Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:07
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) reviews how to take special care of our senior, geriatric veterinary patients. Keep in mind some of our patients may be suffering from osteoarthritis, sensory deterioration (e.g., blindness, hearing loss, etc.), and cognitive dysfunction and may need some extra time and TLC.
Jun 08, 2020
Running on Fumes and Adjusting for the Long Race | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:06:51
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, VETgirl's Chief Happiness Officer, Jeannine Moga, MA, MSW, LCSW, clinical veterinary social worker, discusses how we veterinary professionals can prepare for the "long race" and survive everything right now. If you feeling like you're running on fumes, learn how to adjust for the long race in this VETgirl podcast.
Jun 05, 2020
Lung ultrasonography findings in coughing dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:42
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review lung utlrasonography use in coughing dogs. Coughing is a common clinical sign associated with a variety of respiratory etiologies in dogs, including dynamic airway collapse, bronchitis, pneumonia, heartworm disease, and neoplasia. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is commonly reported to be associated with coughing in dogs, although there is much debate as to whether this clinical sign could actually be directly attributable to pulmonary edema (which is generally interstitial or alveolar in location) given the distribution of cough receptors primarily in the large airways. It is possible that coughing in dogs with congestive heart failure is due to cardiogenic airway compression, or concurrent primary respiratory disease.
Jun 01, 2020
Lidocaine for chemical cardioversion of AV tachycardia in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:58
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of lidocaine for chemical cardioversion of AV tachycardia in dogs. Accessory pathways (APs) refer to interruptions of the normal fibrous band that forms the junction between the atria and ventricles (AV junction). Such pathways generally consist of myocardial cells that can conduct electrical impulses between the atria and ventricles, which under normal circumstances occurs only at the atrioventricular (AV) node. Accessory pathways may conduct electrical impulses in the anterograde, retrograde, or both anterograde and retrograde directions. Anterograde conduction results in ventricular preexcitation (i.e., depolarization of a portion of the ventricular myocardium independent of the typical conduction pathway). Retrograde conduction across an accessory pathway creates the potential for a macroreentrant circuit incorporating the atrial myocardium, AV node-His-Purkinje system, ventricular myocardium and the accessory pathway. This scenario can result in a form of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) known as orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (OAVRT).
May 25, 2020
Financial solutions for veterinary professionals with First Financial Bank | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:26:32
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Schwanda Flowers on what you need to know when it comes to financial solutions for veterinary professionals. Interested in buying a veterinary practice? Not sure where to start? Not sure how to find the right business partner? Tune in to learn more about small business ownership!
May 18, 2020
Empowering Veterinary Technicians to Have the Conversation and Deal with Client Pushback | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:31:23
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Rachel Poulin, RVT, VTS talks about how to empower veterinary technicians to have the conversation and deal with client pushback. Learn how you can empower your veterinary technicians to educate the public, leading to greater efficiency for the team.
May 11, 2020
The use of apomorphine for gastric foreign body removal | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:29
In today's VETgirl podcast, we review the use of apomorphine as an emetic for treating gastric foreign body ingestions. In full disclosure, VETgirl loves to puke stuff, so keep that in mind. Apomorphine, a commonly used emetic agent in dogs, is generally a very safe, effective (>90%) emetic used for the poisoned patient. BTW, we don't use it much in cats because our feline friends have fewer dopaminergic receptors in the area of the brain responsible for apomorphine's ability to induce nausea and vomiting. For kitties we prefer to use the alpha-2's such as dexmedetomidine, but that's another podcast. (For more information on emesis induction in cats, please refer to the following VETGirl podcast https://vetgirlontherun.com/podcasts/dexmedetomidine-versus-xylazine-emetic-cats-vetgirl-veterinary-continuing-education-podcasts/.) Apomorphine comes in different formulations that can be administered by intravenous, transconjunctival, intramuscular, or subcutaneous routes. But can we use it for gastric foreign bodies?
May 04, 2020
Handling the anxiety of COVID-19 with Jeannine Moga, LSW | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:27:02
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, VETgirl's Chief Happiness Officer, Jeannine Moga, MA, MSW, LCSW, clinical veterinary social worker, discusses veterinary professionals should handle the anxiety and stress of COVID19.
Apr 29, 2020
Going Needle-Free in Veterinary Medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:35
In today's VETgirl podcast, we interview Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) on what it means to go needle-free in veterinary medicine. If you're not using needle-free extension sets or needle-free valves in your clinic, tune in! In this VETgirl podcast, learn what the different types of needle-free valves are, and what the clinical benefits are of these needle-free sets.
Apr 27, 2020
Bloodwork cheatsheet for veterinary technicians | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:48
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) of VETgirl reviews a blood work “cheatsheat” for veterinary technicians and veterinary assistants. As veterinary staff are typically running the clinical pathology machines, they must be aware of key abnormalities and how to interpret them (and know when to promptly notify the doctor!).
Apr 20, 2020
All things neurology with Dr. Zachary Niman | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:32:54
In today's VETgirl veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Zachary Niman, DVM, DACVIM (Neurology) from MedVet on all things neurology. What's the classic signalment of an idiopathic epileptic cat or dog? How do I localize that lesion in the ataxic patient? Learn it here in this VETgirl podcast!
Apr 13, 2020
Urinary incontinence in female spayed dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:07:50
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Nyssa Reine-Salz, DVM, DACVIM on the primary urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI), otherwise known as spay incontinence. What treat options are out there for this very common problem?
Apr 06, 2020
Incidence of bacteriuria in cats with urethral obstruction | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:43
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the incidence of bacteriuria in cats with urethral obstructions (UO). Unfortunately UOs are both a common and potentially life-threatening condition in our feline patients. The fundamental treatment principles for feline UOs include relieving the obstruction via urethral catheterization, immediate stabilization of electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular stabilization, providing adequate post-obstruction care, and of course instituting preventative measures for the future (Cooper). One of the more controversial aspects of management is the routine use of antimicrobial therapy, and as you all know, we are fierce advocates for antimicrobial stewardship here at VETgirl! Therefore, today we are reviewing an article by Cooper et al entitled Incidence of bacteriuria at presentation and resulting from urinary catheterization in feline urethral obstruction that investigates the incidence of bacteriuria in cats with UOs, both at the time of presentation and following catheterization.
Mar 30, 2020
What you need to know about nasoesophageal / nasogastric feeding tubes | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:30:11
In today's VETgirl podcast, we interview Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) on what you need to know about nasoesophageal (NE) / nasogastric (NG) feeding tubes. First, who should put them in (e.g., veterinarian? veterinary nurse?)? What size and length should you pick? Do you need to use a stylet or sedation? What are the contraindications for placing an NG or NE tube? Learn about this important but simple procedure to help with nutritional support in your veterinary patient.
Mar 23, 2020
How to survive working from home during COVID-19 | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:25:39
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Mar 20, 2020
A veterinary technician's role in CPR in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) of VETgirl, reviews a veterinary technician's role during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in veterinary medicine. Learn the updates on RECOVER and how vital the role of the veterinary technician/nurse is during CPR.
Mar 16, 2020
Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:33
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review anticoagulant rodenticide (ACR) toxicity in cats. First off, let's have a quick refresher on ACRs in our small animal patients! Remember that ACRs interfere with the production of clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X by inhibiting an enzyme called vitamin K1 epoxide reductase (DeClementi). When these clotting factor levels drop low enough, the patient can develop clinical manifestations of disease (e.g., hemorrhage).
Mar 09, 2020
Clinical features of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:27
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the clinical features of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) in dogs. First of all, let's have a quick refresher on what SRMA actually is! You may know this condition by another name, such as beagle pain syndrome, necrotizing vasculitis, or juvenile polyarteritis syndrome (Tipold).
Mar 02, 2020
Urinary tract infections caused by Candida in dogs and cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:29
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Candida in dogs and cats. You may recall that Candida species are fungal organisms that form either small yeasts or pseudohyphae (Pappas). While typically considered a commensal organism, Candida can cause disease when normal host defenses fail. Have any of you ever received that surprise urinalysis report with yeast organisms identified? This VETgirl certainly has, and it always causes just a bit of a head scratch! Why did my patient get a yeast UTI? Is this a sign of something more serious? Do I approach this differently than bacterial UTIs? Well, Reagan et al wanted to evaluate this in a study entitled Risk factors for Candida urinary tract infections in dogs and cats.
Feb 24, 2020
Esophagostomy tube complications in dogs and cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:28
In this VETGirl podcast, we review complications associated with esophagostomy feeding tube (E-tube) placement in cats and dogs. E-tubes are relatively quick and straightforward to place, which makes them a common procedure in small animal medicine. They are incredibly useful for providing nutritional support, hydration, and administering medications in patients with any number of conditions.
Feb 17, 2020
The importance of a closed urinary collection system | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:19
In today's VETgirl podcast, we interview Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) on the importance of a closed urinary collection system (UCS). Can you use old sterile IV bags, or can they pose a threat to contamination? What's the significance of the anti-reflux valve (e.g., one way valve) in a UCS, and how should I maintain a UCS in the veterinary clinic?
Feb 10, 2020
Dosing intervals for DOCP in dogs with Addison's disease | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:51
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss dosing intervals for desoxycorticosterone pivalate, better known as DOCP, in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism (more commonly called Addison's disease). As many of you have likely experienced, the cost of DOCP can be quite high, particularly for our larger patients.
Feb 03, 2020
The use of long-term telmisaratan to treat hypertension in your feline patients | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of telmisartan AGAIN. Just so you don't think you're losing it, we previously discussed telmisartan back a few months ago, but wanted to discuss a similar study but by a different author. And that's because yes - hypertension is just that common in geriatric cats! If you're not seeing it, you have to ask yourself, are you not doing enough Dopplers on your geriatric feline patients? (If you don't take a temp, you won't find a fever).
Jan 27, 2020
Feline Infectious Peritonitis with Dr. Emi Barker | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:24:17
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Jan 20, 2020
Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease with Dr. Sheri Ross | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:34:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Sheri Ross, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, the Coordinator of Hemodialysis/ Nephrology/Urology at the University of California Veterinary Medical Center - San Diego on Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD) in cats. Should we be prescribing antimicrobials? What do we do to work up FLUTD? What behavioral, environmental, and nutritional factors play a role in this common disease?
Jan 13, 2020
Rectally administered levetiracetam in dogs with cluster seizures | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:40
In this VETGirl podcast, we discuss the efficacy of the anti-epileptic medication, levetiracetam, when given rectally in dogs. There are few things more frightening for an owner than witnessing a seizure in their dog, and cluster seizures (CS) and status epilepticus (SE) are particularly scary! Unfortunately as veterinarians, we have somewhat limited emergency interventional options that we can offer to owners when CS or SE occurs at home. The administration of oral medications is problematic due to risks of an inadvertent bite, difficulty or inability for the patient to swallow, and of course the risk of aspiration. Perhaps the most common emergency therapy for SE in dogs is rectally administered diazepam, which is the preferred rectally-administered emergency medication in human medicine as well (Podell, Brophy). Levetiracetam has become an increasingly popular maintenance therapy for seizure management in small animal medicine, and recent studies have demonstrated that rectally-administered levetiracetam at 40 mg/kg effectively reaches target concentrations in both healthy and epileptic dogs (Peters, Cagnotti). That said, no studies have investigated how well rectal levetiracetam performs clinically, which is what we really care about, right?
Jan 06, 2020
Association between life span and body condition in neutered dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:36
How many of us dread having “the talk” with clients? That one where you brace yourself for the response you know these words are going to elicit from the client across you… "Your pet is obese." Perhaps an angry client reaction is brought about out of shame for letting their pet get fat, or from the implication that their shower of love and affection in the form of kibble and treats is slowly killing their beloved pet. This is undeniably a tricky conversation to have with owners, but it is a real concern for our patient's overall health. We can tell owners that by allowing their pets to remain obese, they are increasing their pet's risk for CCL rupture (Adams), arthritis (Yamka), diabetes mellitus, and cancer (Lund). These diseases seem so elusive and far-off to the pet parent paying more attention to their cute puppy dancing around the room than to your education. But what if you were to tell the client that obesity will shorten their pet's lifespan and the time they have left with their pet? Studies under controlled conditions have already documented this relationship between a longer lifespan derived from limited volumes of food in a colony of Labrador Retrievers (Kealy).
Dec 30, 2019
Using steroids in dogs with acute pancreatitis | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:17
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we will be reviewing a treatment that is often a bit controversial -; steroids! In particular, we will look at the use of steroids in the treatment of acute pancreatitis in dogs. Steroids may appear attractive to use in this inflammatory disease since glucocorticoids impart anti-inflammatory affects in the body. Glucocorticoids may theoretically improve pancreatic blood flow and in critically ill patients with refractory blood pressure concerns, glucocorticoids are sometimes used to treat suspected (or confirmed) CIRCI. But with the possibility of eliciting negative side effects from steroid use, owing to their unwanted gastrointestinal tract side effects and their immunomodulatory effects, are they worth the risk in treating these patients?
Dec 23, 2019
The use of telmisartan for the treatment of systemic hypertension in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:37
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of telmisartan for the treatment of systemic hypertension in cats. Systemic hypertension (SH) in aged cats is predominantly due to chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism, or considered idiopathic. Downstream end-organ effects of chronic systemic hypertension target the eyes, myocardium, central nervous system, and kidneys (specifically, worsened renal function and proteinuria). Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system contributes to development of SH in many cases and drugs that inhibit this system have treatment potential. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) specifically block the angiotensin II, subtype-1 receptor (AT1) therefore inhibiting angiotensin II, which causes vasoconstriction, volume retention, sympathetic stimulation, inflammation, and fibrosis.
Dec 16, 2019
12 Days of Christmas in the Veterinary ER | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:18:51
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) discusses the 12 days of Christmas that you should prepare for in time for the holidays! If you work ER, you'll likely be able to resonate... with the pancreatitis, gastroenteritis, linear foreign bodies in cats, pad lacerations and more in your veterinary patients.
Dec 11, 2019
Use of probiotics and prebiotics in dogs with antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal signs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:17
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of synbiotics as a therapeutic strategy in dogs with antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal signs (AAGS). As a quick reminder, synbiotics are a combination of probiotics and prebiotics. Probiotics are defined as products that contain viable microorganisms that are used with the intention of altering the host's microflora in order to confer some sort of health benefit, whereas prebiotics are a type of ingredient that is designed to benefit the host by stimulating the growth or the activity of bacteria (Schrezenmeir). The use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics are thought to potentially help AAGS by replenishing the gut flora that was damaged by antimicrobial administration. Unfortunately, AAGS is common, and such side effects can impact owner compliance when administering antibiotics. This is of particular importance because incomplete courses of antibiotics can lead to impaired patient outcomes and the development of antimicrobial resistance.
Dec 09, 2019
Empathy in veterinary medicine with Jeannine Moga | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:29:04
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, VETgirl's Chief Happiness Officer, Jeannine Moga, MA, MSW, LCSW, clinical veterinary social worker, discusses empathy versus sympathy, and why having compassion yet boundaries is so important in our veterinary field. Here, the Brene Brown video we were referring to about the difference between empathy and sympathy.
Dec 02, 2019
Chronic Kidney Disease in Dogs and Cats with Dr. Sheri Ross | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:30:23
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Sheri Ross, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, the Coordinator of Hemodialysis/ Nephrology/Urology at the University of California Veterinary Medical Center - San Diego on chronic kidney disease in cats (and dogs). What's the prognosis? How long will this patient live? Who's IRIS? And how does hydration and nutrition play a role?
Nov 25, 2019
The economics of insulin in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:57
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Nyssa Reine-Salz, DVM, DACVIM on the economics of insulin in veterinary medicine. How important is it for veterinarians to better understand the pet owner's concerns and daily schedule/limitations as a way to help establish a successful insulin treatment protocol for their pet? Today's podcast is sponsored by Merck Animal Health. Please note the opinions in this podcast are the expressed opinion of the author, and not directly endorsed by VETgirl, LLC.
Nov 18, 2019
ACVECC CURATIVE Consensus on Antithrombotics | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:23:05
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview fellow criticalist, Dr. Armelle de Laforcade, DACVECC from Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine on the newest guidelines released by the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care called Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE). If you have an protein-losing patient or an immune-mediated hemolytic anemia patient, tune in for this summary on what you need to know about the use of warfarin, aspirin, heparin, clopidogrel and more!
Nov 11, 2019
The stigma of mental health in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:23:20
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, VETgirl's Chief Happiness Officer, Jeannine Moga, MA, MSW, LCSW, clinical veterinary social worker, discusses the stigma of mental health in veterinary medicine. What can we do to fight stigma and encourage help-seeking among our veterinary colleagues?
Nov 04, 2019
Is cardiac troponin I accurate as a screening test for the diagnosis of HCM in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:03
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review whether cardiac troponin I is an accurate screening test for the diagnosis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) in cats. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is defined as concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle in the absence of any other identifiable cause, in particular systemic hypertension and hyperthyroidism in cats. Despite the relatively common occurrence of congestive heart failure (CHF) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE) in cats with HCM, definitive diagnosis prior to these outcomes poses a diagnostic challenge. Echocardiogram remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but may not be feasible in many cases due to need for specialized equipment and training, or cost. Biomarkers such as N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) have undergone extensive investigation in cats, with a correlation between elevated values of these markers and HCM now established. The predictive value of cTnI as a global screening test for HCM remains unclear, however.
Oct 28, 2019
Anti-Manduuml;llerian hormone (AMH) and progesterone (P4) levels in diagnosing canine ovarian remnant syndrome | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:39
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of combining serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and progesterone (P4) levels when diagnosing canine ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS). ORS is a condition in which ovarian tissue is left behind after a female dog has been spayed. Unfortunately, when this happens, the tissue can continue to release hormones that manifest clinically as signs of estrus. As many of our small animal clinicians have learned, suspecting ORS can be easy at times, but diagnosing ORS can prove quite challenging! The diagnostic options for ORS, including vaginal cytology, estrogen levels, various stimulation and other hormonal tests, luteinizing hormone (LH), and imaging, can be overwhelming and possess individual limitations.
Oct 21, 2019
The use of CBD in conjunction with conventional antiepileptic drugs in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:20
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of cannabidiol (CBD) in conjunction with conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Not only are seizures a common problem in our canine patients, but idiopathic epilepsy can be an incredibly frustrating and challenging disease to treat. A recent consensus statement on seizure management was released by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, which provides valuable guidance to clinicians when navigating the various AEDs on the market (Podell). If you are like VETgirl here, you may have started receiving questions from owners about the use of CBD for various ailments, including seizures. This is particularly relevant given that the FDA has approved a CBD therapy for humans with drug-resistant epilepsy (USDHHS). Unlike tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), CBD is non-psychotropic and appears fairly safe in dogs. The biggest issue for veterinarians regarding CBD, however, is the lack of studies investigating its safety and efficacy in dogs.
Oct 14, 2019
Association between atrial fibrillation and right-sided congestive heart failure in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:15
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and right-sided manifestations of congestive heart failure (CHF). Atrial fibrillation (AF) in dogs most commonly develops secondary to distension and structural remodeling of the atrial myocardium in association with either degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The lack of organized atrial activity in atrial fibrillation results in loss of the atrial contribution to left ventricular filling during diastole, with secondary effects on cardiac output (decreased) and atrial pressure (increased). These effects may destabilize a patient with existing cardiac disease. Congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs is generally described as either left sided (L-CHF), right sided (R-CHF), or bilateral, however, the two most common forms of heart disease in dogs both primarily effect the left sided of the heart. Prior published case series in dogs have suggested than an association with right sided or bilateral CHF and onset of atrial fibrillation may exist. So, Ward et al out of Iowa State University wanted to evaluate this in a study entitled Association between atrial fibrillation and right-sided manifestations of congestive heart failure in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy.
Oct 07, 2019
Hyperkalemia during general anesthesia in Greyhounds | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:40
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Jane Quandt, MS, DACVAA, DACVECC discusses hyperkalemia during general anesthesia in the Greyhound breed. How do we recognize this, and what to do we do if it occurs?
Sep 30, 2019
Diagnosis and treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:18:13
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jody Gookin, DVM, PhD, DACVIM from NC State College of Veterinary Medicine about the diagnosis and treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats. What clinical signs does it cause, and why should I care about this bovine parasite in my feline patients? What's the diagnosis and treatment for Tritrichomonas foetus in cats? If you have a feline patient with chronic diarrhea, tune in to learn more about this prevalent (30% of cats from catteries and breeders!) infection. For more information on Tritrichomonas foetus in cats, please go to www.jodygookin.com.
Sep 23, 2019
Aspiration pneumonia in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:53
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review aspiration pneumonia in cats. Is it common? What's the prognosis?
Sep 16, 2019
Do gelatin colloids and Hetastarch result in renal tubular injury during shock? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:04
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether the use of gelatin colloids and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) result in renal tubular injury during shock.
Sep 09, 2019
Cuterebra infestations in dogs and cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:39
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review Cuterebra infections and the occurrence of systemic manifestations of this disease. Many of you have probably seen a case, or at least seen some pretty wild online videos, in which a large, alien-like Cuterebra organism is dramatically pulled out of some poor patient. If not, I recommend that you watch this video immediately!
Sep 02, 2019
Canine allergies and what you need to know about Cytopoint | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:22:28
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss canine allergies and what you need to know about Cytopoint. Today's podcast is sponsored by Zoetis. Can you use Cytopoint at the same time as Apoquel? How do I improve compliance with my pet owners? How do I work with our veterinary team to best communicate to pet owners?
Aug 26, 2019
How to administer trilostane in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:44
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review two different protocols for trilostane administration in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). Hyperadrenocorticism, or Cushing's disease, is one of the most common endocrinopathies of dogs. As you all may remember, naturally occurring Cushing's disease comes in two flavors: pituitary-dependent or adrenal-dependent. Approximately 85% of dogs with Cushing's disease have the pituitary-dependent form (Feldman). While a number of treatment strategies are available, trilostane has become an increasingly popular and effective first-line therapy (Alenza). Trilostane is a competitive inhibitor of 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Potts). Personally, I need a translation for what on earth that means! Basically trilostane inhibits an enzyme essential to the synthesis of both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in the adrenal cortex. The manufacturer recommends a trilostane starting dose of 2.2-6.7 mg/kg/day. So, Cho et al wanted to evaluate this in a study entitled Efficacy of Low- and High-Dose Trilostane Treatment in Dogs (<5 kg) with Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism. In this study, the safety and efficacy of two alternative protocols of trilostane administration were evaluated in dogs with PDH. The first was a twice-daily low-dose protocol, and the second was a once-daily high-dose protocol.
Aug 19, 2019
Echocardiographic phenotype of canine DCM differs based on diet type | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not echocardiographic phenotype of canine dilated cardiomyopathy differs based on canine diet types. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs occurs secondary to predominantly genetic causes, but also occurs secondary to systemic disease, toxins, infectious disease and nutritional causes. DCM in association with taurine and L-carnitine deficiency is well documented and has the potential for reversal of myocardial dysfunction with appropriate supplementation.
Aug 12, 2019
Does saying the word "quiet" jinx the veterinary emergency room? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:37
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Amy Butler, DVM, MS, DACVECC on her recent study entitled "The influence of quotations uttered in emergency service triage traffic and hospitalization (Quiet)" which investigated the use of the word "Quiet." Does saying it increase ER caseload (It doesn't, but I still want to kick your butt when you say it).
Aug 05, 2019
The role of client communication and euthanasia for the veterinarian | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:26
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jane Shaw, DVM, PhD, from Colorado State University on the role of client communication around euthanasia. "Chunk and check" and empathy are important when communicating with pet owners.
Jul 29, 2019
Grain-free exotic diets and the correlation with DCM in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:15:37
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Joshua Stern, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM (Cardiology), Associate Professor at UC Davis on the correlation between exotic, grain-free diets and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Is it taurine deficiency related? Why are we seeing this in Golden retrievers? Tune in to learn more!
Jul 22, 2019
The use of antacids in veterinary medicine with Dr. Katie Tolbert | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:17:18
In this VETgirl online veterinary podcast, we interview Dr. Katie Tolbert, DVM, DACVIM, PhD at Texas A&M University. In veterinary medicine, we often use sucralfate, omeprazole, and H2 blockers like famotidine. Do they help reduce gastric acid? Should we be using them in every single patient in the hospital? Should we be using antacids in cats and dogs, and what about long term?
Jul 15, 2019
The use of antacids in veterinary medicine with Dr. Katie Tolbert | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:17:28
In this VETgirl online veterinary podcast, we interview Dr. Katie Tolbert, DVM, DACVIM, PhD at Texas A&M University. In veterinary medicine, we often use sucralfate, omeprazole, and H2 blockers like famotidine. Do they help reduce gastric acid? Should we be using them in every single patient in the hospital? Should we be using antacids in cats and dogs, and what about long term?
Jul 15, 2019
How to be the best veterinary team member | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:16:18
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) reviews how to be the best veterinary team member. By avoiding gossip mongering, and being a respectful veterinary professional, we can all bring our A-game to the veterinary team!
Jul 08, 2019
What's the role of CBD use in veterinary medicine? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:20:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) interviews Stephen Cital, RVT, VTS (LAM) on the rule of cannabinoids (CBD) in dogs and cats. Is there a role? Is it safe? What's the risk?
Jul 01, 2019
The use of propofol during euthanasia in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:28
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of propofol during euthanasia in veterinary medicine. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of our veterinary oath is to relieve animal suffering. I know when I first entered practice after graduation I was surprised by the frequency in which I was performing euthanasia on companion animals. I soon realized how important this service is for the pets and for the pet parent and the impact my skills and my medicine can have on this last shared experience between pet parent and pet. We all tend to develop our own routine way of performing euthanasia be it a designated room with dim lighting, perhaps quiet music, maybe some fluffy pillows and beds - anything that might promote peace and relaxation. As for the medical side of euthanasia, we understand that the overdose of pentobarbital derivative used during euthanasia provides a peaceful transition for the pet. But outwardly, it may not always look so peaceful to the pet parent. During euthanasia, I'll admit that I'm always holding my breath that during the euthanasia the pet will simply close their eyes (which we know doesn't typically happen), fall asleep, and take his last breath peacefully. But sometimes we encounter rather unfortunate - albeit rare - side effects of the medication or of the body's response to illness and the medication. For starters, we know that the eyes of animals will typically remain open to some degree. And, just as in humans, animals can have involuntary or voluntary release of bladder and bowel function, some may vocalize from dysphoria or disease, and some may exhibit muscle fasciculations. As an attempt to minimize these adverse events, we can reach for adjunctive medications to mitigate these unwanted responses. Propofol is a popular adjunctive anesthetic used in euthanasia, but to date, no veterinary studies have been conducted to evaluate whether this added anesthesia agent has significant benefits when used in euthanasia.
Jun 24, 2019
Healthy self-wellness tips for veterinary professionals | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:12
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Jun 17, 2019
Healthy self-wellness tips for veterinary professionals | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:26
Today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is brought to us by Kelsey Cantu at VetIQ Staffing. For more information, go to VetIQ Staffing.
Jun 17, 2019
How to triage reproductive veterinary emergencies | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:23
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) reviews how to triage the canine and feline reproductive emergencies. When should a patient come in? Is it a dystocia? What do you need to know and make sure your front desk CSR know when triaging phone calls?
Jun 10, 2019
ISCAID Guidelines andamp; management of bacterial urinary tract infections in dogs andamp; cats: Part 2 | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:14:27
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we'll review the latest guidelines for a condition we see just about every day in the vet hospital -; urinary tract infections (UTIs). This is based off the most current International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of bacterial urinary tract infections in dogs and cats . This is a 2-part podcast, so check out last week's episode for Part 1!
Jun 03, 2019
ISCAID Guidelines andamp; management of bacterial urinary tract infections in dogs andamp; cats: Part I | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:20:38
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we'll review the latest guidelines for a condition we see just about every day in the vet hospital -; urinary tract infections (UTIs). This is based off the most current International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of bacterial urinary tract infections in dogs and cats . This is a 2-part podcast, so tune in next week for Part 2!
May 27, 2019
Use of anti-inflammatories on survival in dogs with pulmonary blastomycosis | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:03
May 20, 2019
The use of gabapentin in cats with Dr. Jessica Quimby | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:18:50
In this VETgirl online veterinary podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Quimby, DVM, PhD, DACVIM on the use of gabapentin in cats. With it's growing popularity due to the Fear Free movement and opioid crisis, veterinary professionals are using it more in cats. What dose should we use, and can we use this daily in cats? What about in cats with chronic kidney failure? In this podcast, we discuss if transdermal gabapentin can be safely used in cats, and how to administer dose this capsule.
May 13, 2019
The use of gabapentin in cats with Dr. Jessica Quimby | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:18:57
In this VETgirl online veterinary podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Quimby, DVM, PhD, DACVIM on the use of gabapentin in cats. With it's growing popularity due to the Fear Free movement and opioid crisis, veterinary professionals are using it more in cats. What dose should we use, and can we use this daily in cats? What about in cats with chronic kidney failure? In this podcast, we discuss if transdermal gabapentin can be safely used in cats, and how to administer dose this capsule.
May 13, 2019
Long-term famotidine use in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:34
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of long-term famotidine in dogs. How many of you have seen patients that take famotidine for weeks, months, or even years? It certainly raises the question, what impact does such chronic use have on our patients? Is it even effective? So, Tolbert et al out of University of Tennessee wanted to evaluate this in a study entitled Repeated famotidine administration results in a diminished effect on intragastric pH in dogs. In this study, they evaluated the effect of repeated famotidine administration on gastric pH and serum gastrin levels over a period of 2 weeks. The authors hypothesized that the impact of famotidine on gastric pH would diminish over time, and that its effect on day 13 would be less potent than its impact on day 1.
May 06, 2019
Cardiomyopathies in cats with Dr. Meurs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:25:47
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Kathryn Meurs, DVM, PhD Diplomate ACVIM (Cardiology), Professor and Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies at North Carolina State University, on feline cardiomyopathy and what's new, including the use of genetics to help diagnose the disease.
Apr 29, 2019
Cardiomyopathies in cats with Dr. Meurs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:25:56
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Kathryn Meurs, DVM, PhD Diplomate ACVIM (Cardiology), Professor and Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies at North Carolina State University, on feline cardiomyopathy and what's new, including the use of genetics to help diagnose the disease.
Apr 29, 2019
Pet owners' knowledge of and attitudes toward the judicious use of antimicrobials in dogs and cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:20:55
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Laurel Redding, VMD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at Penn Vet and Dr. Stephen Cole, VMD, MS, DACVM and Lecturer in Microbiology at Penn Vet on their recent study entitled Pet owners' knowledge of and attitudes toward the judicious use of antimicrobials for companion animals. Do pet owners trust it when it comes to dispensing antimicrobial therapy? Can cat owners even get the medications into their cat? What's the compliance? Should we be still treating UTIs with 2 weeks of antibiotics?
Apr 22, 2019
The use of mirtazipine in cats with Dr. Jessica Quimby | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:20:35
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Quimby, DVM, PhD, DACVIM on the use of mirtazipine in cats. What dose should we use, and can we use this daily in cats? What about in cats with chronic kidney failure? In this podcast, we discuss if transdermal mirtazipine can be safely used in cats, and how to administer it.
Apr 15, 2019
The use of mirtazipine in cats with Dr. Jessica Quimby | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:20:49
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Quimby, DVM, PhD, DACVIM on the use of mirtazipine in cats. What dose should we use, and can we use this daily in cats? What about in cats with chronic kidney failure? In this podcast, we discuss if transdermal mirtazipine can be safely used in cats, and how to administer it.
Apr 15, 2019
Intravenous catheter updates in veterinary medicine with Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:20:53
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we're excited to have Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS discuss what's new in veterinary medicine with intravenous catheters. We use them all the time but is there anything we need to change when putting them into our veterinary patients? We're excited to welcome Amy to our VETgirl team!
Apr 08, 2019
How to be a more efficient veterinarian | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:22
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review how to be a more efficient veterinarian. The more efficient you can be, the better your work life balance. In VETgirl's opinion, live by these 5 rules:
Apr 01, 2019
Prevalence of bacterial contamination of 50% dextrose vials | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:58
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the prevalence of bacterial contamination in 50% dextrose vials. How worried should we be about using multi-dose dextrose bottles?
Mar 25, 2019
Pregnancy, parenting and family planning in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:18:38
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Marieke H. Rosenbaum DVM, MPH from the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts on a recent study entitled Perceptions of support and policies regarding pregnancy, parenting, and family planning during veterinary training at United States veterinary medical training institutions. As someone who personally struggled with infertility, losses, and failed IVF, this study rang true to me. What do we need to know about family planning in veterinary medicine? Can you be pregnant in veterinary school or in training and survive?
Mar 18, 2019
Effect of client complaints on veterinary internists | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:56
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the effect of client complains on veterinary internists. And let's be real here. This podcast doesn't just apply to veterinary internists. It applies to everyone single one of us in the field of veterinary medicine. This is a subject near and dear to VETgirl's heart, as wellness, self care and our emotional wellbeing as veterinary professionals is really important to us. That's why we hired Jeannine Moga, MA, MSW, LCSW, as our Chief Happiness Officer in 2019.
Mar 11, 2019
Outcome of surgical management of thoracic trauma in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:24
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review cats undergoing thoracic trauma. We know that cats truly have 9 lives, but is there evidence to prove this? What's the prognosis for cats that undergo surgical management of their thoracic trauma? Lux et al wanted to evaluate this in a multi-institutional, retrospective study entitled "Factors associated with survival to hospital discharge for cats treated surgically for thoracic trauma."
Mar 04, 2019
Outcome prediction in dogs with DIC | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:24:11
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Robert Goggs, BVSc, PhD, DACVECC, DECVECC on a recent study that he published entitled Retrospective evaluation of 4 methods for outcome prediction in overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in dogs (2009-2014): 804 cases. In this retrospective study performed at Cornell University, medical records were reviewed to assess dogs that had a coagulation panel performed (including coagulation times, D-dimer concentration, antithrombin activity, fibrinogen concentration, and platelet count). These cases were then scored for DIC, with the goal to identify if there were any predictors for outcome. How specific and sensitive are some of these coagulation tests?
Feb 25, 2019
Surgical oncology: What do you need to know? | VETgirl Online Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:22:39
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Brooke Fowler, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Oncology) and Dr. Cassandra Prpich, BVSC, MANZCVS (SAIM), DACVS-SA, ACVS FELLOW, Surgical Oncologist, of Compassion First's Aspen Meadow Veterinary Specialists in Longmont, CO. What do I need to know before removing that neoplastic dermal mass or before doing that splenectomy? When should I consider referring the case to a surgical oncologist instead?
Feb 18, 2019
Surgical oncology: What do you need to know? | VETgirl Online Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:22:57
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Brooke Fowler, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Oncology) and Dr. Cassandra Prpich, BVSC, MANZCVS (SAIM), DACVS-SA, ACVS FELLOW, Surgical Oncologist, of Compassion First's Aspen Meadow Veterinary Specialists in Longmont, CO. What do I need to know before removing that neoplastic dermal mass or before doing that splenectomy? When should I consider referring the case to a surgical oncologist instead?
Feb 18, 2019
Aspiration-related respiratory disorders in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:43
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review aspiration-related respiratory disorders in dogs. Much of our veterinary medical information gathered over time has first stemmed from information available in human medicine. So, Nafe et al wanted to review canine aspiration-related respiratory disorders that are already classified conditions in human medicine. In a publication called Aspiration-related respiratory disorders in dogs, the authors provide us a literature review on aspiration-related respiratory disorders in dogs, and describe the similarities between canine and human conditions. By drawing comparisons between known human conditions and canine conditions, we may be able to more effectively treat these veterinary conditions or mitigate damage caused to the respiratory tract.
Feb 11, 2019
Causes of pleural effusion in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:41
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we discuss pleural effusion in cats. If you've heard me lecture before, I always say that the top 3 differentials for pleural effusion in cats are: CHF, CHF, and cancer. But is it true?
Feb 04, 2019
Retained surgical sponges in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:43
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we discuss the dreaded retained surgical sponge left in the body cavity of a veterinary patient. After all, we've all done it or seen it, right? When in a rush to get to work, to finish paperwork, or to get home to our families and pets, “slowing down” is not a welcomed notion in our veterinary lives. But perhaps we need to make a conscious effort to do just that. Maybe your client showed up late for an appointment, or maybe your already booked day just got rocked by the emergency GDV that came through your doors, but we all know that when we rush, our attention to detail is compromised…and then, we can potentially overlook important things... like details such as how many sponges did we use during that spay or emergency surgery?!
Jan 28, 2019
What's new with veterinary oncology with Dr. Brooke Fowler, DACVIM | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:22:09
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Brooke Fowler, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Oncology) of Compassion First's Aspen Meadow Veterinary Specialists in Longmont, CO. What's new in veterinary oncology? What do I need to know before referring my cancer patient to an oncologist? And what is electrochemotherapy?
Jan 21, 2019
What's new with veterinary oncology with Dr. Brooke Fowler, DACVIM | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:22:24
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Brooke Fowler, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Oncology) of Compassion First's Aspen Meadow Veterinary Specialists in Longmont, CO. What's new in veterinary oncology? What do I need to know before referring my cancer patient to an oncologist? And what is electrochemotherapy?
Jan 21, 2019
Risk of anesthesia-related complications in brachycephalic dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:49
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the risk of anesthesia-related complications in brachycephalic dogs - just how worried should we be when it comes to anesthetizing them?
Jan 14, 2019
Dental Health Month with Dr. Heidi Lobprise, DAVDC | VETgirl Online Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:24:30
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Heidi Lobprise, DVM, Diplomate AVDC on dental health month in veterinary medicine. How can be better communicate to pet owners the importance of dental health? Should we be sending home all dental prophys with antibiotics? What's the best pain medication post-dental procedure? Tune in to learn more.
Jan 07, 2019
Dental Health Month with Dr. Heidi Lobprise, DAVDC | VETgirl Online Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:24:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Heidi Lobprise, DVM, Diplomate AVDC on dental health month in veterinary medicine. How can be better communicate to pet owners the importance of dental health? Should we be sending home all dental prophys with antibiotics? What's the best pain medication post-dental procedure? Tune in to learn more. Thanks to Zoetis for sponsoring this podcast!
Jan 07, 2019
Safety and Efficacy of Leflunomide in Dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:21
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the safety and efficacy of leflunomide in dogs. It seems as if leflunomide is a medication that some clinicians use quite routinely, whereas others have limited or even no experience using. Regardless of which category you fall into, don't fret! Today we will review some basic information about this medication, as well as a recent retrospective study evaluating its use. Leflunomide is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to treat a variety of immune-mediated conditions in dogs, including but not limited to immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA), immune-mediated conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It works by inhibiting the synthesis of pyrimidine and thereby inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation (Plumb). Past studies have evaluated this medication at starting doses of 3-4 mg/kg/day, which showed positive response rates at this dosing (Gregory, Colopy, Fukushima).
Dec 31, 2018
Clients' attitudes towards veterinarians' attire in the ER | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:05:23
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we discuss the veterinarian's attire in the emergency hospital and how our clients perceive what we wear. As we all know, first impressions are powerful. And in the emergency setting, one of our more challenging goals is to gain the trust of the client (as we've never seen them before!). How we stand in the room, the tone of our voice, our eye contact, and how we look to the client are all tools that can be just as powerful as the medical information in our heads when it comes to connecting with our client. So do you like to don a white coat and business casual clothes for your ER shift? Or perhaps, you're like me, and enjoy not having to think beyond putting on a pair of scrubs before each shift? So, McGiffon et al wanted to evaluate this in a study called "Clients' attitudes toward veterinarians' attire in the small animal emergency medicine setting."
Dec 24, 2018
All you need to know about anesthesia with Compassion-First | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:29:50
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Melina Zimmerman, DVM, DAVCAA, a board-certified anesthesiologist at Red Bank Veterinary Hospital. If anesthesia isn't your think, you want to tune in. In this podcast, we review how to manage the canine or feline veterinary patient while under anesthesia, including what to do when that patient is having arrhythmias, hypotension or hypercapnia. We also review pain management and oral analgesics, oral sedation and sedation options for aggressive patients.
Dec 17, 2018
All you need to know about anesthesia with Compassion-First | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:30:05
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Melina Zimmerman, DVM, DAVCAA, a board-certified anesthesiologist at Red Bank Veterinary Hospital. If anesthesia isn't your think, you want to tune in. In this podcast, we review how to manage the canine or feline veterinary patient while under anesthesia, including what to do when that patient is having arrhythmias, hypotension or hypercapnia. We also review pain management and oral analgesics, oral sedation and sedation options for aggressive patients.
Dec 17, 2018
Liver toxicity secondary to azathioprine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:46
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review liver toxicity secondary to azathioprine administration in dogs. Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that has been gaining popularity in the veterinary community. It is a purine analog that can take up to 6 weeks to take effect (Plumb), and it is often used as a treatment for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP), immune-mediated polyarthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and other immune-mediated conditions. Some practitioners express discomfort using azathioprine due to its potential for adverse effects, such as hepatotoxicity and bone marrow toxicity. But how worried should we be?
Dec 10, 2018
Central venous jugular catheters in critically ill dogs and cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:22:51
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Deborah Silverstein, DACVECC, Professor in Critical Care at PennVet on the use of central venous jugular catheters in critically ill dogs and cats. How hard are they to put in, what do they cost, and are there complications associated with placement?
Dec 03, 2018
Effect of refrigeration of clinical canine urine samples | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:57
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the effect of refrigeration on clinical canine urine samples and quantitative bacterial culture.
Nov 26, 2018
Trazodone in cats | Dr. Lisa Radosta | VETgirl Online Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:24:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Lisa Radosta, DACVB, Board-certified Veterinary Behaviorist at Florida Veterinary Behavior Service on the use of trazodone in cats. Most veterinary professionals advocate for sedation for stressed cats as a modality to help with "Fear Free;" however, what drugs should we be reaching for, and what the pros and cons are of some of these sedatives? Should we be reaching for gabapentin or trazodone?
Nov 19, 2018
Fecal transplants in dogs with parvovirus | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:08
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as an exciting new treatment for diarrhea secondary to canine parvovirus (CPV). You may be wondering, what is an FMT? It is actually a fairly simple procedure that is being performed with increasing frequency in both human and animal medicine. The procedure involves transferring fecal material from a healthy donor dog to a recipient patient in order to restore a healthy microbial population (Chaitman). We know that there is a vast and complex array of microorganisms populating the gastrointestinal tract, and maintenance of this microbiota is critical for overall intestinal health (Khanna). A number of primary gastrointestinal diseases, medications (particularly antibiotics), and other systemic health issues can disrupt this complex population, contributing to clinical decline in our patients.
Nov 12, 2018
Diagnostic utility of D-dimer concentrations in dogs with pulmonary embolism | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:42
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of D-dimers in predicting the presence or absence of pulmonary emboli in dogs. Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to an obstruction of a pulmonary vessel, which could be caused by a blood clot, tissue, infectious material, parasites, foreign bodies, or other material (Goggs). There are a variety of diseases known to increase risk for PE's in our canine patients, including immune-mediated diseases such as IMHA, protein-losing nephropathies, hyperadrenocorticism, neoplasia, sepsis, and cardiac disease, as well as the use of certain medications like steroids. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of PE can be challenging due to non-specific clinical and radiographic changes. Probably many of us have seen an IMHA patient become acutely dyspneic with minimal radiographic changes, a situation where you may highly suspect a PE! In human medicine, CT or pulmonary angiography are the gold standard for antemortem diagnosis (Torbicki), but there have been various studies in both humans and in dogs evaluating the use of D-dimers as a tool to rule out a PE.
Nov 05, 2018
Renal cytology results in dogs and comparison to ultrasound findings | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:45
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the diagnostic utility of cytologic examination of renal fine-needle aspirates from dogs and the use of ultrasonographic features to inform cytologic diagnosis. When we do renal aspirates while we're ultrasounding our veterinary patients, is it useful and helpful?
Oct 29, 2018
The diagnostic approach for itchy dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:29:35
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Andrew Hillier, BVSc, MANZCVS, DACVD, Medical Lead for Dermatology at Zoetis on the diagnostic approach for itchy dogs (particularly those with atopic dermatitis!). Tune in to learn how we should be communicating with our pet owners, what mistakes we want to avoid with the atopic dog, and the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to atopy.
Oct 29, 2018
Incidence of hospital-acquired anemia in hospitalized dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:14
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the incidence of hospital-acquired anemia in the hospitalized canine and feline patient. In the veterinary patient, the presence of anemia results in decreased oxygen carrying capacity, which directly affects all tissues by diminishing function and impairing tissue healing. It other words, it results in decreased oxygen deliver (DO2).
Oct 22, 2018
Life hacks for new veterinary graduates | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:21:27
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, co-founders Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC discuss a few life hacks for new veterinary graduates. Just graduated from veterinary school and need some advice? Here, we share all, from living like a broke vet student, how to pay off your veterinary student debt faster, why it's important to make (some) money, how to work on work-life balance, and more!
Oct 15, 2018
Vitamin D and chronic kidney disease | What's new in veterinary nutrition? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:17:25
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Valerie Parker, DACVIM, DACVN on what's new in veterinary nutrition. Is there a role for Vitamin D with chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients? Should we be supplementing calcitriol in our canine and feline patients with CKD? What's new?
Oct 08, 2018
Canine Leptospirosis: What's new? | Dr. Sharon Grayzel | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:21:26
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Sharon Grayzel, DVM, MPH, DACVPM about canine leptospirosis. What's new? Is it that "classic" icteric, azotemic farm dog that comes down with lepto now? Or is it the smaller, 15 pound terrier that gets it? How prevalent is it and what do we do about this zoonotic disease? What's the best way to test for it? Learn it in this VETgirl podcast!
Oct 01, 2018
Canine Leptospirosis: What's new? | Dr. Sharon Grayzel | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:21:25
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Sharon Grayzel, DVM, MPH, DACVPM about canine leptospirosis. What's new? Is it that "classic" icteric, azotemic farm dog that comes down with lepto now? Or is it the smaller, 15 pound terrier that gets it? How prevalent is it and what do we do about this zoonotic disease? What's the best way to test for it? Learn it in this VETgirl podcast!
Oct 01, 2018
Effects of steroids on the heart in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:45
In today's VETgirl online veterinary podcast, we review the use of steroids and whether or not steroids truly have detrimental effects on the heart. We've been taught since our early years in veterinary school to have a healthy respect for glucocorticoid use. Understandably, there are many unwanted side effects to steroids such as weight gain, immune system suppression, and polyuria, to name the most commonly encountered. But there are also many medical uses for steroids such as intentional immune suppression and to combat inflammatory processes. In cats, we have produced evidence that long-acting glucocorticoid use can precipitate development of congestive heart failure (CHF). To date, we do not have published supportive evidence for this in dogs. So, Masters et al out of Iowa State University wanted to evaluate this in a prospective study called "Effects of short-term anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid treatment on clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic variables in systemically healthy dogs." to see what cardiovascular effects anti-inflammatory doses of glucocorticoids would have on canine patients with no preexisting structural heart disease.
Sep 24, 2018
Risk of recurrent feline urethral obstruction in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:17:01
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Marc Seitz, DABVP on his recent publication about feline urethral obstruction called "Evaluation for association between indwelling urethral catheter placement and risk of recurrent urethral obstruction in cats." Does outpatient FUO therapy work (e.g., sedation, unblocking, etc.) and when do we see increased risk of recurrent FUO in cats?
Sep 17, 2018
Outpatient parvovirus: Does it work? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:23:01
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, co-founders Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC discuss OPP: outpatient parvovirus. First, how do we ideally treat canine parvovirus? What is the "Colorado protocol?" Does outpatient parvovirus work? Learn from two criticalists who have seen a lot of parvo!
Sep 10, 2018
Outpatient parvovirus: Does it work? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:23:10
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, co-founders Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC discuss OPP: outpatient parvovirus. First, how do we ideally treat canine parvovirus? What is the "Colorado protocol?" Does outpatient parvovirus work? Learn from two criticalists who have seen a lot of parvo!
Sep 10, 2018
Lyme disease in dogs | Dr. Richard Marconi, PhD | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:23:26
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Richard Marconi, PhD about canine Lyme disease. Are we seeing an increased prevalence of tick spread and Lyme disease? What can we as veterinary professionals be doing about it in terms of recognition and prevention (e.g., preventative and vaccination)? Learn it in this VETgirl podcast!
Sep 03, 2018
What you should have learned at Hill's Global Symposium 2018: PART 2 | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:20:46
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education Part 2 podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC and Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT review what you should have learned if you didn't go to the Hill's Global Symposium 2018 (HGS2018) this year. From improving our pet owner compliance, to avoiding common myths about geriatric nutrition, to social media and Dr. Google, find out more in this VETgirl podcast. Better yet, get over 30+ hours of free, RACE-approved CE by viewing the HGS2018 here, thanks to Clinician's Brief. Check out last week for Part 1!
Aug 27, 2018
What you should have learned at Hill's Global Symposium 2018 | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:21:05
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC and Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT review what you should have learned if you didn't go to the Hill's Global Symposium 2018 (HGS2018) this year. From advances and updates in nutritional management of chronic kidney disease, to diabetes mellitus updates, to refreshing your brain on Vitamin D and RAS, find out more in this VETgirl podcast. Better yet, get over 30+ hours of free, RACE-approved CE by viewing the HGS2018 here, thanks to Clinician's Brief. Tune in next week for Part II!
Aug 20, 2018
Total prostatectomy for treatment of prostatic carcinoma in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:54
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review total prostatectomy for the treatment of prostatic carcinoma in dogs.
Aug 13, 2018
What's new with Canine Influenza? | Dr. Annette Litster | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:27:11
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Annette Litster, BVSc, MACVSc Senior Veterinary Specialist at Zoetis, on Canine Influenza (CIV) H3N2 and H3N8. Learn what clinical signs are seen with CIV, and how to diagnose it (e.g., serology vs. PCR). Learn if your canine patient population should be vaccinated for it, and if this vaccine is for just "social dogs." This VETgirl is brought to you, thanks to sponsorship from Zoetis, makers of Vanguard CIV H3N2/H3N8 bivalent vaccine.
Aug 06, 2018
Characterization of subclinical bacteriuria, bacterial cystitis, and pyelonephritis in dogs with chronic kidney disease | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:12
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria, bacterial cystitis and pyelonephritis in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Jul 30, 2018
IV fat accelerates clot formation and induces hemolysis in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:15:29
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Erica Behling-Kelly, DVM, PhD, DACVP from Cornell University, on her recent publication entitled "A commercial soy‐based phospholipid emulsion accelerates clot formation in normal canine whole blood and induces hemolysis in whole blood from normal and dogs with inflammatory leukograms." Does the use of lipid in the form of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), partial parenteral nutrition (PPN), or intravenous lipid emulsion (20%) potentially cause detrimental adverse effects in dogs - particularly those with inflammation - when used? Check out this VETgirl podcast to learn more!
Jul 23, 2018
Outcome of cholecystectomy in dogs for the treatment of gallbladder disease | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:31
Ah, the mucocele. The disease that internists want to surgical treat, and the ones that surgeons want to medically manage.
Jul 16, 2018
Survival in dogs undergoing surgery with thoracic trauma | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:00
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review thoracic trauma in dogs. In the emergency room, we criticalists frequently see patients that have sustained both blunt and penetrating thoracic trauma from a variety of causes, with the most common being vehicular trauma and bite wounds. Thankfully, the prognosis for trauma is generally fair to good, with a reported 90% survival (Hall). However, in patients requiring thoracic surgery, the prognosis is worse. Previous studies have shown a range of short-term mortality rates ranging from 10-44%.
Jul 09, 2018
Outcome in dogs with uroabdomen | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:43
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review uroabdomen in dogs. We've also talked about how to diagnose uroabdomen in a previous VETgirl blog here.
Jul 02, 2018
How long can I leave my sterile bag of IV fluids out? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:22:14
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Julien Guillaumin, DACVECC, DECVECC, on his recent study entitled "Influence of hang time and location on bacterial contamination of intravenous bags in a veterinary emergency and critical care setting." We all hang bags of fluids around the veterinary clinic and ER/ICU so we can use it as a flush or to dilute drugs. However, should we be doing this? In this study, the authors wanted to evaluate the risk and rate of bacterial contamination of fluid and ports in intravenous bags. Overall, the authors looked at 90 bags of LRS, punctured them daily 3X/day for 10 days. They found bacterial growth in 31.1% of the 198 injection ports overall, and 6.7% of the fluid bags hung in ER were contaminated by Day 7. Listen to find out just how long you should be hanging that bag of fluids, and why hanging it near the veterinary sink isn't ideal!
Jun 25, 2018
Intervertebral disc disease in Pekingese dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:21
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the characteristics and risk factors for intervertebral disk extrusions (IVDE) in Pekingese dogs. If you're about to see a Pekingese dog with back pain, check out this VETgirl podcast to learn what you need to know about in this breed of dog.
Jun 18, 2018
The use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs and cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:32
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs and cats. Nowadays, we're doing more and more FAST (Focused Assessment of Sonography in Trauma) ultrasounds in the ER setting, and it's great (and easy) for diagnosing cavital effusion (e.g., hemoabdomen, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, etc.). But can it be easily used for lung ultrasound (LUS) to detect pathology (or water) in the lung? Does it work to diagnose cardiogenic pulmonary edema?
Jun 11, 2018
The prevalence of thrombocytopenia in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:27
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in cats. Before you blame it "platelet clumping," let's make sure it's not from something else!
Jun 01, 2018
Does tramadol work in dogs with chronic arthritis? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:29
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of tramadol in dogs. Does it work? Well, you may have heard over recent years that tramadol has been put on the hot plate, receiving much attention for its role as an analgesic in canine patients. The reason for doubting tramadol's pain relief properties stems from the pharmacokinetics of the drug and differences between human and canine pain receptors. Tramadol is a weak pure-mu opioid agonist. It is metabolized to O-desmethytramadol, which is the metabolite responsible for tramadol's ability to inhibit the reuptake of noradrenaline and serotonin in nerve endings, thus making these two neurohormones more available to continue blocking pain signals. However, dogs produce very little of this active metabolite. Perhaps this difference in metabolism is why clinicians have trended towards recommending higher doses of tramadol (doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg). Previous studies have been complicated by a placebo effect when measuring analgesic outcomes, and the placebo effect is a difficult bias to overcome when creating a study design. So, Budsberg et al out of University of Georgia (Go, Dawgs!) wanted to evaluate tramadol as an analgesic in the treatment of chronic osteoarthritis in a study entitled Lack of effectiveness of tramadol hydrochloride for the treatment of pain and joint dysfunction in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate objective measurements of pain relief in orthopedic dysfunction associated with tramadol use in dogs suffering from osteoarthritis.
May 28, 2018
What to do with that infectious coughing dog | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:32:03
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Leah Cohn, PhD, DACVIM, on the approach to the infectious coughing dog. In this podcast, she reviews what Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease (CIRD) is, what the diagnostic work up is, and how to treat these patients. She'll also review what vaccines are available for the different etiologies, and how it's more than "just kennel cough." Check out this important Guideline and Recommendation from the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine here:
May 21, 2018
What to do with that infectious coughing dog | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:32:11
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Leah Cohn, PhD, DACVIM, on the approach to the infectious coughing dog. In this podcast, she reviews what Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease (CIRD) is, what the diagnostic work up is, and how to treat these patients. She'll also review what vaccines are available for the different etiologies, and how it's more than "just kennel cough." Check out this important Guideline and Recommendation from the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine here:
May 21, 2018
Breeds predisposed to aspiration pneumonia | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:04:42
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss whether certain breeds are more predisposed to aspiration pneumonia or not.
May 14, 2018
Short-term and long-term outcomes for overweight dogs with CCL treated surgically or nonsurgically | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:11
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review short-term and long-term outcomes for overweight dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture - do they all need surgery?
May 07, 2018
Is brief echocardiographic training for noncardiology veterinarians useful? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:05:41
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not brief echocardiographic training is beneficial for noncardiology veterinarians. Will it help house officers or general practitioners in the ability to diagnose cardiac emergencies like pericardial effusion, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy and more?
Apr 30, 2018
Can you detect pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade on chest radiographs? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:04:44
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss whether you detect pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade on chest radiographs in veterinary medicine.
Apr 23, 2018
Clinical approach to anemia in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:49
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss anemia in veterinary patients. Anemia is a common, yet frustrating disease process and is defined as a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin (Hb). Anemia can be categorized as regenerative or non-regenerative, and it is important to obtain a thorough history and a careful and systematic diagnostic approach to anemia. In this podcast, we review the 3 major causes of anemia:
Apr 16, 2018
Diagnostic approach to hypoalbuminemia | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:18
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, board certified emergency and critical care specialist and co-founder of VETgirl, reviews the diagnostic approach to hypoalbuminemia in dogs and cats. Hypoalbuminemia is a common problem seen by the small animal veterinarian. It is important to understand that albumin is the major determinant of oncotic pressure (i.e., otherwise known as colloidal osmotic pressure or "COP"). This pressure is the main force that holds fluid within the vascular space.
Apr 09, 2018
Can canine fresh frozen plasma be thawed in a microwave? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:35
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not you can thaw your unit of Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) in the microwave versus in the more traditional warm-water bath.
Apr 02, 2018
How hyperglycemic are you? Clinical approach to the Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Patient (HHS) - Part 2 | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:14
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, VETgirl Co-Founder Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC reviews part 2 of treatment of the endocrine emergency in dogs and cats: hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). In the previous VETgirl podcast on HHS, we reviewed the subtle differences of patients with HHS as compared to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), HHS criteria, and common clinical signs.
Mar 26, 2018
How hyperglycemic are you? Clinical approach to the Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Patient (HHS) - Part 1 | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:59
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, VETgirl Co-Founder Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC reviews hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) in dogs and cats.
Mar 19, 2018
How well are compounded itraconazole formulations absorbed in healthy cats? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:17
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of compounded itraconazole in cats - can you use it?
Mar 12, 2018
Financial pearls with White Coat Investor, Dr. Jim Dahle, MD, FACEP | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:27:36
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review Dr. Jim Dahle, MD, FACEP of White Coat Investor. VETgirl has to admit: we're addicted to his podcasts (for iOs or Android). In this podcast, we interview him on how to tackle the debt-to-income ratio in veterinary medicine, whether you should consider buying a small business or starting a corporation, how to live like a broke resident, how to set up a backdoor ROTH IRA, and whether or not you should charge to that credit card versus max out your employer's 401K match! Tune in to get financially savvy!
Mar 05, 2018
The prevalence of suicide in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:20:48
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Jeannine Moga, MA, MSW, LCSW, clinical social worker and veterinary social worker, discusses the prevalence of suicide in veterinary medicine. Why is our veterinary field so predisposed, and what can we do to increase our resilience and self care?
Feb 26, 2018
Dystocia and Reproductive Emergencies in Dogs and Cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:40
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC (VETgirl, COO) discusses common reproductive emergencies.
Feb 19, 2018
The effect of lidocaine on gastrointestinal motility in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:16
Lidocaine is a sodium channel blocker that is widely used in both large and small animal medicine as a local anesthetic, analgesic, and as a class 1B antiarrhythmic. A perhaps less common application for this medication in small animal medicine is as a gastrointestinal promotility agent in cases of ileus. The effects of lidocaine on improving the clinical signs of ileus in post-operative horses (1) and humans (2) have already been documented. However, what about dogs? So, Johnson et al out of the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine wanted to evaluate the effect of lidocaine on gastrointestinal motility in dogs. The authors aimed at measuring the effects of lidocaine CRI's at two different doses on the gastrointestinal transit times of healthy adult canines as compared to saline CRI controls (3).
Feb 12, 2018
Effect of venipuncture quality on thromboelastography | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:04:46
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the effect of venipuncture quality on thromboelastography. Now, if you've never heard of thromboelastography or TEG, you'll need to know that it's the best way to detect for hypercoagulability. Keep in mind that your PT/PTT test for hypocoagulability, not HYPER-coagulability. Unfortunately, TEG is really only available at academic (e.g., veterinary school) settings. So, if you have a TEG machine (or you're an emergency critical care or internal medicine resident), pay careful attention!
Feb 05, 2018
Atrial Fibrillation as a Prognostic Indicator in Dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:25
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review atrial fibrillation in medium- to large-sized dogs. Are there any other prognostic factors can we look at when it comes to heart disease? Is the presence of atrial fibrillation a prognostic indicator in certain dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valvular Degeneration (MMVD) and congestive heart failure?
Jan 29, 2018
Venous blood gas interpretation and risks of mortality in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:48
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review whether or not venous blood gas parameters (such as anion gap, base excess, lactate, etc.) predict survival in veterinary patients. When animals are initially presented to the emergency room, the extent of their condition often cannot be fully assessed without additional diagnostics. Is there a way we can handle questions from pet owners regarding the financial investment in their pet's medical treatment (such as prognosis and anticipated costs of medical care) based on evidence-based medicine? We strive to look for indicators in our physical examination findings and in our initial diagnostic work up (e.g., preliminary lab work or quick assessment tests) to help bolster our understanding of the patient's prognosis, but presently veterinary medicine is greatly lacking in these indicators of mortality and disease severity. In the veterinary emergency room, blood gases are a quick and easy piece of lab work that can be obtained relatively quickly at the time of triage for cats and dogs. So, Kohen et al out of University of California at Davis wanted to look at the information that can be obtained off a simple blood gas analysis for possible predictors of mortality. In this retrospective study, they looked at plasma lactate concentrations, pH, base deficit, and anion gap in both cats and dogs, and looked for any correlation of these values to an increased in mortality risk.
Jan 22, 2018
'Push-Pull' Blood Sampling in Veterinary Medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:25:29
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Ciara Barr. Dr. Barr is a lecturer in the anesthesia department at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.
Jan 15, 2018
The EPIC Study: The effect of pimobendan in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:29
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review an "EPIC" study called "Effect of Pimobendan in Dogs with Preclinical Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease and Cardiomegaly: The EPIC Study -; A Randomized Clinical Trial" by Boswood et al. This was a huge study that was conducted at dozens of different institutions (both academia and private practice) around the world and was undertaken by dozens of cardiologists.
Jan 08, 2018
Survival time of dogs with congestive heart failure andamp; the effect on revenue | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:17
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the survival time of dogs with congestive heart failure... but add a unique twist to this... the effect of revenue. This sounds strange, but keep listening.
Jan 01, 2018
Treating parvovirus on an outpatient basis | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:15:12
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review OPP: outpatient parvovirus treatment. Does it work?
Dec 18, 2017
Pet peeves in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:24:33
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, VMD, DACVECC review their top 10 pet peeves in veterinary medicine. Tune in to check out what peeves to avoid! Do you have any? Comment below!
Dec 11, 2017
An interview with a forensic veterinarian | Dr. Martha Smith-Blackmore | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:18:43
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Martha Smith-Blackmore, DVM (VETgirl's internmate from the MSPCA-Angell Memorial Animal Hospital). She's an animal welfare expert and the President of Forensic Veterinary Investigations, LLC. Many in the veterinary profession may not be aware of this job opportunity, which poses a unique way of protecting animals!
Dec 04, 2017
The prevalence of heartworm infection in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:11
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the prevalence of heartworm disease in cats in the United States and Canada. Now, you may think that heartworm disease is pretty rare, depending on where you live (or practice), but you need to know about this disease. What clinical signs are seen with it? How do you diagnose it?
Nov 27, 2017
Dexmedetomidine versus xylazine as an emetic in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:00
We all know how difficult it can be to make a cat vomit when we actually need for them to vomit. Veterinary emergency hospitals are encouraged to stock formulations of apomorphine for inducing emesis in dogs, but sadly this medication doesn't seem to work in cats. The theorized reason behind the feline's lack of robust emetic response to apomorphine stems from anatomical differences in their chemoreceptor trigger zone receptors where they are believed to favor more of the alpha-2 receptors over the dopamine receptor abundance that dogs exhibit. For this reason, most hospitals carry xylazine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist more commonly used in large animal anesthesia. However, if you've ever tried to make a cat vomit using xylazine, their response is variable and many will not vomit when appropriate doses are used. Clinically, I've always felt like it only works half the time in my poisoned cat patients!
Nov 20, 2017
Acute Lung Injury andamp; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in dogs and cats | Dr. Deb Silverstein | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:21:08
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Deborah Silverstein, Associate Professor in Critical Care at University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine on a study called Retrospective evaluation of the prevalence, risk factors, management, outcome, and necropsy findings of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in dogs and cats: 29 cases (2011-;2013). In this study, the authors evaluated dogs and cats with Acute Lung Injury (ALI) or Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), and assessed overall prevalence, treatment, and outcome of these critically ill patients.
Nov 13, 2017
Job opportunities available in veterinary medicine: Veterinary Careers with the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:24
Nov 06, 2017
Outcome and survival in dogs with sick sinus syndrome | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:23
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the outcome and survival in dogs with sick sinus syndrome, a life-threatening bradyarrhythmia.
Oct 30, 2017
Cats are NOT Small Dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:09
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the difference between dogs and cats in the veterinary setting. As the old saying goes… ”cats are not small dogs!” The question remains, what does that really mean? They can both be small. They can both be fluffy. Catch them at the wrong time and they can both bite! But what does it mean when we say, “cats are not small dogs”? What we are referring to is the medical response to disease as we compare our feline and canine patients. Our feline patients have unique physiologic responses to shock, medications, fluid therapy, and even neoplasia as compared to the canine patient. As a result, it is crucial that the veterinary team understands these unique feline characteristics!
Oct 23, 2017
Prediction of blood pressure based on peripheral pulse palpation in cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:17
How do you assess your feline patients for shock at the time of triage?
Oct 16, 2017
Aortic thrombotic disease in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:59
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss aortic thrombotic disease (what we'll call ATD from now on). We know that patients with ATD develop this due to Virchow's Triad - the combination of vascular endothelial injury, altered blood coagulability and changes in blood flow. Common underlying causes resulting in vascular endothelial injury include trauma, dirofilarial infection, hypotension, vasculitis, inflammation, acidosis, hypoxemia, dextrose fluid administration, arteriosclerosis (more in humans), and immune mechanisms. Altered blood coagulability may be due to platelet dysfunction (or hyperfunction), or any factor along the coagulation cascade or fibrinolytic system that has gone awry. Lastly, changes in blood flow may be due to blood stasis (e.g., an enlarged atrium), compressive lesions, trauma, or turbulence.
Oct 09, 2017
Using a point-of-care glucometer to identify septic peritonitis in the dog | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:19
Do you use a AlphaTRAK 2 glucometer in your veterinary clinic? In the veterinary emergency room, many of us utilize the veterinary handheld point-of-care (POC) glucometers to obtain rapid glucose measurements, as it only requires a tiny volume of blood. Not all hospitals have the benefit of having expensive lab analyzers and instead rely on the POC glucometers for glucose measuring. However, it's important to note that the accuracy of these POC glucometers can be affected by various factors such as the concentration of red blood cells present in the sample (e.g., anemia, hemoconcentration) and various medications. The POC glucometer utilizes a different mechanism by which to measure blood glucose levels than our traditional lab analyzers.
Oct 02, 2017
Fluid analysis in veterinary medicine: Effusion Confusion | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:31
Normally, our small animal veterinary patients have a very small amount of fluid within their body cavities. We can not see this radiographically, and most novice users of the ultrasound machine would also likely miss this effusion. The main goal of this fluid is to lubricate the surfaces of the organs and body walls like motor oil for your car engine. This allows the organs to glide over each other without friction, avoiding inflammation. That is in health. However, in states of disease, we see effusion develop which needs to be identified and characterized for both diagnosis and targeted treatment. So, if you see a dog or cat with abdominal effusion or pleural effusion, rapid fluid analysis is imperative!
Sep 25, 2017
Learning with veterinary toxicologist, Dr. Tina Wismer, DABT, DABVT, with the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:29:08
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Tina Wismer, DABT, DABVT, Medical Director at the #1 Animal Poison Control Center, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, based out of Urbana, Illinois. Here, she shares the top 5 poisons affecting dogs and cats, including what clinical signs you may see and how to treat them. We'll also discuss some helpful hints when it comes to calling the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center - like having the patient signalment and exposure information ready, along with having the pet owner initiate the first phone call to create a case number. Dr. Wismer will also discuss the differences between cholysteramine and activated charcoal, talk about new updates in veterinary toxicology, and discuss why your veterinary clinic should be utilizing their expertise and services!
Sep 18, 2017
How to write a good veterinary client discharge | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:22:58
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss how to write a good discharge for your pet owners. While we're often busy in general practice, emergency practice, or specialty practice, it's so important that we write clear, concise discharges for pet owners. Here, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, VMD, DACVECC review all the pertinent information you need in your discharges! Help promote better client communication and education with these simple tips.
Sep 11, 2017
Prospective study on the use of hydrogen peroxide as an emetic agent in dogs | Dr. Alicia Niedzwecki | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:23
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Alicia Niedzwecki, DACVECC, on a recent study that she performed entitled Effect of oral 3% hydrogen peroxide used as an emetic on the gastroduodenal mucosa of healthy dogs. In this study, Dr. Niedzwecki performed a prospective study aimed to investigate the effects of 3% hydrogen peroxide on the gastrointestinal mucosa in healthy dogs when ingested in amounts we routinely use for emesis induction. What'd they find? Maybe we shouldn't be using hydrogen peroxide in our veterinary poisoned canine patients after all, as evidence of esophagitis, gastritis and gastric ulceration can be seen. This study supports that hydrogen peroxide is not as benign as perhaps we once thought. While the authors' take away from this study was that the use of hydrogen peroxide shouldn't be recommended for at-home use in pet owners unless the benefits outweigh the risks, the toxicologist in me is going to take a little bit of a different take on it. VETgirl will likely still use it as an emetic agent (again, only in dogs), but now I'm going to add on gastric protectants and antacids for 1-2 weeks post-administration of hydrogen peroxide.
Sep 04, 2017
Survival of hypotensive cats in the ICU | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:08
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the significance of lactate levels in hypotensive cats in the ICU. Can lactate be a prognostic factor for survival?
Aug 28, 2017
The growing prevalence of Lyme disease based on forecasting | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:18:02
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jenna Gettings, DVM MPH, who is a Post-Doctoral Fellow with the Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) on her recent paper A Bayesian spatio-temporal model for forecasting the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, causative agent of Lyme disease, in domestic dogs within the contiguous United States. While this is mouthful, find out what you need to know about the Lyme prevalence data and the practical implications that this may have for veterinarians. Based off some pretty complex stats and math, this paper forecasts that Lyme disease is expanding geographically. More importantly, why do we care as health care professionals, and does this affect our treatment as veterinarians? Tune in to learn more!
Aug 21, 2017
How accurate are point-of-care glucometers in hemodiluted and hemoconcentrated canine blood samples? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:34
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the importance of anemia or hemoconcentration on blood glucose measurements when using point-of-care (POC) gluometers in our veterinary patients.
Aug 14, 2017
Tips and tricks to survive your veterinary internship and residency | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:28:37
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, VMD, DACVECC, discuss some helpful tips and tricks on how to survive your veterinary internship and veterinary residency. While you have to work hard during this upcoming year (or next two to three years), there are some easy tips to survive this learning period! You can do it! Any hints that you guys have? Share below!
Aug 07, 2017
Can I use maropitant chronically in my veterinary patients? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:33:36
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the chronic use of maropitant in veterinary medicine based on the most recent, cutting edge veterinary studies that have been done. In this podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Quimby, DVM, PhD, DACVIM and Dr. Craig Clifford, DVM, DACVIM (Oncology) on their chronic use of maropitant in cats with chronic renal failure (CRF) and oncology patients, respectively. Can you use maropitant long-term without any problems?
Jul 31, 2017
Assessing quality of life in veterinary medicine | Dr. Mary Gardner | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:23:37
In today' VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Mary Gardner, CoFounder of Lap of Love Veterinary Hospice. She discusses quality of life in veterinary medicine, along with the decision to euthanize versus when to consider hospice care.
Jul 24, 2017
Should we be using 3% hydrogen peroxide as an emetic agent in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:11
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss whether or not we should be using 3% hydrogen peroxide (H202) as an emetic agent in dogs. With most of our pets' toxin ingestions occurring outside the veterinary hospital, we, as veterinary professionals, must use our best judgment when making recommendations to pet owners regarding how best to help their pet. If the pet has ingested a toxic substance or an overdose of medication, and you know the best course of action is to prevent further absorption by way of emesis, what do you recommend to the client? Does your hospital induce emesis with apomorphine or with hydrogen peroxide? Do you sometimes recommend to clients to induce emesis at home? Or do you just direct them to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center instead?
Jul 17, 2017
Why you should stop your veterinary career and have kids now! | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:26
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT, CEO of VETgirl, discusses her personal struggle with infertility and why you need to stop your veterinary career to have kids now...
Jul 10, 2017
How to tackle your veterinary student debt with Travis Hornsby | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:27:11
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Travis Hornsby, Founder of Student Loan Planner, LLC. He's a student loan consultant and is here to discuss the veterinary student debt issue. With so many veterinary students having six figures of student debt, how does one find help to come up with a repayment strategy? You can also check out his blog here on veterinary student debt HERE.
Jul 03, 2017
Hospice care in veterinary medicine | Dr. Dani McVety | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:26:45
In today' VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Dani McVety, CoFounder of Lap of Love Veterinary Hospice. How did she get involved with hospice, and what is the role of it in veterinary medicine? Learn more about how this can preserve the human-animal bond with your patients.
Jun 26, 2017
Signalment changes in our canine leptospirosis patients | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:31:35
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. George Moore, DVM, PhD, on the newest updates with canine leptospirosis. Is lepto seen in our roaming, rural large farm dogs, or is it now seen in 15 pound, urban city dogs? How should we diagnose leptospirosis? A MAT? PCR? ELISA? Find out all you need to know about this growing, zoonotic canine disease!
Jun 19, 2017
Anticonvulsants in veterinary medicine | Dr. Simon Platt | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:26:11
Today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is sponsored by PRN, makers of KBroVet, potassium bromide. In this podcast, Dr. Simon Platt, BVM&S, MRCVS, DACVIM (Neurology), DECVN, neurologist from University of Georgia, reviews the different types of anticonvulsants available in veterinary medicine. Which should you pick? What are the pros and cons? When should we add an additional anticonvulsant?
Jun 12, 2017
Myth-busting about Veterinary Practice Ownership | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:17:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Trichel about some of misconceptions of going from veterinary associate to small business veterinary practice owner! What are some myths that need to be debunked when it comes to veterinary practice ownership?
Jun 05, 2017
Does the size of the syringe and blood filter affect survival of RBCs in cats? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:26
Do you give a lot of blood transfusions in your veterinary clinic? Ever wonder if your protocol for blood transfusion administration is correct? In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not the size of the syringe and blood filter affect survival of RBCs in cats. BTW, check out some of our transfusion videos here and here.
May 22, 2017
The prevalence of dry eye (KCS) in the veterinary ICU | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:04:09
Are you doing Schirmer tear tests to test for the prevalence of dry eye (KCS) in your veterinary ICU?
May 15, 2017
Smoke Inhalation and House Fire Trauma | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:10:19
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC discusses common concerns following house fire trauma and smoke inhalation in veterinary medicine. How do we treat carbon monoxide toxicosis, cyanide toxicosis, and the respiratory distress seen in these smoke inhalation patients?
May 08, 2017
The incidence of pneumonia in post-operative IVDD dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:25
Have you treated cases of postoperative pneumonia or aspiration pneumonia in your practice? Have you wondered what factors might predispose your canine patients to developing postoperative respiratory complications? In people, there are a number of risk factors for aspiration pneumonia in the peri- and postoperative period that include: increased age, co-morbidities, preexisting pulmonary disease, immobility, decreased consciousness, analgesia and gastrointestinal problems like motility disorders, increased gastric acid, esophageal disease, among others.
May 01, 2017
Do's and Dont's of Dextrose Administration | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:07:05
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC review's the DO's and DONT's of dextrose.
Apr 24, 2017
Top 4 Things to Consider Before Taking the Plunge into Practice Ownership | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:23:34
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Trichel about the top 4 things to consider before taking the plunge into practice ownership. While this is a huge step, this is a great way of being able to help pay off your veterinary school debt by being a veterinary practice owner! Are you passionate? Do you want to be a leader in your practice? Do you like mentoring and training people? If so, it may be time to consider before buying a veterinary clinic.
Apr 17, 2017
The use of arterial catheters in veterinary medicine with Dr. Jane Quandt | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:28
In today's VETgirl veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jane Quandt, DACVAA, MS, DACVECC, Professor at University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine on the use of arterial catheters (commonly called "A-lines") in veterinary medicine. While arterial catheters are typically only used in academia or veterinary specialty clinics, it's still important to know the pros and cons of using them. These are considered the gold standard for measuring blood pressure, as they are the most accurate. But what are the potential pros and cons of using them? Also, when do we start to worry about hypotension under anesthesia. Get some great anesthesia tips from Dr. Quandt!
Apr 10, 2017
Top 5 pet peeves in the veterinary emergency room | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:27:10
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC review their top 5 pet peeves to avoid in the veterinary emergency room. Whether or not you're a rookie or experienced emergency veterinarian, or about to switch from general practice to emergency medicine, these are mistakes you want to avoid!
Apr 03, 2017
What you need to know about food allergies and food trials | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:20:06
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Kacie Blessing, DACVD, of the Animal Dermatology Clinics on food allergies in veterinary medicine. What type of diet should we use, and for how long? When's the best season or timing to test a dog? How do we differentiate atopy from food allergies? Get your dermatology on with this VETgirl podcast!
Mar 27, 2017
Lyme nephritis: State of the Art Review | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:57
If you've practiced where VETgirl has, you'd hate Lyme disease as much as we do. Having practiced in all the tick-infested states (e.g., NJ, NY, MA, MN, PA, etc.), I've seen a lot of Lyme disease. That said, only a small subset of Lyme positive dogs (1-2%) go onto develop severe, life-threatening complications from Lyme disease - the dreaded Lyme nephritis. So, in today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we'll discuss this rare complication: Lyme nephritis.
Mar 20, 2017
Speed rounds on everything veterinary neurology! | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:25:43
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Missy Carpentier-Anderson, DACVIM (Neurology) from Animal Emergency & Referral Center of Minnesota. In this veterinary podcast, she reviews everything you need to know about veterinary neurology including localization of disease, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) in dogs, and the use of anticonvulsants in dogs with epilepsy. Learn more in this VETgirl online CE podcast!
Mar 13, 2017
What you need to know about veterinary radiation therapy | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:21:01
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Siobhan Haney, VMD, MS, DACVR (RO), a radiation oncologist from Hope Veterinary Specialists on radiation therapy. What types of neoplasia respond the best to radiation therapy (RT). Should we use traditional RT or consider Cyberknife or stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) in veterinary medicine? This may be a new option for osteosarcoma, brain tumors, etc. Learn more in this VETgirl online CE podcast!
Mar 06, 2017
So...you are transitioning to EMERGENCY MEDICINE? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:28:16
I was recently asked to assist a veterinarian transition from general practice to emergency medicine. Now, if you've never been exposed to the emergency medicine side of veterinary medicine, it's a whole different world. That said, it's a great opportunity to practice in an exciting way! So, here, some helpful hints to reduce your anxiety of transitioning to emergency medicine. These are tips from the emergency trenches!
Feb 27, 2017
Is Feline Herpes the gift that keeps on giving? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:15:29
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast sponsored by Aventix, Dr. Shelby Reinstein discusses Feline Herpes Virus (FHV). FHV is a very common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats, and is THE MOST common cause of surface ocular disease. Kittens which suffer from the initial viral exposure are often quite sick with both upper respiratory infections (URI) and ocular signs. These kittens can have significant fever, decreased appetites, and secondary bacterial infections may ensue. Adult cats, however, usually have a more mild form of the disease, as the virus is reactivating from its dormant state. Given the wide variety of clinical syndromes attributable to FHV, it can be challenging to know exactly WHO to treat, and with what. In this VETgirl podcast, Dr. Shelby Reinstein reviews examination findings, as well as drug therapies for the treatment of FHV including antibiotic therapy, lysine, and even famciclovir!
Feb 20, 2017
Paradoxical breathing and pleural space disease in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:05:24
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss paradoxical breathing in our canine and feline patients. As we all know, pleural space diseases like pleural effusion, pneumothorax and diaphragmatic hernias can sometimes be difficult to diagnose. You might not always hear obvious muffled heart or breath sounds, and often our veterinary patients aren't stable enough for radiographs right away. In one study of dogs with pleural effusion, almost 1/3 died during initial examination and diagnostics!1 Remember, we always want to rapidly identify and stabilize our dyspneic patients to maximize survival and patient comfort!
Feb 13, 2017
The use of maropitant in veterinary medicine: Literature review | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:33:07
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of maropitant in veterinary medicine based on the most recent, cutting edge veterinary studies that have been done. In this podcast, we interview Dr. Bonnie Hay Kraus, DVM, DACVS, DACVAA on her recent studies evaluating dosing, route of administration and use in veterinary patients. How does this apply to you? Should you use it routinely pre-operatively? Will it prevent aspiration pneumonia or nausea? Tune in and find out more about this anti-emetic!
Feb 06, 2017
Top mistakes that veterinarians make with veterinary behavioral disorders | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:21:10
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Lisa Radosta, DACVB, who is a board-certified veterinary behaviorist at Florida Veterinary Behavior Services on the top mistakes that veterinarians make with veterinary behavioral disorders. Find out what mistakes you need to avoid, what medications you should be reaching for more, and how to appropriate communicate to your pet owners about behavioral problems!
Jan 30, 2017
Should you use FFP in your critically ill veterinary patients? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:10
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not you should use fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in your critically ill veterinary patients. Do you use FFP in your practice? What clinical situations prompt you to consider its use? Bleeding patients? Patients with prolonged clotting times? Patients with hypoalbuminemia or pancreatitis? Before we discuss our use of FFP and the evidence (or lack thereof!) behind it, let's make sure we're all on the same page about what FFP is. It's plasma that has been separated from whole blood and frozen within 8 hours, and it contains not only our coagulation factors, but also anticoagulation factors, fibrinogen, albumin and alpha-macroglobulins. Once it's frozen, it can be stored for up to one year. [After which, it becomes expired plasma or frozen plasma (FP), which still has it's uses!]
Jan 23, 2017
The role of a criticalist in your veterinary hospital | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:21:20
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC review the role of a veterinary criticalist in your veterinary hospital. Whether you're an emergency critical care resident about to apply for jobs for the first time, or you're a veteran board-certified veterinary criticalist, find out what roles we have in the veterinary community.
Jan 16, 2017
Tracheal stenting in dogs with end-stage trachea collapse | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:55
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review tracheal collapse. Tracheal collapse is found in smaller breed dogs, especially Yorkshire terriers, miniature poodles and Pugs and presents as airway obstruction with the classic “goose honking” cough. Possible contributing factors include:
Jan 09, 2017
Are Bulldog ocular problems different than other dogs? Or is that just a bunch of bull? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:13:05
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast sponsored by Aventix, Dr. Shelby Reinstein discusses why it is not just "bull" that brachycephalic dogs have more challenging eye conditions!
Jan 02, 2017
Enoxaparin in dogs with primary IMHA | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:14
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of enoxaparin, a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). Do you see a lot of dogs with primary IMHA in your practice? Do you have an anticoagulation protocol that you like to use in treating them? Does it involve aspirin? Clopidogrel? Unfractionated heparin? What about LMWH?
Dec 26, 2016
The role of women in veterinary leadership | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:03
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Karen Bradley, who is one of the founders and former President of the Women's Veterinary Leadership Development Initiative (WVLDI). Their goal? To support women in seeking and achieving leadership, policy, and decision-making positions within all areas of professional veterinary activity. Check out some of their great resources here. For more information, check out their website here and their Facebook group here.
Dec 19, 2016
Treating the ITP patient with vincristine versus human IVIG | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:24
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss treatment for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP) in dogs. Have you treated a patient with primary ITP? Did you use steroids alone, or did you try combination therapy with vincristine or human intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG)? Well, while treatment with immunosuppressive doses of glucocorticoids is the initial treatment of choice, and most patients will have platelet recovery within 1-15 days of starting treatment, adding treatment with vincristine or hIVIG has been shown to shorten platelet recovery time. In some peer-reviewed, scientific veterinary prospective studies, dogs with severe ITP treated with prednisone alone versus prednisone and vincristine, or prednisone alone versus prednisone and hIVIG, both combination therapies resulted in faster increases in platelet numbers and shorter durations of hospitalization. To date, though, there haven't been any studies looking at the efficacy of vincristine versus hIVIG as adjunctive treatments. This is important because hIVIG is much more expensive, and giving it to your patient is more time consuming and challenging that giving vincristine.
Dec 12, 2016
Using the appropriate antibiotics for septic peritonitis in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:09:26
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the appropriate use of antibiotics for dogs with septic peritonitis. In patients with sepsis, early antimicrobial therapy is one of the cornerstones of treatment, along with resuscitation and source control. In human medicine, a landmark study of patients with septic shock revealed that for every one hour delay in antibiotic administration for the first six hours after presentation, mortality increased by 7.6%!(1) In critically ill, septic patients, antibiotics should be started before culture and sensitivity results are generally available, right? Well, the questions remain in both human and veterinary medicine about how we should choose those antibiotics, and whether or not our choices matter.
Dec 05, 2016
Risk factors and outcome predictors in cats with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:43
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Do you see cats with DKA in your practice? Does DKA really stand for "Diabetes Kills Animals?" (No.) What do you usually tell owners about their prognosis and what do you base that information on? While we know that DKA is a complicated form of diabetes mellitus (DM) and we often tell owners that it usually happens due to some other complicating concurrent disease or condition, we don't actually know a lot about those diseases or conditions, and whether or not they contribute to the patient's outcome.
Nov 28, 2016
Types of insulin commonly used in veterinary medicine | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:12:09
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Nyssa Reine-Salz, DACVIM, a board-certified veterinary specialist in internal medicine. She is an internal medicine consultant for Merck Animal Health, and an endocrinologist who consults on complicated diabetes mellitus cases. In this podcast, we review the types of insulin commonly used in veterinary medicine.
Nov 21, 2016
Diagnostic accuracy of canine pancreatitis tests | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:08
Have a dog presenting to you with abdominal pain and vomiting? In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the diagnostic accuracy of canine pancreatitis tests. Specific tests that are often used to test for canine pancreatitis are the Spec cPL and the SNAP cPL test; however, these tests must be interpreted carefully.
Nov 14, 2016
Common mistakes to avoid in management of diabetes mellitus | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:26:19
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Nyssa Reine-Salz, DACVIM, a board-certified veterinary specialist in internal medicine. She is an internal medicine consultant for Merck Animal Health, and an endocrinologist who consults on complicated diabetes mellitus cases. In this podcast, we review the common mistakes to avoid in management of diabetes mellitus in your canine and feline patients.
Nov 07, 2016
Vitamin D levels in Dogs with Chronic Valvular Heart Disease | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:06
In today's VETgirl veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether Vitamin D plays a role in heart disease in dogs. Vitamin D deficiency, as determined via serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, is associated with worsened cardiac function, heart failure symptoms, and prognosis in human heart failure patients. Supplementation of vitamin D in such patients improves cardiac function and improves prognosis. A 2014 study in dogs demonstrated that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in dogs with CHF secondary to either CVHD or DCM than in normal dogs. So, Osuga et al out of Japan wanted to evaluate if an association exists between vitamin D status and all stages of CVHD, as well as investigate if any association exists between vitamin D status and echocardiographic parameters of cardiac structure and function in these canine patients.
Oct 31, 2016
Clinical findings and survival in cats with FIV | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:45
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss clinical findings and survival in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Is it a death sentence?
Oct 24, 2016
Veterinary technician or veterinary nurse? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:19:35
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Heather Prendergast and Ken Yagi, both veterinary technician extraordinaires, on the terminology of "veterinary technician" versus "veterinary nurse." First, what's the difference, and why is there so much push back from the human nursing community on this? Learn all about the current credentialing and standardization (which varies state by state) that is currently being reviewed. NAVTA is currently working with several organizations (such as AVMA) to create an updated national credentialing and standardization. Check out the results of a veterinary technician survey that was originally released by NAVTA here. More importantly, during National Veterinary Technician Week, what better way to support your right-hand-veterinary-technician-extraordinaire-staff by supporting this movement?
Oct 17, 2016
Does dexmedetomidine affect cardiac function based on echocardiography in dogs? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:08:29
In today's VETgirl veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of certain sedatives such as dexmedetomidine on cardiac function (based on echocardiography) in dogs. We know that alpha-2 agonist sedatives provide dose-dependent sedation by reducing the central nervous system's sympathetic outflow. The alpha agonist properties of these drugs also have significant cardiovascular effects - specifically vasoconstriction - which results in an increase in vascular resistance and potential for reflex bradycardia. Dexmedetomidine, a readily available alpha-2 agonist in veterinary medicine, has been documented to cause bradycardia, systemic hypertension, hypothermia, and reduced cardiac output with administration. Given these cardiovascular effects, it is possible that these drugs may significantly alter echocardiographic parameters of cardiac function if used for sedation for echocardiography (thus resulting in artifactual results). So, Kellihan et al out of University of Wisconsin wanted to evaluate this by assessing dexmedetomidine's effect - in other words, how well it results in level of sedation and whether it effects echocardiographic parameters of cardiac function. They looked at two doses - the labeled dose at 10 ug/kg and a lower dose of 5 ug/kg.
Oct 10, 2016
The prevalence of immune-complex glomerulonephritides in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:43
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the prevalence of immune-complex glomerulonephritis (ICGN) in dogs. Is it always due to glomerulonephritis? Or is it due to amyloidosis? Why should we care? First, we should care as glomerular injury is common to many renal diseases. Both primary and secondary glomerular disease is commonly seen in dogs. Primary glomerular disease refers to diseases where the glomerulus suffers the initial injury, while secondary glomerular disease refers to those diseases in which the glomerulus is secondarily injured. Based on the ongoing WSAVA Renal Standardization Project, primary glomerular disease in dogs is divided into 3 main groups: immune-complex glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, and non-immune-complex glomerulonephritis. You can download the guidelines here, btw. Non-immune-complex glomerulonephritis is a diagnosis of exclusion, if neither immune complexes nor amyloid is demonstrated, but primary pathology is noted in the glomerulus.
Oct 03, 2016
Does the urine dipstick paddle work to identify urinary tract infections in dogs and cats? | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:10:31
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not the urine dipstick paddle works to help identify urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs and cats. Being that 14% of dogs will develop a UTI at some point in their life, and that UTIs are more prevalent in older (versus younger cats), veterinarians should be well aware of how to treat UTIs. Keep in mind that most UTIs in dogs and cats involve a single bacterial species, with E.coli being the #1 isolated bacteria from the urine of dogs and cats (followed by Staph, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, and Strep).
Sep 26, 2016
Left ventricular abnormalities in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:07:52
In today's VETgirl veterinary continuing education podcast, we review echocardiographic findings in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. Hyperadrenocorticism (e.g., "Cushing's disease") is common in middle to older aged dogs and results in a state of chronic hypercortisolemia. Resultant systemic sequelae of this disease state include renal/urinary disease, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary thrombembolism (due to hypercoagulability), and systemic hypertension, among others. (Hence, one of the reasons why it's so important that we treat this endocrine disease in dogs!). In humans with hyperadrenocorticism, increases in left ventricular wall thickness have been detected echocardiographically. So, Takano et al out of Japan wanted to evaluate myocardial structure and function in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
Sep 19, 2016
Placing nasojejunal feeding tubes in dogs by fluoroscopic technique | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:06:54
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review a new technique of placing nasojejunal feeding tubes in dogs. In critical care, the pendulum has swung to the side of enteral feeding over parenteral nutrition in both human and veterinary patients. However, when so many of our critical patients are vomiting or regurgitating, and the risks associated with surgical jejunal feeding tube placement may not outweigh the benefits, do any non-invasive options for enteral feeding exist? Or is our only option total or partial parenteral nutrition? The critical care and interventional radiology group at Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine (Beal at al.) developed a novel technique for placing nasojejunal feedings tubes in critically ill dogs using fluoroscopic visualization and wire guidance. Sounds interesting, right?
Sep 12, 2016
Organ dysfunction and mortality risk factors in severe canine bite wound trauma | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:16:49
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review organ dysfunction and mortality risk factors in dogs with severe bite wounds. How frequently do you see dogs with severe bite wounds requiring intensive care in your practice? While many of us see “routine” bite wounds that can be managed with wound care on an out-patient basis pretty frequently, there is another population of canine patients with bite wounds that are much more severely affected. These patients may have much more extensive wounds, and can develop complications such as SIRS, DIC, MODS and sepsis. Unfortunately, little evidence exists on which patients may develop these complications. So, Ateca et al from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine set out to retrospectively evaluate dogs with bite wounds requiring hospitalization in the ICU, to characterize their treatments, complications and outcomes, and to identify any risk factors for mortality.
Sep 05, 2016
Immunochromatographic testing for feline AB blood type | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the accuracy of a newer test (using immunochromatography) for detecting feline blood types (AB) in a study titled “Evaluation of an immunochromatographic test for feline AB system blood typing.” AB blood typing is commonly performed in hospitalized cats to ensure blood compatibility and to prevent hemolytic transfusion reactions or potentially life-threatening reactions (e.g., B cats receiving A blood). Blood typing is a necessity for all feline transfusions because cats are born with antibodies against red blood cells of the opposite blood type. For this reason, there is no universal donor in cats, and cats must always be blood typed and/or cross-matched prior to administration! AB blood typing is also important in feline breeding programs in order to prevent neonatal isoerythrolysis. Several methods that allow AB blood typing have been previously validated and include gel column testing, which is no longer commercially available, as well as tube or plate testing, which are both cumbersome and difficult to standardize in practice. Agglutination cards are probably the most commonly used test kits in veterinary practice and can reliably identify type A and B cats, but traditionally have shown weak reactions with type AB blood, resulting in mistyping of AB cats.
Aug 29, 2016
Immunochromatographic testing for feline AB blood type | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the accuracy of a newer test (using immunochromatography) for detecting feline blood types (AB) in a study titled “Evaluation of an immunochromatographic test for feline AB system blood typing.” AB blood typing is commonly performed in hospitalized cats to ensure blood compatibility and to prevent hemolytic transfusion reactions or potentially life-threatening reactions (e.g., B cats receiving A blood). Blood typing is a necessity for all feline transfusions because cats are born with antibodies against red blood cells of the opposite blood type. For this reason, there is no universal donor in cats, and cats must always be blood typed and/or cross-matched prior to administration! AB blood typing is also important in feline breeding programs in order to prevent neonatal isoerythrolysis. Several methods that allow AB blood typing have been previously validated and include gel column testing, which is no longer commercially available, as well as tube or plate testing, which are both cumbersome and difficult to standardize in practice. Agglutination cards are probably the most commonly used test kits in veterinary practice and can reliably identify type A and B cats, but traditionally have shown weak reactions with type AB blood, resulting in mistyping of AB cats.
Aug 29, 2016
What does a shortened PT/PTT mean in dogs? Hypercoagulability in dogs with Dr. Jennifer Song | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:48
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jennifer Song, who recently finished her surgical residency at the Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center. Dr. Song, a board-eligible veterinary surgeon, discusses a retrospective study that she performed while at PennVet entitled "Retrospective evaluation of shortened prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time for the diagnosis of hypercoagulability in dogs: 25 cases (2006-2011)" in the Journal of Veterinary Emergency Critical Care. Previously, we didn't pay much heed to a shortened PT/PTT; we generally only looked at prolongation as an indicator of hypocoagulability (the inability to clot). However, in recent human studies, there may be some evidence that a shortened PT/PTT is suggestive of hypercoagulability! While thromboelastography (TEG) is traditionally looked at - along with increased fibrin (or fibrinogen) and D-dimers - to evaluate hypercoagulability, Song et al's new evidence may prove otherwise. So, start paying attention to your shorter PT/PTT readings after all!
Aug 22, 2016
What does a shortened PT/PTT mean in dogs? Hypercoagulability in dogs with Dr. Jennifer Song | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcasts
00:11:48
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jennifer Song, who recently finished her surgical residency at the Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center. Dr. Song, a board-eligible veterinary surgeon, discusses a retrospective study that she performed while at PennVet entitled "Retrospective evaluation of shortened prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time for the diagnosis of hypercoagulability in dogs: 25 cases (2006-2011)" in the Journal of Veterinary Emergency Critical Care. Previously, we didn't pay much heed to a shortened PT/PTT; we generally only looked at prolongation as an indicator of hypocoagulability (the inability to clot). However, in recent human studies, there may be some evidence that a shortened PT/PTT is suggestive of hypercoagulability! While thromboelastography (TEG) is traditionally looked at - along with increased fibrin (or fibrinogen) and D-dimers - to evaluate hypercoagulability, Song et al's new evidence may prove otherwise. So, start paying attention to your shorter PT/PTT readings after all!
Aug 22, 2016
Diabetes mellitus monitoring in your veterinary patients | Dr. Stijn Niessen | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:38:14
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Stijn Niessen, DVM, PhD, DECVIM, PGCVetEd, FHEA, MRCVS. Dr. Niessen is a Senior Lecturer at the Royal Veterinary College University of London, President of the European Society of Veterinary Endocrinology and the Head of Internal Medicine. He is also the Director of the Diabetic Remission Clinic.
Aug 15, 2016
Diabetes mellitus monitoring in your veterinary patients | Dr. Stijn Niessen | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:38:14
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Stijn Niessen, DVM, PhD, DECVIM, PGCVetEd, FHEA, MRCVS. Dr. Niessen is a Senior Lecturer at the Royal Veterinary College University of London, President of the European Society of Veterinary Endocrinology and the Head of Internal Medicine. He is also the Director of the Diabetic Remission Clinic.
Aug 15, 2016
Wellness for veterinarians | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:02
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the importance of wellness for veterinary professionals. Why is it that we care for our veterinary patients so well and constantly advocate for their quality of life, but have poor self care? Due to the growing prevalence of suicide in veterinary medicine, we wanted to review a recent study that was published in JAVMA in October 2015 on the importance of wellness for veterinarians. Make sure you've also checked out our other podcast on “Risk factors for suicide, attitudes toward mental illness, and practice-related stressors among US veterinarians,” along with our free VETgirl webinar on suicide (by Jeannine Moga).
Aug 08, 2016
Wellness for veterinarians | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:02
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the importance of wellness for veterinary professionals. Why is it that we care for our veterinary patients so well and constantly advocate for their quality of life, but have poor self care? Due to the growing prevalence of suicide in veterinary medicine, we wanted to review a recent study that was published in JAVMA in October 2015 on the importance of wellness for veterinarians. Make sure you've also checked out our other podcast on “Risk factors for suicide, attitudes toward mental illness, and practice-related stressors among US veterinarians,” along with our free VETgirl webinar on suicide (by Jeannine Moga).
Aug 08, 2016
Boxing down cats in veterinary medicine Dr. Jane Quandt | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:06:08
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jane Quandt, DACVAA, DACVECC, on whether it's appropriate to "box" down cats with inhalant therapy alone. This is no longer considered standard of care and not recommended by anesthesiologists, with the exception of the rare exotic animal that cannot be easily intubated (e.g., gerbil, pocket pets, etc.). So, if you have a fractious cat, check out this veterinary podcast for some better, safer tips from Dr. "Q!"
Aug 01, 2016
Boxing down cats in veterinary medicine Dr. Jane Quandt | VETgirl Veterinary Continuing Education Podcast
00:06:08
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jane Quandt, DACVAA, DACVECC, on whether it's appropriate to "box" down cats with inhalant therapy alone. This is no longer considered standard of care and not recommended by anesthesiologists, with the exception of the rare exotic animal that cannot be easily intubated (e.g., gerbil, pocket pets, etc.). So, if you have a fractious cat, check out this veterinary podcast for some better, safer tips from Dr. "Q!"
Aug 01, 2016
How to treat pyothorax in dogs and cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:04
How do you treat patients with pyothorax in your practice? Do you have a different protocol for dogs versus cats? Do you know they are likely to have different causes of pyothorax?
Jul 25, 2016
How to treat pyothorax in dogs and cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:04
How do you treat patients with pyothorax in your practice? Do you have a different protocol for dogs versus cats? Do you know they are likely to have different causes of pyothorax?
Jul 25, 2016
Behavior Supplements: Zylkene andamp; Anxitane | Dr. Lisa Radosta| VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Lisa Radosta, DACVB of Florida Veterinary Behavior Service discusses the role that supplements like Zylkene and Anxitane have in veterinary behavior. Do they work? Since supplements aren't regulated by the FDA, are they safe? Should you be recommending them? Tune into this podcast to find out more!
Jul 20, 2016
Behavior Supplements: Zylkene andamp; Anxitane | Dr. Lisa Radosta| VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:15
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Lisa Radosta, DACVB of Florida Veterinary Behavior Service discusses the role that supplements like Zylkene and Anxitane have in veterinary behavior. Do they work? Since supplements aren't regulated by the FDA, are they safe? Should you be recommending them? Tune into this podcast to find out more!
Jul 20, 2016
Common injuries of working dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:09
Treat a lot of working dogs? Well, this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is for you. Parr and Otto out of University of Pennsylvania wanted to evaluate the primary presenting problem of working German Shepherd dogs (GSD) presenting to the ER. What was the underlying etiology of illness? In a study called "Emergency visits and occupational hazards in German Shepherd police dogs (2008-;2010)," they retrospectively reviewed GSD presenting to the Penn emergency services from 2008-2010 (Shout out to the Penn Working Dog Center!). They wanted to be able to identify the number and underlying conditions of police dog visits and confirm the primary causes of illness in working GSD.
Jul 18, 2016
Common injuries of working dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:09
Treat a lot of working dogs? Well, this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is for you. Parr and Otto out of University of Pennsylvania wanted to evaluate the primary presenting problem of working German Shepherd dogs (GSD) presenting to the ER. What was the underlying etiology of illness? In a study called "Emergency visits and occupational hazards in German Shepherd police dogs (2008-;2010)," they retrospectively reviewed GSD presenting to the Penn emergency services from 2008-2010 (Shout out to the Penn Working Dog Center!). They wanted to be able to identify the number and underlying conditions of police dog visits and confirm the primary causes of illness in working GSD.
Jul 18, 2016
Should I buy a veterinary clinic? Small Business Ownership with Dr. Michael Tokiwa| VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:34:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Michael Tokiwa, owner of Progressive Veterinary Care, a family of veterinary hospitals located in the Princeton, NJ area. Dr Tokiwa is also the host and medical consultant for the popular pet radio show, Your Pet Matters on 107.7 The Bronc. Here, Dr. Tokiwa discusses the pros and cons of small business ownership and what tips you should consider when considering purchasing that small animal clinic.
Jul 11, 2016
Should I buy a veterinary clinic? Small Business Ownership with Dr. Michael Tokiwa| VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:34:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Michael Tokiwa, owner of Progressive Veterinary Care, a family of veterinary hospitals located in the Princeton, NJ area. Dr Tokiwa is also the host and medical consultant for the popular pet radio show, Your Pet Matters on 107.7 The Bronc. Here, Dr. Tokiwa discusses the pros and cons of small business ownership and what tips you should consider when considering purchasing that small animal clinic.
Jul 11, 2016
How long can you keep your pRBC transfusions around? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:11:17
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review how long you can keep your packed red blood (pRBC) cell transfusions around. 2-3 weeks? 4-6 weeks? What's the right answer? Does it depend on the patient, their disease, or the hospital's protocol?
Jul 04, 2016
How long can you keep your pRBC transfusions around? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:11:17
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review how long you can keep your packed red blood (pRBC) cell transfusions around. 2-3 weeks? 4-6 weeks? What's the right answer? Does it depend on the patient, their disease, or the hospital's protocol?
Jul 04, 2016
Prognostic factors in dogs with head trauma | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:12:34
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review prognostic factors in dogs with head trauma based off a recent study by Sharma et al entitled “Retrospective evaluation of prognostic indicators in dogs with head trauma.” Many of us in emergency practice see head trauma patients and would agree that the prognosis for these patients can be difficult to predict. Some dogs or cats admitted with signs of traumatic brain injury make astounding turnarounds, whereas others do not seem to respond to therapy. Studies investigating veterinary patients with head trauma are relatively sparse. A study investigating the utility of a modified Glasgow coma scale score (MGCS) was published back in 2001 and showed an almost linear correlation between the score and mortality. Alternatively, large studies investigating the utility of the Animal Trauma Triage (ATT) score have been published recently, but this score has not been specifically investigated in a population of head trauma patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical and laboratory variables or scoring systems such as the modified Glasgow coma scale, mentation, or ATT scores recorded at hospital admission have prognostic value in dogs with head trauma.
Jun 27, 2016
Prognostic factors in dogs with head trauma | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:12:34
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review prognostic factors in dogs with head trauma based off a recent study by Sharma et al entitled “Retrospective evaluation of prognostic indicators in dogs with head trauma.” Many of us in emergency practice see head trauma patients and would agree that the prognosis for these patients can be difficult to predict. Some dogs or cats admitted with signs of traumatic brain injury make astounding turnarounds, whereas others do not seem to respond to therapy. Studies investigating veterinary patients with head trauma are relatively sparse. A study investigating the utility of a modified Glasgow coma scale score (MGCS) was published back in 2001 and showed an almost linear correlation between the score and mortality. Alternatively, large studies investigating the utility of the Animal Trauma Triage (ATT) score have been published recently, but this score has not been specifically investigated in a population of head trauma patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical and laboratory variables or scoring systems such as the modified Glasgow coma scale, mentation, or ATT scores recorded at hospital admission have prognostic value in dogs with head trauma.
Jun 27, 2016
Real-Life-Rounds Podcast: How to perform a splenectomy | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:47:34
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Steve Mehler, DACVS, reviews how to perform a splenectomy in dogs and cats. Not sure of the approach? Want some tips on how to manage a hemoabdomen surgically without getting it all over your surgical field? What type of suture should you use? Tune into this 30 minute podcast to learn it! Please note that this podcast is a modification from our Real-Life Rounds, so you won't be able to see the videos. Interested in seeing it? Join VETgirl ELITE and get access to our podcasts, webinars, Real-Life Rounds, videos and more!
Jun 20, 2016
Real-Life-Rounds Podcast: How to perform a splenectomy | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:47:34
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Steve Mehler, DACVS, reviews how to perform a splenectomy in dogs and cats. Not sure of the approach? Want some tips on how to manage a hemoabdomen surgically without getting it all over your surgical field? What type of suture should you use? Tune into this 30 minute podcast to learn it! Please note that this podcast is a modification from our Real-Life Rounds, so you won't be able to see the videos. Interested in seeing it? Join VETgirl ELITE and get access to our podcasts, webinars, Real-Life Rounds, videos and more!
Jun 20, 2016
Mushroom I'm-Yunity used for the treatment of canine hemangiosarcoma | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:17:37
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Dorothy Cimino Brown, Professor of Surgery at University of Pennsylvania on the use of the Coriolus versicolor mushroom, known commonly as the Yunzhi mushroom. This mushroom, which has been used in Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years, is thought to contain immune-boosting properties from polysaccharopeptide (PSP). The specific product being used is I'm-Yunity, made by Chinese Medicine Holdings LTD (NOTE: This product is manufactured in the USA in adherence to USP c-GMP guidelines). A preliminary University of Pennsylvania pilot study that was released in 2012 evaluated 15 dogs diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma that were treated with 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day of I'm-Yunity. While there wasn't a statistically significant difference in survival between the three dosage groups, the median survival time was highest in the 100 mg/kg/day group, at 199 days. As as result, a second clinical trial is currently being conducted to evaluate dogs diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma. This will evaluate dogs treated with I'm-Yunity alone, dogs treated with I'm-Yunity + chemotherapy, or dogs treated with I'm-Yunity + a placebo.
Jun 13, 2016
Mushroom I'm-Yunity used for the treatment of canine hemangiosarcoma | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:17:37
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Dorothy Cimino Brown, Professor of Surgery at University of Pennsylvania on the use of the Coriolus versicolor mushroom, known commonly as the Yunzhi mushroom. This mushroom, which has been used in Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years, is thought to contain immune-boosting properties from polysaccharopeptide (PSP). The specific product being used is I'm-Yunity, made by Chinese Medicine Holdings LTD (NOTE: This product is manufactured in the USA in adherence to USP c-GMP guidelines). A preliminary University of Pennsylvania pilot study that was released in 2012 evaluated 15 dogs diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma that were treated with 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day of I'm-Yunity. While there wasn't a statistically significant difference in survival between the three dosage groups, the median survival time was highest in the 100 mg/kg/day group, at 199 days. As as result, a second clinical trial is currently being conducted to evaluate dogs diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma. This will evaluate dogs treated with I'm-Yunity alone, dogs treated with I'm-Yunity + chemotherapy, or dogs treated with I'm-Yunity + a placebo.
Jun 13, 2016
Does Hetastarch cause acute kidney injury in dogs? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:05
In the last several years, the debate over the use of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions in veterinary medicine has intensified. In human patients, HES products now have a boxed warning recommending against their use in critically ill patients, based on evidence that they contribute to coagulopathy, acute kidney injury (AKI), and increased risk of mortality.1 In veterinary patients, no studies of AKI or outcome in clinical patients receiving HES have been performed. So, Hayes et al out of Ontario Veterinary College set out to determine if HES administration was associated with outcome or AKI in canine ICU patients in a study called "Retrospective cohort study on the incidence of acute kidney injury and death following hydroxyethyl starch (HES 10% 250/0.5/5:1) administration in dogs (2007-2010)." Because many of these patients would already be considered critically ill based on their admission to the ICU, a retrospective cohort study was designed with an illness severity measure included.
Jun 06, 2016
Does Hetastarch cause acute kidney injury in dogs? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:05
In the last several years, the debate over the use of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions in veterinary medicine has intensified. In human patients, HES products now have a boxed warning recommending against their use in critically ill patients, based on evidence that they contribute to coagulopathy, acute kidney injury (AKI), and increased risk of mortality.1 In veterinary patients, no studies of AKI or outcome in clinical patients receiving HES have been performed. So, Hayes et al out of Ontario Veterinary College set out to determine if HES administration was associated with outcome or AKI in canine ICU patients in a study called "Retrospective cohort study on the incidence of acute kidney injury and death following hydroxyethyl starch (HES 10% 250/0.5/5:1) administration in dogs (2007-2010)." Because many of these patients would already be considered critically ill based on their admission to the ICU, a retrospective cohort study was designed with an illness severity measure included.
Jun 06, 2016
Transfusion practices for treatment of critically ill or emergent dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:12:40
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review two studies that describe the transfusion practices used for the treatment of dogs hospitalized after trauma and for dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic masses. These are both large retrospective studies out of Tufts University, a busy veterinary teaching hospital in Massachusetts.
May 30, 2016
Transfusion practices for treatment of critically ill or emergent dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:12:40
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review two studies that describe the transfusion practices used for the treatment of dogs hospitalized after trauma and for dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic masses. These are both large retrospective studies out of Tufts University, a busy veterinary teaching hospital in Massachusetts.
May 30, 2016
Treating pulmonary hypertension with Viagra | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:09:19
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review pulmonary hypertension (often called cor pulmonale) and the use of sildenafil (more famously known as Viagra). Pulmonary hypertension is classified is as an increase in either pre-capillary (pulmonary arterial ) or post-capillary (pulmonary venous) pulmonary resistance. In dogs, the disease occurs most commonly in older, small breed dogs as a result of chronic lung disease, chronic left-sided heart disease, heartworm infection, pulmonary thromboembolism, or left-to-right cardiac shunts (which is one of the reasons why it's so important that you treat underlying lung disease before it progresses to pulmonary hypertension!). The clinical signs of pulmonary hypertension may be indistinguishable from primary respiratory disease or congestive heart failure and includ tachypnea, cyanosis, dyspnea, increased respiratory effort, syncope, etc. Definitive diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension is made via echocardiogram by estimation of pulmonary artery pressures (typically, a dog needs to have tricuspid regurgitation to have this measured on echo). Thoracic radiographs remain an important component to the medical workup in these patients (usually performed prior to echocardiography).
May 23, 2016
Treating pulmonary hypertension with Viagra | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:09:19
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review pulmonary hypertension (often called cor pulmonale) and the use of sildenafil (more famously known as Viagra). Pulmonary hypertension is classified is as an increase in either pre-capillary (pulmonary arterial ) or post-capillary (pulmonary venous) pulmonary resistance. In dogs, the disease occurs most commonly in older, small breed dogs as a result of chronic lung disease, chronic left-sided heart disease, heartworm infection, pulmonary thromboembolism, or left-to-right cardiac shunts (which is one of the reasons why it's so important that you treat underlying lung disease before it progresses to pulmonary hypertension!). The clinical signs of pulmonary hypertension may be indistinguishable from primary respiratory disease or congestive heart failure and includ tachypnea, cyanosis, dyspnea, increased respiratory effort, syncope, etc. Definitive diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension is made via echocardiogram by estimation of pulmonary artery pressures (typically, a dog needs to have tricuspid regurgitation to have this measured on echo). Thoracic radiographs remain an important component to the medical workup in these patients (usually performed prior to echocardiography).
May 23, 2016
Why is our veterinary profession so at risk for suicide | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:11:37
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the important topic of the prevalence of suicide in our field. Why do veterinarians and veterinary technicians have a higher rate of suicide as compared to other fields? In a recent publication in JAVMA by Nett et al, they review the field of mental health and wellness in the veterinary profession. This is an area receiving some much-needed attention recently, due to the occurrence of some widely publicized suicides amongst veterinary professionals during the last few years. (BTW, you can check out our free VETgirl webinar on suicide by Jeannine Moga here).
May 16, 2016
Why is our veterinary profession so at risk for suicide | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:11:37
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the important topic of the prevalence of suicide in our field. Why do veterinarians and veterinary technicians have a higher rate of suicide as compared to other fields? In a recent publication in JAVMA by Nett et al, they review the field of mental health and wellness in the veterinary profession. This is an area receiving some much-needed attention recently, due to the occurrence of some widely publicized suicides amongst veterinary professionals during the last few years. (BTW, you can check out our free VETgirl webinar on suicide by Jeannine Moga here).
May 16, 2016
Hypothyroidism and DCM in Doberman Pinschers | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not there is an association between hypothyroidism and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Doberman Pinschers are overrepresented among canine patients diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy (familial/genetic), as well as those diagnosed with hypothyroidism. So the question is, is there a link? This is a very controversial topic. After all, we know that thyroid hormone plays an important role in the systolic function of the myocardium and cardiac rate and rhythm via its effect on density of beta-adrenergic receptors and their sensitivity to catecholamines. A deficiency of thyroid hormone has been associated with reduced myocardial function and alterations in cardiac conduction and heart rate thus leading to the premise that the hypothyroid state may be a metabolic etiology for dilated cardiomyopathy. Studies to date have not supported that premise.
May 09, 2016
Hypothyroidism and DCM in Doberman Pinschers | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:54
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not there is an association between hypothyroidism and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Doberman Pinschers are overrepresented among canine patients diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy (familial/genetic), as well as those diagnosed with hypothyroidism. So the question is, is there a link? This is a very controversial topic. After all, we know that thyroid hormone plays an important role in the systolic function of the myocardium and cardiac rate and rhythm via its effect on density of beta-adrenergic receptors and their sensitivity to catecholamines. A deficiency of thyroid hormone has been associated with reduced myocardial function and alterations in cardiac conduction and heart rate thus leading to the premise that the hypothyroid state may be a metabolic etiology for dilated cardiomyopathy. Studies to date have not supported that premise.
May 09, 2016
Hetastarch and the concern for Acute Kidney Injury with Dr. Galina Hayes | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:17:20
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Galina Hayes, PhD, DVM, DACVECC, DACVS (Hello, letters!), Assistant Professor in Small Animal Surgery at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. In her recent retrospective study performed at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, she evaluated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and death following hydroxyethyl starch (HES 10% 250/0.5/5:1) administration in dogs (2007-2010). In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated 180 dogs receiving HES compared to 242 random dogs receiving just IV fluids. This is the first veterinary paper evaluating the risk of AKI with HES administration; however, be aware of the limitations of the study (e.g., retrospective, higher cumulative crystalloid dosing differences, higher transfusion rates, etc.). That said, before you reach for a bag of colloids, listen to this VETgirl podcast!
May 02, 2016
Hetastarch and the concern for Acute Kidney Injury with Dr. Galina Hayes | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:17:20
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Galina Hayes, PhD, DVM, DACVECC, DACVS (Hello, letters!), Assistant Professor in Small Animal Surgery at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. In her recent retrospective study performed at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, she evaluated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and death following hydroxyethyl starch (HES 10% 250/0.5/5:1) administration in dogs (2007-2010). In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated 180 dogs receiving HES compared to 242 random dogs receiving just IV fluids. This is the first veterinary paper evaluating the risk of AKI with HES administration; however, be aware of the limitations of the study (e.g., retrospective, higher cumulative crystalloid dosing differences, higher transfusion rates, etc.). That said, before you reach for a bag of colloids, listen to this VETgirl podcast!
May 02, 2016
Development of anemia, phlebotomy practices andamp; blood transfusion requirements in cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:05
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review a recent study titled Development of anemia, phlebotomy practices, and blood transfusion requirements in 45 critically ill cats. This study hypothesized that iatrogenic anemia occurs in hospitalized cats undergoing repeated venipuncture. This has been observed in people, especially critically ill children, and has been associated with the need for blood transfusions. Unfortunately, we know that transfusions can increase hospital cost to clients, risk of transfusion reactions, and risks of complications such as transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) or transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Given that less is known about iatrogenic anemia in cats, the objectives of this study were to describe the incidence and development of anemia, to document phlebotomy practices and transfusion requirements in these cats, and to evaluate the association between these factors and duration of hospitalization and outcome in critically ill cats.
Apr 25, 2016
Development of anemia, phlebotomy practices andamp; blood transfusion requirements in cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:08:05
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review a recent study titled Development of anemia, phlebotomy practices, and blood transfusion requirements in 45 critically ill cats. This study hypothesized that iatrogenic anemia occurs in hospitalized cats undergoing repeated venipuncture. This has been observed in people, especially critically ill children, and has been associated with the need for blood transfusions. Unfortunately, we know that transfusions can increase hospital cost to clients, risk of transfusion reactions, and risks of complications such as transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) or transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Given that less is known about iatrogenic anemia in cats, the objectives of this study were to describe the incidence and development of anemia, to document phlebotomy practices and transfusion requirements in these cats, and to evaluate the association between these factors and duration of hospitalization and outcome in critically ill cats.
Apr 25, 2016
The effect of antivenom on hospitalization duration andamp; treatment in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:13:22
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the use of antivenom in dogs. Is it worth the $500/bottle? How many bottles should we use? Is it necessary in all cases? So, we interview Dr. Daniel Foy, DACVIM, DACVECC, who published a study called "Retrospective evaluation of the effect of antivenom administration on hospitalization duration and treatment cost for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis: 113 dogs (2004-;2012)." This was a retrospective study looking at a large case population (over 100 dogs) who were envenomated with Crotalus viridis, or more commonly known as the prairie rattlesnake (which isn't as bad as other types of Crotalid species). In this study, it appeared that the use of antivenom did not positively affect outcome or duration of hospitalization, and actually increased costs! So, test your envenomation knowledge here in today's VETgirl podcast.
Apr 18, 2016
The effect of antivenom on hospitalization duration andamp; treatment in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:13:22
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the use of antivenom in dogs. Is it worth the $500/bottle? How many bottles should we use? Is it necessary in all cases? So, we interview Dr. Daniel Foy, DACVIM, DACVECC, who published a study called "Retrospective evaluation of the effect of antivenom administration on hospitalization duration and treatment cost for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis: 113 dogs (2004-;2012)." This was a retrospective study looking at a large case population (over 100 dogs) who were envenomated with Crotalus viridis, or more commonly known as the prairie rattlesnake (which isn't as bad as other types of Crotalid species). In this study, it appeared that the use of antivenom did not positively affect outcome or duration of hospitalization, and actually increased costs! So, test your envenomation knowledge here in today's VETgirl podcast.
Apr 18, 2016
Measuring iron levels in dogs with SIRS | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:42
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the usefulness of measuring iron levels in dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Now, you probably don't think you see SIRS or septic cases, but you do. SIRS is a result of overstimulation of the inflammatory cascade (with secondary release of inflammatory mediators). SIRS can be seen due to thermal injury (e.g., heat stroke, burns), immune-mediated disease, etc. and can be seen with neoplasia, pancreatitis, trauma, infectious disease, etc. The definition of SIRS is very loose, unfortunately and includes two of the following criteria:
Apr 11, 2016
Measuring iron levels in dogs with SIRS | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:42
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the usefulness of measuring iron levels in dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Now, you probably don't think you see SIRS or septic cases, but you do. SIRS is a result of overstimulation of the inflammatory cascade (with secondary release of inflammatory mediators). SIRS can be seen due to thermal injury (e.g., heat stroke, burns), immune-mediated disease, etc. and can be seen with neoplasia, pancreatitis, trauma, infectious disease, etc. The definition of SIRS is very loose, unfortunately and includes two of the following criteria:
Apr 11, 2016
Recurrence of septic peritonitis in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:12
Do you treat patients with septic peritonitis in your clinic? If you do, do you agonize over them for the first few days after surgery, worried that they will require a second surgery due to recurrence (Is this dog going to perf!)? Have you thought about what factors might put these patients at risk for recurrence?
Apr 04, 2016
Recurrence of septic peritonitis in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:12
Do you treat patients with septic peritonitis in your clinic? If you do, do you agonize over them for the first few days after surgery, worried that they will require a second surgery due to recurrence (Is this dog going to perf!)? Have you thought about what factors might put these patients at risk for recurrence?
Apr 04, 2016
Routes of furosemide administration in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:50
What's your favorite way of giving furosemide to the critically ill, fragile, dyspneic congestive heart failure patient? Is it worth putting in an IV catheter just to give furosemide IV? (No). Does it matter what route you give it?
Mar 28, 2016
Routes of furosemide administration in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:50
What's your favorite way of giving furosemide to the critically ill, fragile, dyspneic congestive heart failure patient? Is it worth putting in an IV catheter just to give furosemide IV? (No). Does it matter what route you give it?
Mar 28, 2016
Should I do a decompressive cystocentesis in my blocked cat? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:34
How do you like to treat blocked cats in your practice? Do you have an opinion about the use of decompressive cystocentesis (DC)? If you aren't familiar with it, this procedure involves performing cystocentesis in cats with urethral obstruction (UO) prior to placement of a urinary catheter. Some argue that it makes patients comfortable more quickly by relieving bladder distention, and also makes it easier to pass a urinary catheter due to reduced back pressure. Others feel strongly that decompressive cystocentesis increases the risk of bladder rupture and uroabdomen.
Mar 21, 2016
Should I do a decompressive cystocentesis in my blocked cat? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:34
How do you like to treat blocked cats in your practice? Do you have an opinion about the use of decompressive cystocentesis (DC)? If you aren't familiar with it, this procedure involves performing cystocentesis in cats with urethral obstruction (UO) prior to placement of a urinary catheter. Some argue that it makes patients comfortable more quickly by relieving bladder distention, and also makes it easier to pass a urinary catheter due to reduced back pressure. Others feel strongly that decompressive cystocentesis increases the risk of bladder rupture and uroabdomen.
Mar 21, 2016
FAST ultrasound in non-traumatized patients in the ER | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:22:58
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Soren Boysen, DACVECC from the University of Calgary and Dr. Jantina McMurray on their recent publication on the use of AFAST and TFAST ultrasound in non-trauma patients presenting to the emergency services. In this prospective study, the looked at 100 dogs and cats and found that 33% had free fluid identified on presentation. In unstable or dyspneic patients, 75% had evidence of effusion. So, if you have an ultrasound machine, are you using it enough in your clinic and patients?
Mar 14, 2016
FAST ultrasound in non-traumatized patients in the ER | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:22:58
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Soren Boysen, DACVECC from the University of Calgary and Dr. Jantina McMurray on their recent publication on the use of AFAST and TFAST ultrasound in non-trauma patients presenting to the emergency services. In this prospective study, the looked at 100 dogs and cats and found that 33% had free fluid identified on presentation. In unstable or dyspneic patients, 75% had evidence of effusion. So, if you have an ultrasound machine, are you using it enough in your clinic and patients?
Mar 14, 2016
Ventricular septal defects in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:07
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review ventricular septal defects (VSDs) in dogs and cats. VSDs are defined as an opening or communication in the interventricular septum due to defects in closure or alignment of the septum during fetal development. VSDs are a regularly identified form of congenital heart disease in animals, albeit less common than the incidence of VSDs in humans. VSDs are subclassified based on anatomic location and include the following varieties:
Mar 07, 2016
Ventricular septal defects in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:07
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review ventricular septal defects (VSDs) in dogs and cats. VSDs are defined as an opening or communication in the interventricular septum due to defects in closure or alignment of the septum during fetal development. VSDs are a regularly identified form of congenital heart disease in animals, albeit less common than the incidence of VSDs in humans. VSDs are subclassified based on anatomic location and include the following varieties:
Mar 07, 2016
Assessment of Blood Pressure with Pulse Quality | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:18:41
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Erica Reineke, DACVECC, an Assistant Clinical Professor in Emergency Critical Care at University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine on a recent paper that she published. In this JVECC publication, she evaluates systolic blood pressure measurement based on physical examination as compared to Doppler analysis. In this prospective, observational study, the authors evaluated 102 cats that presented to the emergency services and evaluated the femoral and dorsal pedal pulse to predict systolic blood pressure in cats. House officers (e.g., interns, residents) evaluated pulse quality and defined it as either: strong, moderate, poor, or absent. A concurrent SBP was also performed. What'd they find?
Feb 29, 2016
Assessment of Blood Pressure with Pulse Quality | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:18:41
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Erica Reineke, DACVECC, an Assistant Clinical Professor in Emergency Critical Care at University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine on a recent paper that she published. In this JVECC publication, she evaluates systolic blood pressure measurement based on physical examination as compared to Doppler analysis. In this prospective, observational study, the authors evaluated 102 cats that presented to the emergency services and evaluated the femoral and dorsal pedal pulse to predict systolic blood pressure in cats. House officers (e.g., interns, residents) evaluated pulse quality and defined it as either: strong, moderate, poor, or absent. A concurrent SBP was also performed. What'd they find?
Feb 29, 2016
VETgirl Real-Life Rounds - The use of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:32:04
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education Real-Life Rounds podcast, we review the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in veterinary medicine. Should we veterinarians be using it with every poisoning or toxicology case? Listen to find out more!
Feb 22, 2016
VETgirl Real-Life Rounds - The use of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:32:04
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education Real-Life Rounds podcast, we review the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in veterinary medicine. Should we veterinarians be using it with every poisoning or toxicology case? Listen to find out more!
Feb 22, 2016
Synthetic Marijuana Toxicity in Dogs with Dr. Raegan Wells | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:23:40
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Raegan Wells, DACVECC, Director of Medical Management at Blue Pearl in Phoenix, Arizona. In this veterinary podcast, she reviews a recent case report published in JVECC on the use of intravenous lipid emulsion for a synthetic marijuana toxicity case she saw in a dog. Learn how to treat THC (i.e., the real and synthetic case poisonings!), what signs to look for, and whether or not the use of intravenous lipid emulsion would benefit your patient. When in doubt, contact the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center for life-saving advice!
Feb 15, 2016
Synthetic Marijuana Toxicity in Dogs with Dr. Raegan Wells | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:23:40
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Raegan Wells, DACVECC, Director of Medical Management at Blue Pearl in Phoenix, Arizona. In this veterinary podcast, she reviews a recent case report published in JVECC on the use of intravenous lipid emulsion for a synthetic marijuana toxicity case she saw in a dog. Learn how to treat THC (i.e., the real and synthetic case poisonings!), what signs to look for, and whether or not the use of intravenous lipid emulsion would benefit your patient. When in doubt, contact the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center for life-saving advice!
Feb 15, 2016
Perioperative outcomes in dogs with hemoabdomen | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:48
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review a common presenting complaint to emergency veterinarians: hemoabdomen. Most of us know that the majority of spontaneous hemoperitoneums are due to bleeding splenic masses (malignant or not), and if you're dealing with a hemangiosarcoma, the long term prognosis isn't great. But have you thought about what factors might be associated with a worse perioperative outcome (for example, from the time of admission for the bleed through surgery to discharge) in this critically ill, emergent population?
Feb 08, 2016
Perioperative outcomes in dogs with hemoabdomen | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:48
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review a common presenting complaint to emergency veterinarians: hemoabdomen. Most of us know that the majority of spontaneous hemoperitoneums are due to bleeding splenic masses (malignant or not), and if you're dealing with a hemangiosarcoma, the long term prognosis isn't great. But have you thought about what factors might be associated with a worse perioperative outcome (for example, from the time of admission for the bleed through surgery to discharge) in this critically ill, emergent population?
Feb 08, 2016
Incidence of acute lung injury in dogs receiving transfusions | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:31
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review TRALI (again, as it's super important!). Have you ever heard of TRALI? The acronym stands for transfusion-related acute lung injury, and is a type of
Feb 01, 2016
Incidence of acute lung injury in dogs receiving transfusions | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:31
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review TRALI (again, as it's super important!). Have you ever heard of TRALI? The acronym stands for transfusion-related acute lung injury, and is a type of acute lung injury (ALI) recognized in human patients receiving transfusions. In people, this syndrome occurs either immediately after transfusion (TRALI) or within 6-72 hours of transfusion (delayed TRALI). It is characterized by an acute onset of clinical signs, hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrates in the absence of heart disease, and no ALI before the transfusion. TRALI can affect between 5-25% of human ICU patients receiving transfusions, and can be life-threatening. In veterinary patients, the condition is termed VetALI and is characterized by similar criteria, including:
Feb 01, 2016
Cocaine toxicosis in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:34
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review cocaine toxicosis in dogs. Have you ever seen a patient with cocaine toxicosis in your practice? Do you know how to recognize one? What do you tell owners about prognosis with treatment?
Jan 25, 2016
Cocaine toxicosis in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:34
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review cocaine toxicosis in dogs. Have you ever seen a patient with cocaine toxicosis in your practice? Do you know how to recognize one? What do you tell owners about prognosis with treatment?
Jan 25, 2016
Heparin versus saline flushes: Which is better? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:59
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the use of heparin versus saline flushes. Which is better?
Jan 18, 2016
Heparin versus saline flushes: Which is better? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:59
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the use of heparin versus saline flushes. Which is better?
Jan 18, 2016
Does food affect activated charcoal absorption? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:03:48
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review whether mixing dog food with activated charcoal works. After all, it's usually easier to get a dog to eat the charcoal if you mix it with some palatable food with poisoning cases, right? Well, have you ever wondered about the effect of that food on the adsorptive capacity of the charcoal? Will it decrease its efficacy in terms of helping to eliminate that toxin from your patient's system?
Jan 11, 2016
Does food affect activated charcoal absorption? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:03:48
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review whether mixing dog food with activated charcoal works. After all, it's usually easier to get a dog to eat the charcoal if you mix it with some palatable food with poisoning cases, right? Well, have you ever wondered about the effect of that food on the adsorptive capacity of the charcoal? Will it decrease its efficacy in terms of helping to eliminate that toxin from your patient's system?
Jan 11, 2016
Association between previous splenectomy andamp; GDV in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:35
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the association between previous splenectomy and gastric-dilatation volvulus (GDV) in dogs. Picture this scenario: it's late into your overnight emergency shift, and you're cutting a hemoabdomen in a middle age, large breed dog. You found a bleeding splenic mass and removed it, and now you're trying to decide if you should do a prophylactic gastropexy. Sounds familiar, right? Well, there are actually some theories out there that suggest splenectomy might increase a patient's risk for GDV, so considering that pexy might be smart. Possible reasons for this increased risk include the void created by removal of the spleen (especially if it was enlarged) leading to increased gastric mobility, or stretching of the ligaments in the cranial abdomen due to a splenic mass, torsion, or previous episodes of gastric dilatation (without volvulus). But, regardless of these theories, previous studies have been mixed, so how are you going to decide if you should pexy this dog that's on the table?
Jan 04, 2016
Association between previous splenectomy andamp; GDV in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:35
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the association between previous splenectomy and gastric-dilatation volvulus (GDV) in dogs. Picture this scenario: it's late into your overnight emergency shift, and you're cutting a hemoabdomen in a middle age, large breed dog. You found a bleeding splenic mass and removed it, and now you're trying to decide if you should do a prophylactic gastropexy. Sounds familiar, right? Well, there are actually some theories out there that suggest splenectomy might increase a patient's risk for GDV, so considering that pexy might be smart. Possible reasons for this increased risk include the void created by removal of the spleen (especially if it was enlarged) leading to increased gastric mobility, or stretching of the ligaments in the cranial abdomen due to a splenic mass, torsion, or previous episodes of gastric dilatation (without volvulus). But, regardless of these theories, previous studies have been mixed, so how are you going to decide if you should pexy this dog that's on the table?
Jan 04, 2016
The Use of Lysine in Cats with Herpes - Dr. David Maggs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:09:26
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. David Maggs, BVSc, DACVO, Professor of Ophthalmology at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine on the use of lysine supplementation in cats with herpesvirus. Does it work? A recent paper adamantly debunked its use (Boll et al), and veterinarians are left wondering - should I be recommending this (safe and benign) medication? When in doubt, consider reaching for topical antivirals instead...
Dec 28, 2015
The Use of Lysine in Cats with Herpes - Dr. David Maggs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:09:26
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. David Maggs, BVSc, DACVO, Professor of Ophthalmology at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine on the use of lysine supplementation in cats with herpesvirus. Does it work? A recent paper adamantly debunked its use (Boll et al), and veterinarians are left wondering - should I be recommending this (safe and benign) medication? When in doubt, consider reaching for topical antivirals instead...
Dec 28, 2015
Radiology tips from Dr. Anthony Fischetti, DACVR | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:27:23
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Anthony Fischetti, DACVR, Department Head of Radiology at the Animal Medical Center in New York. Here, this veterinary podcast reviews some great tips on "FAST" ultrasound to what type of probe you need to how to avoid some common mistakes when interpreting radiographs!
Dec 21, 2015
Radiology tips from Dr. Anthony Fischetti, DACVR | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:27:23
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Anthony Fischetti, DACVR, Department Head of Radiology at the Animal Medical Center in New York. Here, this veterinary podcast reviews some great tips on "FAST" ultrasound to what type of probe you need to how to avoid some common mistakes when interpreting radiographs!
Dec 21, 2015
Effect of body position on blood pressure in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:19
How do you measure blood pressure non-invasively in your patients? Do you use Doppler? Oscillometric? Do you perform the measurement with your patient sitting or standing? Do you always do it the same way? Have you ever given it much thought? Well, in today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the effect of body position on blood pressure measurement in dogs.
Dec 14, 2015
Effect of body position on blood pressure in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:19
How do you measure blood pressure non-invasively in your patients? Do you use Doppler? Oscillometric? Do you perform the measurement with your patient sitting or standing? Do you always do it the same way? Have you ever given it much thought? Well, in today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the effect of body position on blood pressure measurement in dogs.
Dec 14, 2015
C-reactive protein levels in canine parvovirus | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:55
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review C-reactive protein levels and whether or not they can be useful in managing your parvovirus cases.
Dec 07, 2015
C-reactive protein levels in canine parvovirus | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:04:55
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review C-reactive protein levels and whether or not they can be useful in managing your parvovirus cases.
Dec 07, 2015
Pimobendan for myxomatous mitral valve degeneration in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:49
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the use of pimobendan in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD). Pimobendan (commonly known as Vetmedin in the United States) is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor and calcium sensitizer. It is commonly used as a therapy for congestive heart failure and is often referred to as an “inodilator” due to its positive inotropic and peripheral vasodilatory mechanisms of action.
Nov 30, 2015
Pimobendan for myxomatous mitral valve degeneration in dogs | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:49
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the use of pimobendan in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD). Pimobendan (commonly known as Vetmedin in the United States) is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor and calcium sensitizer. It is commonly used as a therapy for congestive heart failure and is often referred to as an “inodilator” due to its positive inotropic and peripheral vasodilatory mechanisms of action.
Nov 30, 2015
Calcium oxalate plant toxicosis in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:17
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review a common plant toxicosis seen in both dogs and cats: insoluble calcium oxalate containing plants. We'll also review the less common plant toxicant soluble calcium oxalate containing plants and discuss the difference between the two types.
Nov 23, 2015
Calcium oxalate plant toxicosis in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:17
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review a common plant toxicosis seen in both dogs and cats: insoluble calcium oxalate containing plants. We'll also review the less common plant toxicant soluble calcium oxalate containing plants and discuss the difference between the two types.
Nov 23, 2015
Patent ductus arteriosus in cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:32
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Left-to right patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital heart defect in dogs. PDA also occurs in cats but with much lower incidence. If PDA is left untreated, it results in left-sided volume cardiac overload, with a high incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) within the first year of life. Definitive treatment usually carries a good prognosis and consists of attenuation of flow across the PDA by either surgical ligation (e.g., via thoracotomy) or placement of occlusion devices (e.g., such as coils, plugs or occluders) from within the vascular space via a transcatheter/transvascular approach. Both methods are highly successful in dogs, with transvascular methods preferred as they are less invasive and have a lower rate of major complications. So what about cats? Unfortunately, these approaches can both be more difficult in cats due to their small size. To date, minimal data exists in veterinary literature about correction of PDAs versus medical management in cats.
Nov 16, 2015
Patent ductus arteriosus in cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:32
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Left-to right patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital heart defect in dogs. PDA also occurs in cats but with much lower incidence. If PDA is left untreated, it results in left-sided volume cardiac overload, with a high incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) within the first year of life. Definitive treatment usually carries a good prognosis and consists of attenuation of flow across the PDA by either surgical ligation (e.g., via thoracotomy) or placement of occlusion devices (e.g., such as coils, plugs or occluders) from within the vascular space via a transcatheter/transvascular approach. Both methods are highly successful in dogs, with transvascular methods preferred as they are less invasive and have a lower rate of major complications. So what about cats? Unfortunately, these approaches can both be more difficult in cats due to their small size. To date, minimal data exists in veterinary literature about correction of PDAs versus medical management in cats.
Nov 16, 2015
Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:04
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI). In veterinary medicine, the use of transfusions has become more prevalent, particularly in the field of emergency and critical care. Transfusion medicine is important to help improve oxygen delivery, provide coagulation factors, and provide hemoglobin. That said, the benefits of transfusions must outweigh the risks - albeit rare - from the product itself.
Nov 09, 2015
Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:04
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI). In veterinary medicine, the use of transfusions has become more prevalent, particularly in the field of emergency and critical care. Transfusion medicine is important to help improve oxygen delivery, provide coagulation factors, and provide hemoglobin. That said, the benefits of transfusions must outweigh the risks - albeit rare - from the product itself.
Nov 09, 2015
Treatment of Canine Parvovirus: Part 2 | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:14
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review updates in treatment for canine parvovirus (CPV). As parvovirus can result in severe dehydration, secondary hypovolemia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and DIC, rapid identification, recognition of clinical signs, and treatment should occur to ensure the best outcome. In this Part 2 of 2 podcasts, we review the clinicopathologic results of parvovirus and focus on treatment of the critically ill pediatric patient.
Nov 02, 2015
Treatment of Canine Parvovirus: Part 2 | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:10:14
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review updates in treatment for canine parvovirus (CPV). As parvovirus can result in severe dehydration, secondary hypovolemia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and DIC, rapid identification, recognition of clinical signs, and treatment should occur to ensure the best outcome. In this Part 2 of 2 podcasts, we review the clinicopathologic results of parvovirus and focus on treatment of the critically ill pediatric patient.
Nov 02, 2015
Treatment of Canine Parvovirus: Part 1 | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:38
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review updates in treatment for canine parvovirus (CPV). As parvovirus can result in severe dehydration, secondary hypovolemia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and DIC, rapid identification, recognition of clinical signs, and treatment should occur to ensure the best outcome. In this Part 1 of 2 podcasts, we review the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical signs of parvovirus.
Oct 26, 2015
Treatment of Canine Parvovirus: Part 1 | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:38
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review updates in treatment for canine parvovirus (CPV). As parvovirus can result in severe dehydration, secondary hypovolemia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and DIC, rapid identification, recognition of clinical signs, and treatment should occur to ensure the best outcome. In this Part 1 of 2 podcasts, we review the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical signs of parvovirus.
Oct 26, 2015
Pulmonary hypertension in dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:46
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the significance of pulmonary hypertension in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (or what we'll call MMVD from now on). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is thought to commonly occur in dogs with MMVD due to passive elevations in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures; this can progress to pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction and remodeling of pulmonary vasculature (with the latter considered an irreversible stage).
Oct 19, 2015
Pulmonary hypertension in dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:46
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the significance of pulmonary hypertension in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (or what we'll call MMVD from now on). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is thought to commonly occur in dogs with MMVD due to passive elevations in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures; this can progress to pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction and remodeling of pulmonary vasculature (with the latter considered an irreversible stage).
Oct 19, 2015
SIRS, MODS, Sepsis and Septic Shock | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:33:18
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Deborah Silverstein, DACVECC, Associate Professor of Critical Care at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Veterinary Medicine. (She's also one of the co-editors for the fantastic book Small Animal Critical Care Medicine). She talks about all the scary acronyms of critical care: SIRS, MODS, sepsis, and septic shock. So, if you don't think you see Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) or multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), think again. Tune in to learn what you need to do to treat your critically ill patient.
Oct 12, 2015
SIRS, MODS, Sepsis and Septic Shock | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:33:18
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Deborah Silverstein, DACVECC, Associate Professor of Critical Care at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Veterinary Medicine. (She's also one of the co-editors for the fantastic book Small Animal Critical Care Medicine). She talks about all the scary acronyms of critical care: SIRS, MODS, sepsis, and septic shock. So, if you don't think you see Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) or multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), think again. Tune in to learn what you need to do to treat your critically ill patient.
Oct 12, 2015
The use of ILE for naproxen toxicosis | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:36
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review Herring et al's recent publication in Journal of Veterinary Emergency Critical Care called "Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in three cases of canine naproxen overdose." Naproxen, an OTC or prescription human NSAID, has a narrow margin of safety in dogs and cats. As little as 5 mg/kg can result in gastrointestinal distress (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea, etc.) while doses > 10-25 mg/kg can result in acute kidney injury (AKI). Doses > 50 mg/kg can result in central nervous system signs (e.g., tremors, coma, etc.).
Oct 05, 2015
The use of ILE for naproxen toxicosis | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:36
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review Herring et al's recent publication in Journal of Veterinary Emergency Critical Care called "Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in three cases of canine naproxen overdose." Naproxen, an OTC or prescription human NSAID, has a narrow margin of safety in dogs and cats. As little as 5 mg/kg can result in gastrointestinal distress (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea, etc.) while doses > 10-25 mg/kg can result in acute kidney injury (AKI). Doses > 50 mg/kg can result in central nervous system signs (e.g., tremors, coma, etc.).
Oct 05, 2015
Cardiac troponin I in cats with dyspnea | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:55
Who likes treating dyspneic cats?
Sep 28, 2015
Cardiac troponin I in cats with dyspnea | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:55
Who likes treating dyspneic cats?
Sep 28, 2015
What are VetCOT Trauma Centers? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:35:05
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Kelly Hall on what the Veterinary Committee on Trauma (VetCOT) Veterinary Trauma Center (VTC) network is. The goal of VETCOT is to create a network of lead hospitals that seed development of trauma systems. There are three different levels (1 through III) of Veterinary Trauma Centers. This is different from VECCS Facility Certification. These hospitals will work collaboratively to define standards of care and disseminate information that improves trauma patient management efficiency and outcome. Find out more about VetCOT here!
Sep 21, 2015
What are VetCOT Trauma Centers? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:35:05
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Kelly Hall on what the Veterinary Committee on Trauma (VetCOT) Veterinary Trauma Center (VTC) network is. The goal of VETCOT is to create a network of lead hospitals that seed development of trauma systems. There are three different levels (1 through III) of Veterinary Trauma Centers. This is different from VECCS Facility Certification. These hospitals will work collaboratively to define standards of care and disseminate information that improves trauma patient management efficiency and outcome. Find out more about VetCOT here!
Sep 21, 2015
Acute liver failure in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:19:49
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE blog podcast, we interview Dr. Allison Sande, DACVIM, DACVECC on her JVECC publication on acute liver failure in dogs and cats. What are the underlying causes of acute hepatic necrosis in dogs and cats, and what is the overall treatment and prognosis? Learn more in this VETgirl podcast!
Sep 14, 2015
Acute liver failure in dogs andamp; cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:19:49
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE blog podcast, we interview Dr. Allison Sande, DACVIM, DACVECC on her JVECC publication on acute liver failure in dogs and cats. What are the underlying causes of acute hepatic necrosis in dogs and cats, and what is the overall treatment and prognosis? Learn more in this VETgirl podcast!
Sep 14, 2015
cTnI as a predictor of cardiac death in cats with HCM | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:23
Sep 07, 2015
cTnI as a predictor of cardiac death in cats with HCM | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:23
Sep 07, 2015
Fenoldopam in Acute Kidney Injury | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:25:03
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast blog, we interview Dr. Lindsey Nielsen, DACVECC on her study that she conducted retrospectively at Angell Animal Medical Center on the the use of fenoldopam. Fenoldopam is a selective D1 receptor partial agonist used to help attempt to vasodilate the renal vessels in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. So, does fenoldopam help increase urine output and improve the outcome with AKI (No.)? Here, a review of AKI, fluid therapy, dopamine, mannitol, or other unique drugs like fenoldopam.
Aug 31, 2015
Fenoldopam in Acute Kidney Injury | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:25:03
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast blog, we interview Dr. Lindsey Nielsen, DACVECC on her study that she conducted retrospectively at Angell Animal Medical Center on the the use of fenoldopam. Fenoldopam is a selective D1 receptor partial agonist used to help attempt to vasodilate the renal vessels in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. So, does fenoldopam help increase urine output and improve the outcome with AKI (No.)? Here, a review of AKI, fluid therapy, dopamine, mannitol, or other unique drugs like fenoldopam.
Aug 31, 2015
Utilizing the Veterinary Technician Efficiently | David Liss | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:19:38
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, David Liss, RVT, discusses how to best utilize your veterinary technician in helping you manage emergencies in daily practice. Are you not taking the time to do "doctor things" during an emergency? Check out this podcast to learn what you can do to improve your efficiency thanks to the help of your team!
Aug 24, 2015
Holter monitoring in dogs with mitral valve disease | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:16
In this VETgirl podcast, we review the clinical utility of Holter monitoring in dogs with advanced myxomatous mitral valve disease with or without a history of syncope. Syncope - or fainting - is characterized by a transient loss of consciousness and is generally considered of cardiac or non-cardiac etiology (e.g., neurologic, pulmonary, etc.). Syncopal episodes typically have short duration, rapid recovery, and lack of aura or post-ictal phase. Causes for syncope secondary to cardiac causes is believed to be due to reduced blood flow/nutrient delivery to the brain and can occur for a variety of reasons in patients with cardiac disease. Arrhythmias (either bradyarrhythias or tachyarrhythmias) represent one category of etiologies of cardiac syncope. Determining the exact etiology of syncope via Holter monitoring can be challenging due to the sporadic nature of syncope as a clinical sign and the relatively short duration (24 hours) of most Holter monitor recordings. In other words, it's often hard to catch, even with a Holter! Syncope is associated with increased mortality in dogs with mitral valve disease (MVD). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a complex parameter with many variables that quantifies beat-to-beat rhythmic variability over time. This rhythmic variability is dictated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic and sympathetic). Heart rate variability is decreased in dogs with congestive heart failure secondary to MVD, and is associated with an increased risk of death in experimental canine myocardial infarction and various forms of human cardiac disease. So, Rasmussen et al wanted to evaluate the presence of arrhythmic activity and heart rate variability in dogs with stable congestive heart failure secondary to advanced MVD. In this prospective study, they evaluated 42 dogs: 20 with syncope and 22 without syncope. Dogs had the following assessed in this study: history, physical examination, echocardiography, and 24-hour Holter recording (to evaluate for the presence of arrhythmia and heart rate variability analysis). So what'd they find? Overall, there was no significant difference in incidence or severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension between groups. In this study, only 4 dogs experienced a syncopal event during the Holter recording period; of these dogs, one experienced an arrhythmic event at the time of syncope, while the other 3 dogs had normal sinus rhythm at time of syncopal event. Between the two groups (e.g., syncopal vs. non-syncopal), there was no significant difference in arrhythmic activity, and overall, evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) indicated a statistically lower HRV and incidence of sinus arrhythmia overall in dogs with syncope. So it turns out that dogs with advanced MVD and a history of syncope had reduced heart rate variability overall compared with dogs without syncope and that there was no difference in actual arrhythmic activity. Findings suggest that dogs with syncope and advanced MVD have reduced parasympathetic (and increased sympathetic) influence on cardiac rhythm and may be less likely to have arrhythmic etiologies for their syncope. The complex parameter of HRV in this study is used to evaluate a relatively simple concept: the relative influence of parasympathetic and sympathetic influence on cardiac rate and rhythm. The study results suggest that dogs with syncope and advanced MVD have reduced parasympathetic influence than their counterparts without syncope. We know that parasympathetic influence decreases with severity of cardiac disease (thus the reason an active CHF patient generally does not have a sinus arrhythmia on presentation - and are often tachycardiac) so the results of this study may simply reflect that dogs with syncope have more advanced disease. It could also suggest that the reduced parasympathetic activity plays a causal role in the syncope, but this is speculation only. The lack of significant difference in arrhythmic acti
Aug 17, 2015
Holter monitoring in dogs with mitral valve disease | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:16
In this VETgirl podcast, we review the clinical utility of Holter monitoring in dogs with advanced myxomatous mitral valve disease with or without a history of syncope. Syncope - or fainting - is characterized by a transient loss of consciousness and is generally considered of cardiac or non-cardiac etiology (e.g., neurologic, pulmonary, etc.). Syncopal episodes typically have short duration, rapid recovery, and lack of aura or post-ictal phase. Causes for syncope secondary to cardiac causes is believed to be due to reduced blood flow/nutrient delivery to the brain and can occur for a variety of reasons in patients with cardiac disease. Arrhythmias (either bradyarrhythias or tachyarrhythmias) represent one category of etiologies of cardiac syncope. Determining the exact etiology of syncope via Holter monitoring can be challenging due to the sporadic nature of syncope as a clinical sign and the relatively short duration (24 hours) of most Holter monitor recordings. In other words, it's often hard to catch, even with a Holter! Syncope is associated with increased mortality in dogs with mitral valve disease (MVD). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a complex parameter with many variables that quantifies beat-to-beat rhythmic variability over time. This rhythmic variability is dictated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic and sympathetic). Heart rate variability is decreased in dogs with congestive heart failure secondary to MVD, and is associated with an increased risk of death in experimental canine myocardial infarction and various forms of human cardiac disease. So, Rasmussen et al wanted to evaluate the presence of arrhythmic activity and heart rate variability in dogs with stable congestive heart failure secondary to advanced MVD. In this prospective study, they evaluated 42 dogs: 20 with syncope and 22 without syncope. Dogs had the following assessed in this study: history, physical examination, echocardiography, and 24-hour Holter recording (to evaluate for the presence of arrhythmia and heart rate variability analysis). So what'd they find? Overall, there was no significant difference in incidence or severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension between groups. In this study, only 4 dogs experienced a syncopal event during the Holter recording period; of these dogs, one experienced an arrhythmic event at the time of syncope, while the other 3 dogs had normal sinus rhythm at time of syncopal event. Between the two groups (e.g., syncopal vs. non-syncopal), there was no significant difference in arrhythmic activity, and overall, evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) indicated a statistically lower HRV and incidence of sinus arrhythmia overall in dogs with syncope. So it turns out that dogs with advanced MVD and a history of syncope had reduced heart rate variability overall compared with dogs without syncope and that there was no difference in actual arrhythmic activity. Findings suggest that dogs with syncope and advanced MVD have reduced parasympathetic (and increased sympathetic) influence on cardiac rhythm and may be less likely to have arrhythmic etiologies for their syncope. The complex parameter of HRV in this study is used to evaluate a relatively simple concept: the relative influence of parasympathetic and sympathetic influence on cardiac rate and rhythm. The study results suggest that dogs with syncope and advanced MVD have reduced parasympathetic influence than their counterparts without syncope. We know that parasympathetic influence decreases with severity of cardiac disease (thus the reason an active CHF patient generally does not have a sinus arrhythmia on presentation - and are often tachycardiac) so the results of this study may simply reflect that dogs with syncope have more advanced disease. It could also suggest that the reduced parasympathetic activity plays a causal role in the syncope, but this is speculation only. The lack of significant difference in arrhythmic act
Aug 17, 2015
What's new with canine parvovirus? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:42:41
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Lauren Sullivan, DACVECC, an Assistant Clinical Professor at CSU. She reviews this common infectious disease affecting immunocomprised, poorly vaccinated puppies, and discusses etiology, clinical signs, treatment, and some new updates in veterinary medicine. In a recent study at CSU, the use of outpatient therapy with canine parvovirus can still yield a good prognosis. Check out this VETgirl podcast for more information and get your street medicine on!
Aug 10, 2015
What's new with canine parvovirus? | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcast
00:42:41
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Lauren Sullivan, DACVECC, an Assistant Clinical Professor at CSU. She reviews this common infectious disease affecting immunocomprised, poorly vaccinated puppies, and discusses etiology, clinical signs, treatment, and some new updates in veterinary medicine. In a recent study at CSU, the use of outpatient therapy with canine parvovirus can still yield a good prognosis. Check out this VETgirl podcast for more information and get your street medicine on!
Aug 10, 2015
Litterbox Size Preferences in Cats | Dr. Lisa Radosta | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:03:36
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Lisa Radosta, DACVB from Florida Veterinary Behavior Service discusses litterbox size preference in domestic cats. As inappropriate urination is the #1 feline behavioral disorder, help your clients by educating them on what exact size box is appropriate for the average-sized cat.
Aug 03, 2015
Litterbox Size Preferences in Cats | Dr. Lisa Radosta | VetGirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:03:36
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Lisa Radosta, DACVB from Florida Veterinary Behavior Service discusses litterbox size preference in domestic cats. As inappropriate urination is the #1 feline behavioral disorder, help your clients by educating them on what exact size box is appropriate for the average-sized cat.
Aug 03, 2015
Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities seen in dogs with GI foreign bodies | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:22
In today's VETgirl podcast, we review the importance of performing a venous blood gas in the vomiting patient. Why? Because when we see a hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, we should be ruling out an obstructive gastrointestinal (GI) foreign body. Previously, the presence of a metabolic alkalosis has been associated with a upper GI (e.g., pyloric) foreign body. Why? Because of protracted vomiting and loss of chloride, which deletes the body of an anion. In order to maintain electroneutrality, when a sodium (Na+) moves, a negatively charged anion must exchange with it. While this is typically chloride, if the body is chloride deplete, it absorbs bicarbonate (HCO3-) instead, resulting in the classic metabolic alkalosis. Normally, dogs reabsorb 98% of their gastrointestinal secretions per day. Once a GI obstruction is present for more than 24 hours, resorption in the bowel proximal to an obstruction results in increased secretion of Na+, K+, and water into the lumen. Historically, proximal GI obstructions have been said to lead to hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis due to the reasons mentioned before (e.g., hypochloremia). Distal obstructions were thought to lead more to metabolic acidosis instead of alkalosis. So Boag et al (originally out of Royal Veterinary College), wanted to identify the most common types of GI obstructions and to identify the metabolic derangements found in patients with various GI obstructions. This was published in JVIM (Now open access and free!) as Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities in dogs with gastrointestinal foreign bodies. In this study, Boag et al retrospectively looked at 138 dogs, with a mean age of 3.8 years (range 0-14 years) who had presented for vomiting. They assessed several factors in this study including: SignalmentInitial acid-base status and electrolytesSurgical findingsLocation of foreign bodyHistorical informationDiagnostic imaging modalities usedComplications seen (e.g., intra- or postoperative)Overall survival and cost of hospitalizationThe mean duration of vomiting in these cases was 48 hours. Of these dogs, a foreign body was found in the stomach 50% of the time, in the proximal duodenum 3.6%, distal duodenum 2.9%, jejunum 27.5%, ileum 2.9%, and colon 3.6% of the time (Boo. Try not to cut those colon foreign body cases!). Of all these cases, 36.2% of the time, the cases had a linear foreign body; of these, 6% of the linear foreign bodies were anchored in the mouth (Again, reiterating the importance of a thorough oral examination!). Linear foreign bodies were more likely to be associated with the presence of hyponatremia (OR 0.85). In 28% of the cases (38/138), a resection and anastamoses (R&A) needed to be performed. Of these cases requiring an R&A, 55% (21/38) cases were due to linear foreign bodies, while the remaining were discrete foreign bodies. Overall, the prognosis for foreign body was excellent, with almost all (137/138) surviving to discharge. So what about the electrolytes and acid-base status? The most common electrolyte disturbances found in all these cases included hypochloremia (51.2%), metabolic alkalosis (45.2%), hyperlactemia (40.5%), and hypokalemia (25%). 12% of dogs with proximal GI obstructions and 13.7% of dogs with distal obstructions had a hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. 40.5% of dogs were hyperlactatemic (which was defined as a lactate >2.3 mmol/L). No other biochemical abnormalities were significantly associated with the exact location of the foreign body. Some limitations of this study? First, it was retrospective, so it has limitations from data collection. Also, the variable duration of clinical signs in different patients may have affected the results and severity of acid-base and electrolytes changes. Another limitation? While this study had a very high reported survival rate, this may have been due to the short duration of clinical signs (with a mean of 2 days) in t
Jul 27, 2015
Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities seen in dogs with GI foreign bodies | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:22
In today's VETgirl podcast, we review the importance of performing a venous blood gas in the vomiting patient. Why? Because when we see a hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, we should be ruling out an obstructive gastrointestinal (GI) foreign body. Previously, the presence of a metabolic alkalosis has been associated with a upper GI (e.g., pyloric) foreign body. Why? Because of protracted vomiting and loss of chloride, which deletes the body of an anion. In order to maintain electroneutrality, when a sodium (Na+) moves, a negatively charged anion must exchange with it. While this is typically chloride, if the body is chloride deplete, it absorbs bicarbonate (HCO3-) instead, resulting in the classic metabolic alkalosis. Normally, dogs reabsorb 98% of their gastrointestinal secretions per day. Once a GI obstruction is present for more than 24 hours, resorption in the bowel proximal to an obstruction results in increased secretion of Na+, K+, and water into the lumen. Historically, proximal GI obstructions have been said to lead to hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis due to the reasons mentioned before (e.g., hypochloremia). Distal obstructions were thought to lead more to metabolic acidosis instead of alkalosis. So Boag et al (originally out of Royal Veterinary College), wanted to identify the most common types of GI obstructions and to identify the metabolic derangements found in patients with various GI obstructions. This was published in JVIM (Now open access and free!) as Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities in dogs with gastrointestinal foreign bodies. In this study, Boag et al retrospectively looked at 138 dogs, with a mean age of 3.8 years (range 0-14 years) who had presented for vomiting. They assessed several factors in this study including: SignalmentInitial acid-base status and electrolytesSurgical findingsLocation of foreign bodyHistorical informationDiagnostic imaging modalities usedComplications seen (e.g., intra- or postoperative)Overall survival and cost of hospitalizationThe mean duration of vomiting in these cases was 48 hours. Of these dogs, a foreign body was found in the stomach 50% of the time, in the proximal duodenum 3.6%, distal duodenum 2.9%, jejunum 27.5%, ileum 2.9%, and colon 3.6% of the time (Boo. Try not to cut those colon foreign body cases!). Of all these cases, 36.2% of the time, the cases had a linear foreign body; of these, 6% of the linear foreign bodies were anchored in the mouth (Again, reiterating the importance of a thorough oral examination!). Linear foreign bodies were more likely to be associated with the presence of hyponatremia (OR 0.85). In 28% of the cases (38/138), a resection and anastamoses (R&A) needed to be performed. Of these cases requiring an R&A, 55% (21/38) cases were due to linear foreign bodies, while the remaining were discrete foreign bodies. Overall, the prognosis for foreign body was excellent, with almost all (137/138) surviving to discharge. So what about the electrolytes and acid-base status? The most common electrolyte disturbances found in all these cases included hypochloremia (51.2%), metabolic alkalosis (45.2%), hyperlactemia (40.5%), and hypokalemia (25%). 12% of dogs with proximal GI obstructions and 13.7% of dogs with distal obstructions had a hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. 40.5% of dogs were hyperlactatemic (which was defined as a lactate >2.3 mmol/L). No other biochemical abnormalities were significantly associated with the exact location of the foreign body. Some limitations of this study? First, it was retrospective, so it has limitations from data collection. Also, the variable duration of clinical signs in different patients may have affected the results and severity of acid-base and electrolytes changes. Another limitation? While this study had a very high reported survival rate, this may have been due to the short duration of clinical signs (with a mean of 2 days) in
Jul 27, 2015
Arterial Thrombembolism in Cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:53
Jul 20, 2015
Arterial Thrombembolism in Cats | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:06:53
Jul 20, 2015
Timing of antibiotic administration in septic peritonitis | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:16
In this VETgirl podcast, Dr. Lisa Powell, DACVECC reviews a study out of Tufts University assessing the time of antimicrobial administration in the treatment of septic peritonitis and overall survival. Does it matter when you reach for a vial of antibiotics in your emergent or critically ill patients? The goals of this study were to determine whether creation and implementation of a canine abdominal sepsis protocol decreased time to antimicrobial administration in dogs with septic peritonitis. What did this study find? Overall, the median time from diagnosis of septic peritonitis to antimicrobial administration was 6 hours in the preprotocol group (PRE), and 1 hour in the postprotocol group (POST) (P = 0.001). 25% of the culture and sensitivity results were negative in the PRE versus the POST group (17.6%). 15% of the time, the wrong empirical antimicrobial was selected in the PRE group (compared to 8.8% of the time in the POST group). Overall, the survival to discharge was 60% in the PRE and 70% in the POST, but this wasn't statistically significant (P = 0.425). That said, the development of an emergency department antimicrobial protocol did apparently decrease thetime to antimicrobial administration following identification of septic peritonitis in dogs. VETgirl's take from this? Implement antibiotics soon, but ideally culture first. Do a simple Gram stain in your clinic to make sure you are choosing the correct empirical antimicrobials to use! References: 1. Abelson AL, Buckley GJ, Rozanski EA. Positive impact of an emergency department protocol on time to antimicrobial administration in dogs with septic peritonitis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2013;23(5):551-556
Jul 13, 2015
Timing of antibiotic administration in septic peritonitis | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:07:16
In this VETgirl podcast, Dr. Lisa Powell, DACVECC reviews a study out of Tufts University assessing the time of antimicrobial administration in the treatment of septic peritonitis and overall survival. Does it matter when you reach for a vial of antibiotics in your emergent or critically ill patients? The goals of this study were to determine whether creation and implementation of a canine abdominal sepsis protocol decreased time to antimicrobial administration in dogs with septic peritonitis. What did this study find? Overall, the median time from diagnosis of septic peritonitis to antimicrobial administration was 6 hours in the preprotocol group (PRE), and 1 hour in the postprotocol group (POST) (P = 0.001). 25% of the culture and sensitivity results were negative in the PRE versus the POST group (17.6%). 15% of the time, the wrong empirical antimicrobial was selected in the PRE group (compared to 8.8% of the time in the POST group). Overall, the survival to discharge was 60% in the PRE and 70% in the POST, but this wasn't statistically significant (P = 0.425). That said, the development of an emergency department antimicrobial protocol did apparently decrease thetime to antimicrobial administration following identification of septic peritonitis in dogs. VETgirl's take from this? Implement antibiotics soon, but ideally culture first. Do a simple Gram stain in your clinic to make sure you are choosing the correct empirical antimicrobials to use! References: 1. Abelson AL, Buckley GJ, Rozanski EA. Positive impact of an emergency department protocol on time to antimicrobial administration in dogs with septic peritonitis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2013;23(5):551-556
Jul 13, 2015
How to handle veterinary respiratory emergencies | Dr. Balakrishnan, DACVECC | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:36:01
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, Dr. Anusha Balakrishnan from the Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine reviews how to handle the respiratory emergency in dogs and cats. In this 30-minute podcast, she reviews approach, signalment, oxygen therapy,
Jul 06, 2015
How to handle veterinary respiratory emergencies | Dr. Balakrishnan, DACVECC | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:36:01
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, Dr. Anusha Balakrishnan from the Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine reviews how to handle the respiratory emergency in dogs and cats. In this 30-minute podcast, she reviews approach, signalment, oxygen therapy, general handling, differential diagnoses, pharmacological interventions, and overall treatment. So, don't get tachypneic with your dyspneic patients and get all your tips here!
Jul 06, 2015
Outcome of dogs with PDA | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:13
In this VETgirl podcast, we review patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and the long-term outcome. Should you be recommending your puppies for PDA closure? PDA is a congenital cardiac anomaly that allows for left-to-right shunting of blood from the descending aorta to the main pulmonary artery (in most cases). This results in volume overload to the left sided cardiac chambers, and ultimately, congestive heart failure, if left untreated. Left sided cardiac dimensions are usually significantly reduced following PDA closure and outcome is generally considered good in dogs but published data on long-term outcome is limited and factors affecting this outcome have not been well investigated. So what's the outcome? Before my client spends a few thousand for a coil, is it worth it? So, Saunders et al out of Texas A&M wanted to evaluate the long-term outcome, and the factors affecting this outcome, in a large group of dogs with PDA. In this study, they retrospectively evaluated 520 dogs (with the majority of them - 513 - having a left-to-right PDA). The top dogs represented: Bichon Frise, mixed breed, Chihuahua, Poodle, and German shepherd. The majority of dogs (87.7%) had closure attempted via catheter-based procedures (e.g., such as coils, ductal occluders, etc) or surgical ligation. The good news? The majority of dogs survived immediately post-operatively (with a 3-day post-operative mortality of 2.6%). Most importantly? This study found that it worked: PDA closure resulted in a median survival time of 12 years, as compared to only 2 years when the PDA was not surgically corrected! This study also found that not having PDA closure and presence of other congenital HD at time of diagnosis were negatively correlated with survival. Another finding? If clinical signs already exist at the time of presentation for referral, or if the dog has concurrent congenital HD, or severe mitral regurgitation within 24 hours of the procedure, there was a decreased survival. So, what's VETgirl's take on this? Diagnose the PDA fast, and encourage closure ASAP! Don't wait for clinical signs to develop, and encourage your pet owners to proceed, as the survival is dramatically longer once corrected. Overall, findings from this study are similar to previous studies in demonstrating a significant survival benefit to the PDA patient with closure of the PDA (by either method) and significant (although not always complete) reverse remodeling of cardiac enlargement in most patients following closure. With PDA closure, preload is significantly reduced but afterload actually increases, which can result in a significant decrease in left ventricular systolic function following closure. This is of particular concern for PDA patients with evidence of left ventricular dysfunction on baseline evaluation (pre-closure). What we liked about this study? This study is of relatively large size and confirms some of the previously reported survival data for dogs undergoing PDA closure. In short, PDA closure is highly successful, provides excellent long-term survival in most cases, and NOT closing a canine PDA results in markedly shortened life span. It is not surprising that the presence of concurrent other congenital heart disease, symptoms pre-closure, or significant mitral regurgitation post-operatively would correlate with worse survival as these will complicate short and long-term hemodynamics and management techniques. It is also not surprising that parameters of systolic function prior to closure were highly predictive of these same parameters prior to closure for all dogs. It's important to note that systolic dysfunction pre-closure did not appear to result in worse clinical outcome, however. This conclusion must be interpreted with caution as only a small number of dogs in the study had reduced systolic function pre-closure. Copyright, VETgirl, LLC, 2014. Suggested reading: 1. Saunders AB, Gordon SG, Boggess MM, et al. Long-term outcome in dogs with patent duct
Jun 29, 2015
Outcome of dogs with PDA | VETgirl Veterinary CE Podcasts
00:05:13
In this VETgirl podcast, we review patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and the long-term outcome. Should you be recommending your puppies for PDA closure? PDA is a congenital cardiac anomaly that allows for left-to-right shunting of blood from the descending aorta to the main pulmonary artery (in most cases). This results in volume overload to the left sided cardiac chambers, and ultimately, congestive heart failure, if left untreated. Left sided cardiac dimensions are usually significantly reduced following PDA closure and outcome is generally considered good in dogs but published data on long-term outcome is limited and factors affecting this outcome have not been well investigated. So what's the outcome? Before my client spends a few thousand for a coil, is it worth it? So, Saunders et al out of Texas A&M wanted to evaluate the long-term outcome, and the factors affecting this outcome, in a large group of dogs with PDA. In this study, they retrospectively evaluated 520 dogs (with the majority of them - 513 - having a left-to-right PDA). The top dogs represented: Bichon Frise, mixed breed, Chihuahua, Poodle, and German shepherd. The majority of dogs (87.7%) had closure attempted via catheter-based procedures (e.g., such as coils, ductal occluders, etc) or surgical ligation. The good news? The majority of dogs survived immediately post-operatively (with a 3-day post-operative mortality of 2.6%). Most importantly? This study found that it worked: PDA closure resulted in a median survival time of 12 years, as compared to only 2 years when the PDA was not surgically corrected! This study also found that not having PDA closure and presence of other congenital HD at time of diagnosis were negatively correlated with survival. Another finding? If clinical signs already exist at